Earthquakes and the Earth s Interior

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Earthquakes and the Earth s Interior"

Transcription

1 Earthquakes and the Earth s Interior San Francisco 1906 Magnitude 7.8 Charleston 1886

2 California s Notorious San Andreas Fault fault trace

3

4 Earthquakes are the release of energy stored in rocks. Most earthquakes are associated with faults.

5 The focal point is place of the first release of energy. The epicenter is the point on the ground immediately above the focal point. Locate a quake by specifying lat. and long. of epicenter and depth to focal point

6 Energy travels outward from the focal point in a series of spherical waves fronts. Earthquakes are explained using the elastic-rebound theory.

7 Elastic-Rebound Theory I Energy is stored over a long period of time in rocks undergoing elastic deformation along a fault plane. No movement along fault, however, until frictional resistance (Fr) along fault is overcome.

8 Elastic-Rebound Theory II Sudden movement when Fr is overcome. Stored energy released instantaneously as seismic waves propagating through the earth.

9 Slippage along fault after earthquake

10

11 Energy traveling outward from the focal point can be detected around the world by recording instruments known as seismographs.

12 Energy travels outward from the focal point as a series of seismic waves. The waves are elastic disturbances. The waves of differing energies are known as Primary, Secondary and Surface waves

13 Characteristics of Seismic Waves For each type of seismic wave you should know: the name and symbol the type of motion the approximate velocity the material it is propagated through the shadow zone (if applicable)

14 Primary Waves the name and symbol = primary or P-wave the type of motion = compressional body wave change volume, not shape approximate velocity = 8-13 km/sec km/min 28,800-46,800 km/hr 35,000 km/hr 22,000 mph travels through = solids, liquids and gases shadow zone = direct arrivals no direct arrivals refracted arrivals

15 Motion of P-Waves alternating compactions and rarefactions A propagating wave is an elastic disturbance. The material returns to its original shape after the waves has passed through it.

16 Shadow Zone for P-waves arrivals and their interpretation

17 Secondary Waves the name and symbol = secondary or S-wave the type of motion = shear waves change shape, not volume approximate velocity = 5-7 km/sec km/min 18,000-25,200 km/hr 20,000 km/hr = 12,428 mph travels through = travel only in solids shadow zone = direct arrivals no direct arrivals

18 Motion of S-Waves particle motion is at right angle to wave motion A propagating wave is an elastic disturbance. The material returns to its original shape after the waves has passed through it.

19 Shadow Zone for S-waves arrivals and their interpretation

20 Surface Waves the name and symbol = surface or L-wave the type of motion = pitching and rolling causes motion felt during quake (and damage) approximate velocity = 4-5 km/sec km/min 14,400-18,000 km/hr 15,000 km/hr 9,000 mph travels through = travel in solids and liquids earthquakes and tidal waves (tsunamis)!

21 Motion of L-Waves

22 tsunamis in the open ocean and shallow water 518 mph 211 mph 31 mph Note how the tidal waves slow down, bunch up and grow taller in shallow water. Does this remind you of anything else we ve studied? Energy distributed through entire depth of water column (unlike wind waves).

23 Seismic Sea Wave Associated with 1964 Alaska Earthquake

24 Distribution of Earthquakes shallow quakes = focal point < 100 km deep quakes = focal point > 100 km NB: I will use deep to include both intermediate and deep on this diagram.

25 The magnitude and frequency of earthquakes are inversely related. There are 1 or 2 earthquakes a year with a Richter magnitude of 8 or higher. There are approximately 1,000,000 earthquakes per year with a magnitude of 3 or less.

26 Earth s Interior Known mostly from indirect evidence, especially the behavior of seismic waves.

27 Method is simple in theory, but complex in application.

28 homogenous interior ugly reality! velocity increases with depth

29 B decrease in speed at greater depth Variation in Seismic Velocity within the earth A increase in speed at shallow depth C D

30 The marked increase in speed at varying depths beneath oceans and continents is called themohorovicic discontinuity (or Moho). The Moho is taken to indicate the base of the crust. It marks the crust-mantle boundary, which is a change in chemical composition. Continental Crust 35 km thick granitic, rich in Si, Al, K average density 2.8 g/cc Oceanic Crust 7-10 km thick basaltic, rich in Si, Mg, Fe average density 3.0 g/cc Taken together oceanic and continental crust make up 1.4% of Earth s volume and 0.7% of its mass.

