Metals tend to form positively charged ions (cations) and nonmetals tend to form negatively charged atoms (anions).

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1 Ions are atoms with a charge Cations= positive ions Anions = negative ions Metals tend to form positively charged ions (cations) and nonmetals tend to form negatively charged atoms (anions). When a metal comes in contact with a nonmetal, the two will create what is known as an ionic compound (cpd). We can predict the formulas of these cpds if we know what kind of charge (also known as the oxidation state) an atom will form. They will always combine in numbers so that the positive and negative charges balance or add up to zero net charge. Examples: Al +3 and Cl -1 Aluminum needs 3 chlorine atoms to balance the charge. 1 Al = + 3 Cl -1 Cl -1 Cl -1 The formula for this cpd is AlCl 3. We always write the positive ion first in the formula. Na + 1 S -2 In this case we need two sodiums to equal the charge of one sulfur. The formula of this cpd is Na 2 S.

2 Predict the formulas of the cpds formed between the following two ions. Cations Anions Formula Cl- Ca +2 S -2 Na +1 Al + 3 Br -1 Fe +2 F -1 K + O -2 Cu +1 N -3 Rb +1 CN-1 Co +2 CN -1 Fe 3+ PO4 3- Li 1+ SO 4 2- Zn +2 OH -1 NH4 +1 Cl -1 NH4 +1 S -2 NH4 +1 PO3-3 Pb +4 I -1

3 RTI(More Practice) Predict the formulas of the cpds formed between the following two ions. Cations Anions Formula Li +1 S -2 Ca +2 Cl -1 Al + 3 S -2 Fe +2 O -2 K + I -1 Cu +2 N -3 Rb +1 NO3-1 Co +2 NO3-1 Fe 2+ PO4 3- Ag 1+ SO 4 2- Zn +2 CN -1 NH4 +1 N -3 NH4 +1 S -2 Ca +2 PO3-3

4 Mass of a compound (cpd). The mass of a cpd is found by adding up the mass of each individual atoms in the cpd. Example 1: CaCO3 Example 2: Pb(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 1 Pb x amu = amu 1 Ca x amu= amu 4 C x amu = amu 1 C x amu= 12.01amu 6 H x 1.01 amu= 6.06 amu 3 O x amu = amu 4 O x amu = amu Mass of cpd amu Mass of cpd amu % comp = mass of element x 100 % O in CaCO3 = x 100 = % mass of the cpd Find the mass of each of the following cpds. Then find percent composition of the element indicated. Place your work on a separate sheet of paper. 1) BF3 % F = 2) AgCl % Ag= 3) CaF2 % F = 4) CuNO3 % O =

5 5) SO3 % O = 6) XeF4 % Xe = 7) Na2O % O = 8) Ba (IO3)2 % I = 9) Al2(SO4)3 % S = 10) BaCl 2 3H 2 O % H 2 O =

6 Nomenclature: Naming a cpd Ionic cpds =any metal (+ ion ) attached to a nonmetal (- ion) = created from oppositely charged atoms (ions) First name= name of the element written first OR ammonium (NH4+) Last name= name of the element written last BUT with an ide ending. (sulfur = sulfide, chlorine = chloride, oxygen = oxide) OR if what is written last is a group, use the group name. First name Last Name Examples: NaCl Li 2 O CoBr 2 Zn (OH) 2 MgSO 4 Some ionic cpds need middle names. The ones that do, are the ones in which the cation (metal) has more than one oxidation state (charge). The middle name is the charge NOT the number of the atoms. Fe +2 O -2 FeO iron (II) oxide Fe + 3 O -2 Fe2O3 iron (III) oxide

7 Rules for naming Covalent cpds Covalent cpds (the only true molecules) = nonmetal attached to nonmetals =the elements form a bond by sharing their outer (valence ) electrons First name= name of the element written first Last name= name of the element written last but with an ide ending Both first and last names need prefixes that indicate the number of each element in the cpd Mono -1 N2O4 dinitrogen tetraoxide di -2 N2O dinitrogen monoxide tri-3 NO2 mononitrogen dioxide tetra-4 N2O5 dinitrogen pentaoxide penta-5 hexa-6 hepta-7 CO2 carbon oxide Octa-8 CO carbon oxide Nano-9 deca-10 BF3 mono tri SO2 mono di It is acceptable to drop mono, but only if its on the first name CO carbon monoxide (the mono is dropped from the carbon but not the oxygen)

8 Nomenclature: The naming of a cpd. Name the following ionic cpds. AgCl Na2S ZnO LiF CaF2 BaBr2 Rb3N The following cpds contain radical groups (polyatomic ions), Whenever you see a group use the group name for either its first or last name. Zn(CN)2 Ba (NO3)2 (NH4)2 S CaCO3 AlPO4 Al PO3 Li2SO3 NH4OH

9 Middle names. Not all ionic cpds need middle names. Only the ones that have more than one oxidation state (charge). Example: copper always needs a middle name because copper can be a Cu +1 or Cu +2. Predict the formula for the following ionic cpds. Give each cpd a first and last name. Then look to see if the cations (+ ion) has more than one possible charge. If so give it a middle name. If not, no middle name is needed. Cations Anion Formula Name Ni +2 S -2 Ca +2 N -3 Pb +4 F -1 Ag +1 O -2 Hg +2 Br -1 Li +1 C -4 Zn +2 C2H3O2-1 Fe +3 I -1 Fe +2 I -1 Rb +1 OH -1 Cu +1 SO4 2- Cu 2+ PO3 3-

10 Naming covalent cpds Name the following covalent cpds. These cpds do not use middle names at all. But they do contain prefixes on both the first and last name. Mono -1 N2O4 dinitrogen tetraoxide di -2 N2O dinitrogen monoxide tri-3 tetra-4 penta-5 hexa-6 hepta-7 Octa-8 Nano-9 deca SF6 2. H2O 3. NF3 4. PBr5 5. CCl4 6. SeCl2 7. XeF4 8. CS2 9. B2O3 10. SO2

11 Acids=any cpd with H+ as its cation HCl, HBr, H2SO4, HNO3, HClO etc The acid is named according to the anion in the cpd HCl (Hydrogen chloride) HBr (Hydrogen bromide) HCN (Hydrogen cyanide) If it ends in -IDE the acid is Hydro ic acid Hydrochloric Hydrobromic Hydrocyanic HNO3 (hydrogen nitrate) H2SO4 (hydrogen sulfate) H3PO4 (hydrogen phosphate) If it ends in -ATE the acid is ic acid nitric sulfuric phosphoric HNO2 (hydrogen nitrie) H2SO3 (hydrogen sulfite) H3PO3 (hydrogen phosphite) If it ends in -ITE the acid is ous acid nitrous sulfurous phosphorous

12 Formulas Molecular Formulas The formula of an ionic or covalent cpd Empirical Formula The smallest whole number ratio between the atoms in a cpd. For ionic cpds their molecular formula is their empirical formula Example Structural Formulas Show how the atoms are put together in a cpd. Two cpds with the same empirical formulas will have the same percent composition. CH4 C2H4 Finding empirical formulas from percent composition. If we know the formula it is easy to find the percent composition of the cpd. If we have the percent composition we can determine the empirical formula only. 1. Assume you have 100 grams, therefore the percent =grams. If given grams directly go on to next step. 2. Convert the grams to moles 3. Find the mole ratio between the atoms in the cpd, by dividing the larger quantity by the smaller. Round to the nearest whole number 4. Write the formula using the ratios as the subscripts. Example A cpd is 50% Sulfur and 50% oxygen

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