31 beneath the Moho is the mantle extends down to 2900 km chemical composition rich in Fe and Mg (ultramafic) mineral and chemical composition peridotite 50% Earth s radius 83% Earth s volume 67% Earth s mass The mantle contains the LVZ at a depth of km. The asthenosphere lies entirely within the upper mantle.

32 beneath the mantle is the core extends from 2900 km to the center of the earth (6371 km) roughly similar chemical composition throughout composed almost entirely of Fe liquid outer core solid inner core 50% Earth s radius 16% Earth s volume 32% Earth s mass

33 Compositional layering: crust, mantle, core

34 Geothermal Gradient Melting T of peridotite Melting T of iron NB: melting T increases with increasing P

35 Behavioral Layering Lithosphere solid, brittle slab 100 km thick crust and mantle includes the Moho earthquakes! Asthenosphere solid, nonbrittle from km mantle material only includes LVZ from km no earthquakes!

36 Layering Compositional crust mantle core Behavioral lithosphere asthenosphere

Exploring the Earth s Interior Chapter 21. Probing Earth s interior. Probing Earth s interior. Does not include complete lecture notes.

Exploring the Earth s Interior Chapter 21. Probing Earth s interior. Probing Earth s interior. Does not include complete lecture notes. Exploring the Earth s Interior Chapter 21 Does not include complete lecture notes. Probing Earth s interior Most of our knowledge of Earth s interior comes from the study of earthquake waves Travel times

More information

Features of Plate Tectonics

Features of Plate Tectonics Features of Plate Tectonics Section 12.2 Summary Textbook pages 518 537 Before You Read Earthquakes frequently occur in British Columbia. State what you already know about earthquakes in the lines below.

More information

Composition. Physical Properties

Composition. Physical Properties Composition Physical Properties Summary The Earth is a layered planet The layers represent changes in composition and physical properties The compositional layers are the Crust, Mantle and Core The physical

More information

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy. Class 15

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy. Class 15 ASTRONOMY 161 Introduction to Solar System Astronomy Class 15 The Earth Monday, February 12 The Earth: Physical characteristics Mass = 5.97 10 24 kg Mean radius = 6,373 km Polar radius = 6,357 km Density

More information

Section 1 Earth: A Unique Planet. Section 2 Energy in the Earth System

Section 1 Earth: A Unique Planet. Section 2 Energy in the Earth System Earth as a System Section 2 Energy in the Earth System Section 3 Ecology Describe the size and shape of Earth. Describe the compositional and structural layers of Earth s interior. Identify the possible

More information

Earth s Interior: Structure, Composition, and Temperature

Earth s Interior: Structure, Composition, and Temperature Course Outline Introduction: Course Objectives, Outline, Geology Basics Earth s Interior: Composition and Plate Tectonic Impact Plate Tectonics and Continental Drift: Theory, Data, Mechanisms Tectonic

More information

Structure of the Earth (Why?)

Structure of the Earth (Why?) Structure of the Earth (Why?) Recall Hypsometric Curve? Continental lithosphere is very different from oceanic lithosphere. To understand this, we need to know more about the structure & composition of

More information

Earthquake: A vibration caused by the sudden breaking or frictional sliding of rock in the Earth. Fault: A fracture on which one body of rock slides

Earthquake: A vibration caused by the sudden breaking or frictional sliding of rock in the Earth. Fault: A fracture on which one body of rock slides Earthquake: A vibration caused by the sudden breaking or frictional sliding of rock in the Earth. Fault: A fracture on which one body of rock slides past another. Focus: The location where a fault slips

More information

Earthquakes and Volcanoes

Earthquakes and Volcanoes Earthquakes and Volcanoes Earthquakes What are earthquakes? Imagine bending a stick until it breaks. When the stick snaps, it vibrates, releasing energy. Earthquakes release energy in a similar way. Earthquakes

More information

Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering

Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering by Dr. Deepankar Choudhury Professor Department of Civil Engineering IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, India. Email: dc@civil.iitb.ac.in URL: http://www.civil.iitb.ac.in/~dc/

More information

SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review

SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review SCIENCE 10 Unit 4: Earth Science Review Use the following diagram to answer questions 1 and 2. 1. Which location has the youngest crust? A. A B. B C. C D. D 2. Which location is associated with subduction?

More information

Seismic Waves Practice

Seismic Waves Practice 1. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which shows models of two types of earthquake waves. Model A best represents the motion of earthquake waves called 1) P-waves (compressional

More information

Accretion and Layering of Terrestrial Planets. Accretion and Layering of Terrestrial Planets

Accretion and Layering of Terrestrial Planets. Accretion and Layering of Terrestrial Planets Accretion and Layering of Terrestrial Planets Following condensation of planetary embryos in solar system disk: Embryo-embryo collisions, giant impacts for 100 m.y. Redistributed and segregated elements

More information

Earth s Interior. Use Target Reading Skills. Exploring Inside Earth

Earth s Interior. Use Target Reading Skills. Exploring Inside Earth Plate Tectonics Name Date Class Plate Tectonics Guided Reading and Study Earth s Interior This section explains how scientists learn about Earth s interior. The section also describes the layers that make

More information

The first wave to reach the surface in an earthquake is the primary

The first wave to reach the surface in an earthquake is the primary 4 The first wave to reach the surface in an earthquake is the primary wave (P-wave), which is a type of compression or longitudinal wave. A longitudinal wave is one that transfers energy through compressions

More information

Earth s Interior CHAPTER 12

Earth s Interior CHAPTER 12 Earth s Interior CHAPTER 12 Studying Rocks from Earth s Interior Geologists can t sample rocks very far below Earth s surface. Deep mines may be 3 km deep. Some oil wells reach depths of 8 km. No well

More information

Seismic Waves and Earth s Structure

Seismic Waves and Earth s Structure Earth s Interior EARTHQUAKES Seismic Waves and Earth s Structure Abrupt changes in seismic-wave velocities that occur at particular depths helped seismologists conclude that Earth must be composed of distinct

More information

Layers of the Earth s Interior

Layers of the Earth s Interior Layers of the Earth s Interior 1 Focus Question How is the Earth like an ogre? 2 Objectives Explain how geologists have learned about the interior of the Earth. Describe the layers of the Earth s interior.

More information

12.2 Features of Plate Tectonics

12.2 Features of Plate Tectonics 12.2 Features of Plate Tectonics Earth is over 1200 km thick and has four distinct layers. These layers are the crust, mantle (upper and lower), outer core, and inner core. Crust outer solid rock layer

More information

P-wave compression. propagating wave

P-wave compression. propagating wave Did you feel it? That side to side, up and down, ground-shaking motion felt by many Californians every year, not to mention folks all around the world. The shaking motion is referred to as an earthquake,

More information

DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes

DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes DYNAMIC CRUST: Unit 4 Exam Plate Tectonics and Earthquakes NAME: BLOCK: DATE: 1. Base your answer to the following question on The block diagram below shows the boundary between two tectonic plates. Which

More information

Chapter 9 Earthquakes and Volcanism

Chapter 9 Earthquakes and Volcanism Chapter 9 Earthquakes and Volcanism I. Earth s Surface Relief II. Orogenesis III. Earthquakes A. What is an earthquake B. Anatomy of an Earthquake C. Measuring Earthquakes D. Tsunamis Earth s Hypsometry

More information

Earth Layers Foldable

Earth Layers Foldable Earth Layers Foldable The Layers of the Earth Copyright 2006. M. J. Krech. All rights reserved. The Four Layers The Earth is composed of four different layers. The crust is the layer that you live on,

More information

Class Notes: Plate Tectonics

Class Notes: Plate Tectonics Name: Date: Period: Tectonics The Physical Setting: Earth Science Class Notes: Tectonics I. Continental Drift Continental Drift -! Pangaea -! Alfred Wegener (1915) German and Proposed the theory of! Hypothesized

More information

Unit 13: Earthquakes

Unit 13: Earthquakes Unit 13: Earthquakes A. Earthquakes 1. Earthquake vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy 2. Focus The point within Earth where the earthquake starts 3. Epicenter Location on the surface

More information

-4- Wa vereflected at core-mantle boundary (e.g. ScS) i

-4- Wa vereflected at core-mantle boundary (e.g. ScS) i 2.3 VELOCITY STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH In the following years, increasingly sophisticated models were developed. It became possible to compute travel time curves for media where velocity varies continously

More information

Earthquakes. Earthquakes: Big Ideas. Earthquakes

Earthquakes. Earthquakes: Big Ideas. Earthquakes Earthquakes Earthquakes: Big Ideas Humans cannot eliminate natural hazards but can engage in activities that reduce their impacts by identifying high-risk locations, improving construction methods, and

More information

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 Restless/Dynamic EARTH: Geologic Structures (Folds & faults); Earthquakes; and the Earth s Interior

Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 Restless/Dynamic EARTH: Geologic Structures (Folds & faults); Earthquakes; and the Earth s Interior DATE DUE: Instructor: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 Name: Restless/Dynamic EARTH: Geologic Structures (Folds & faults); Earthquakes; and the Earth s Interior Instructions: Read each question carefully

More information

The Dynamic Crust 2) EVIDENCE FOR CRUSTAL MOVEMENT

The Dynamic Crust 2) EVIDENCE FOR CRUSTAL MOVEMENT The Dynamic Crust 1) Virtually everything you need to know about the interior of the earth can be found on page 10 of your reference tables. Take the time to become familiar with page 10 and everything

More information

Earth and Space Science. Semester 2 Exam Review. Part 1. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle.

Earth and Space Science. Semester 2 Exam Review. Part 1. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle. Earth and Space Science Semester 2 Exam Review Part 1 Convection -A form of heat transfer. - Convection currents circulate in the Asthenosphere located in the Upper Mantle. - Source of heat is from the

More information

Name Period. Earth Science Regents

Name Period. Earth Science Regents Earth Science Regents Name Period THE DYNAMIC CRUST There are 4 major sub-divisions to the Earth s interior: 1. The Crust a. it s thickness varies from 5 to 60 kilometers b. continental crust is thicker,

More information

CHAPTER 4 EARTHQUAKES

CHAPTER 4 EARTHQUAKES CHAPTER 4 EARTHQUAKES Important Concepts 1. An earthquake occurs when movement along a fault zone results in a sudden release of built-up strain energy in the lithosphere. Most earthquakes occur at plate

More information

Name Crustal Interactions E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department

Name Crustal Interactions E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department Name Crustal Interactions E-Science Date Midterm Review Science Department 1 Base your answer to the following question on the cross section below, which shows the paths of seismic waves traveling from

More information

II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013)

II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013) EAPS 100 Planet Earth Lecture Topics Brief Outlines II. Earth Science (Geology) Section (9/18/2013) 1. Interior of the Earth Learning objectives: Understand the structure of the Earth s interior crust,

More information

Forces Within. Earth s Layers Continental Drift Seafloor Spreading Plate Tectonics

Forces Within. Earth s Layers Continental Drift Seafloor Spreading Plate Tectonics Forces Within Earth s Layers Continental Drift Seafloor Spreading Plate Tectonics I have a QUESTION for YOU! How does an apple compare to Earth? Earth s Internal Structure Objectives At the end of this

More information

Soil Dynamics Prof. Deepankar Choudhury Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay

Soil Dynamics Prof. Deepankar Choudhury Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Soil Dynamics Prof. Deepankar Choudhury Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay Module - 3 Wave Propagation - Earthquake waves Lecture - 17 P-waves, S-waves, 3 circle method,

More information

COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH S MANTLE

COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH S MANTLE COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH S MANTLE The Earth s mantle is a layer with a thickness of 2,900 km or 1800 miles (46% of the Earth s average radius of 6371 km or 3,960 miles) and extends from the outer core

More information

Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics

Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics Study Guide Questions Earth Structure and Plate Tectonics What evidence did Alfred Wegener present in 1912 to support the idea of continental drift? Why did most geologists at the time dismiss Wegener

More information

Plate tectonics II: Earth s structure and plate boundaries

Plate tectonics II: Earth s structure and plate boundaries Plate tectonics II: Earth s structure and plate boundaries Important: This chapter follows mainly: Chap. 1 in Turcotte and Schubert Chap. 2 in Fowler. Earth structure: The main units Compositional: Crust

More information

14. Print out the page that shows your Virtual Seismologist Certificate and ANSWERS 15. After getting all 4, turn it into the teacher.

14. Print out the page that shows your Virtual Seismologist Certificate and ANSWERS 15. After getting all 4, turn it into the teacher. The Process 1. Go to the website: http://www.sciencecourseware.org 2. Click on: GEOLOGY LABS ONLINE 3. Click on VIRTUAL EARTHQUAKE 4. NEXT click on: NEW: A completely revised version of Virtual Earthquake

More information

A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes

A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes A Violent Pulse: Earthquakes What is an Earthquake? Earth shaking caused by a rapid release of energy. tectonic stress build up rock break. energy moves outward as an expanding sphere of waves. waveform

More information

PHSC 1011 Fall 2016 L04 1. Metamorphic Rocks. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks. Sedimentary Rocks. Chapter 20 Lecture

PHSC 1011 Fall 2016 L04 1. Metamorphic Rocks. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks. Sedimentary Rocks. Chapter 20 Lecture Chapter 20 Lecture Metamorphic Rocks Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Coal: Different from other rocks, because it is composed of organic material. Stages in coal formation (in order): Plant material Peat Lignite

More information

8-3.1 Summarize the three layers of Earth crust, mantle, and core on the basis of relative position, density, and composition.

8-3.1 Summarize the three layers of Earth crust, mantle, and core on the basis of relative position, density, and composition. Earth s Structure and Processes 8-3 The student will demonstrate an understanding of materials that determine the structure of Earth and the processes that have altered this structure. 8-3.1 Summarize

More information

lithosphere granite basalt

lithosphere granite basalt The Earth s s Crust The Earth s s Crust The earth s crust is the outside layer of the earth. It is thickest at the continents at about 40 Km (up to 70 Km) deep. It is thinnest under the oceans at about

More information

The Earth s Structure from Travel Times

The Earth s Structure from Travel Times from Travel Times Spherically symmetric structure: PREM - Crustal Structure - Upper Mantle structure Phase transitions Anisotropy - Lower Mantle Structure D D - Structure of of the Outer and Inner Core

More information

Joy of Science Experience the evolution of the Universe, Earth and Life

Joy of Science Experience the evolution of the Universe, Earth and Life Joy of Science Experience the evolution of the Universe, Earth and Life Review Introduction Main contents Quiz Unless otherwise noted, all pictures are taken from wikipedia.org Review 1 Which is not included

More information

7 th Grade Study Guide for Semester Test

7 th Grade Study Guide for Semester Test Name: KEY Date: Class: 7 th Grade Study Guide for Semester Test Scientific Method - Chapter 1 1. What are steps for scientific inquiry (scientific method)? 2. What are inferences based on? 1. Pose a QUESTION

More information

THE STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH FROM SEISMIC WAVES

THE STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH FROM SEISMIC WAVES THE STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH FROM SEISMIC WAVES OUTLINE Main Features of Seismic Velocities in the Earth Velocity depth profile Seismic phases and their nomenclature: seismic ray paths and travel time curves

More information

Earthquakes. www.earthquakes.bgs.ac.uk

Earthquakes. www.earthquakes.bgs.ac.uk Earthquakes www.earthquakes.bgs.ac.uk Introduction Earthquakes are among the most deadly natural hazards. There are around 100 earthquakes each year of a size that could cause serious damage. They strike

More information

Geography Chapter 2 A Living Planet

Geography Chapter 2 A Living Planet Geography Chapter 2 A Living Planet The Earth Inside and Out pp.27 47 Bodies of Water and Land Forms pp. 32-36 Internal Forces Shaping the Earth pp.37-41 External Forces Shaping the Earth pp. 42-45 1.

More information

Lab 6: Plate Tectonics: Introduction to Relative Plate Motions. Geology 202: Earth s Interior

Lab 6: Plate Tectonics: Introduction to Relative Plate Motions. Geology 202: Earth s Interior Introduction: Lab 6: Plate Tectonics: Introduction to Relative Plate Motions Geology 202: Earth s Interior In plate tectonics, the mantle and the crust of the earth are divided into layers, called the

More information

Earthquakes. www.earthquakes.bgs.ac.uk. Seismograph stations operated by the British Geological Survey

Earthquakes. www.earthquakes.bgs.ac.uk. Seismograph stations operated by the British Geological Survey Seismograph stations operated by the British Geological Survey Earthquakes Photograph supplied by Andy Thompson, Arup Advanced Technology, EEFIT Mission www.earthquakes.bgs.ac.uk Introduction Earthquakes

More information

Investigating Earth s Interior While at each station, complete the prompts below. Be sure to follow all directions and to read carefully.

Investigating Earth s Interior While at each station, complete the prompts below. Be sure to follow all directions and to read carefully. Name Date Hour Investigating Earth s Interior While at each station, complete the prompts below. Be sure to follow all directions and to read carefully. STATION 1 Pie Slice Using your pie slice of the

More information

Seismic Earthquakes. The most common quakes occur from fault lines

Seismic Earthquakes. The most common quakes occur from fault lines Earthquakes GE 4150- Natural Hazards Slides and images taken from Dr. Jim Diehl, Jason R. Evans, Joanne M. Scott and Benfiled Greig Hazard Research Centre (C471 Geohazards) Tectonic Earthquakes Seismic

More information

Inside Earth: Layers of the Earth

Inside Earth: Layers of the Earth Inside Earth: Layers of the Earth Earth is a restless planet. Heat in the Earth s interior causes giant plates of crust to move around on the surface. The crashing and smashing of these plates leads to

More information

FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FOURTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FOURTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Comparing different structures of volcanoes. LAB: Modeling three types

More information

stress the amount of force per unit area that acts on a rock strain any change in a rock's shape or volume caused by stress Faults

stress the amount of force per unit area that acts on a rock strain any change in a rock's shape or volume caused by stress Faults ----------------------------- -------- ------- Section 1 Review! deformation the bending, tilting, and breaking of Earth's crust; the change in the shape of rock in response to stress: fault a break in

More information

Introduction and Origin of the Earth

Introduction and Origin of the Earth Page 1 of 5 EENS 1110 Tulane University Physical Geology Prof. Stephen A. Nelson Introduction and Origin of the Earth This page last updated on 30-Jul-2015 Geology, What is it? Geology is the study of

More information

Plate Tectonics Practice Questions and Answers Revised August 2007

Plate Tectonics Practice Questions and Answers Revised August 2007 Plate Tectonics Practice Questions and Answers Revised August 2007 1. Please fill in the missing labels. 2. Please fill in the missing labels. 3. How many large plates form the outer shell of the earth?

More information

Name Date Class. By studying the Vocabulary and Notes listed for each section below, you can gain a better understanding of this chapter.

Name Date Class. By studying the Vocabulary and Notes listed for each section below, you can gain a better understanding of this chapter. CHAPTER 7 VOCABULARY & NOTES WORKSHEET Earthquakes By studying the Vocabulary and Notes listed for each section below, you can gain a better understanding of this chapter. SECTION 1 Vocabulary In your

More information

Interactive Plate Tectonics

Interactive Plate Tectonics Interactive Plate Tectonics Directions: Go to the following website and complete the questions below. http://www.learner.org/interactives/dynamicearth/index.html How do scientists learn about the interior

More information

Earth s Interior Structure

Earth s Interior Structure Earth s Interior Structure Page 1 of 22 Earth s Interior Structure Larry Braile Professor, Purdue University (braile@purdue.edu) August, 2000 http://web.ics.purdue.edu/~braile Educational Objective: Develop

More information

Observational Seismology

Observational Seismology Observational Seismology Lecture 4 Surface Waves and Dispersion Surface Wave Dispersion Observations stretched stretched dispersed P S SS SSS wave packet surface waves Body waves Impulsive, short period

More information

Homework #6 Chapter 5: Earth and Moon Due: 15 Oct 2013

Homework #6 Chapter 5: Earth and Moon Due: 15 Oct 2013 Homework #6 Chapter 5: Earth and Moon Due: 15 Oct 2013 Review and Discussion: RD5.1 Explain how the Moon produces tides in Earth s oceans. The Moon pulls on the side of Earth facing it with a stronger

More information

LAYERS OF EARTH. reflect

LAYERS OF EARTH. reflect reflect Have you ever cut an apple in half and looked at the layers inside? When you cut something in half, the resulting view is called a cross section. When you look at the cross section of an apple,

More information

Earth s Crust and Interior

Earth s Crust and Interior Student: Date received: Handout 6 of 14 (Topic 2.1) Earth s Crust and Interior Seafloor topography around Iceland in the North Atlantic Ocean (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/image:n-atlantic-topo.png). Iceland

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Shaky Ground 6 th Grade

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Shaky Ground 6 th Grade The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

Heat Flow. The decay of short-lived radioactive elements (such as aluminum-26) generated heat energy in the early stages of the Earth s formation.

Heat Flow. The decay of short-lived radioactive elements (such as aluminum-26) generated heat energy in the early stages of the Earth s formation. Heat Flow Heat from Earth s Interior Earth s interior heat comes from a combination of the following factors: Original heat from the formation and gravitational compression of the Earth from the solar

More information

Name: Period: # Plate Tectonics. Journey to the center of the Earth

Name: Period: # Plate Tectonics. Journey to the center of the Earth Plate Tectonics Journey to the center of the Earth Use pages 124 129 to answer the following questions. Exploring Inside Earth (p. 125-126) 1. What are the two main types of evidence that Geologist use

More information

Glossary. continental crust: the sections of crust, the outermost layer of the earth, that include the continents

Glossary. continental crust: the sections of crust, the outermost layer of the earth, that include the continents aftershock: an earthquake that follows a larger earthquake or main shock and originates in or near the rupture zone of the larger earthquake. Generally, major earthquakes are followed by a number of aftershocks

More information

EARTHQUAKES. Compressional Tensional Slip-strike

EARTHQUAKES. Compressional Tensional Slip-strike Earthquakes-page 1 EARTHQUAKES Earthquakes occur along faults, planes of weakness in the crustal rocks. Although earthquakes can occur anywhere, they are most likely along crustal plate boundaries, such

More information

Earth. Earthquake Generation. A Violent Pulse: EARTHQUAKES! Chapter 10 CE/SC Portrait of a Planet Fifth Edition

Earth. Earthquake Generation. A Violent Pulse: EARTHQUAKES! Chapter 10 CE/SC Portrait of a Planet Fifth Edition CE/SC 10110-20110 A Violent Pulse: EARTHQUAKES! Earth Portrait of a Planet Fifth Edition Chapter 10 San Francisco Bay Area Earthquake Generation Brittle Deformation Bending = stress build up Break = energy

More information

A R C T I C LER Grades K+ Explore the Earth inside and out!

A R C T I C LER Grades K+ Explore the Earth inside and out! Foam Soft Soft Foam A R C T I C CROSS SECTION LER 2437 Grades K+ NORTH AMERICA PACIFIC OCEAN ATLANT OCEAN Explore the Earth inside and out! Introduction Discover what lies beneath Earth s surface. This

More information

Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics

Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics Earth Science Regents Questions: Plate Tectonics Name: Date: Period: August 2013 Due Date: 17 Compared to the oceanic crust, the continental crust is (1) less dense and more basaltic (3) more dense and

More information

What is an earthquake?

What is an earthquake? Earthquakes and structural damage (and nifty examples of geophysical forensics) What is an earthquake? An earthquake is the vibration of Earth produced by the rapid release of energy Energy released radiates

More information

Unit 4 Lesson 6 Measuring Earthquake Waves. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 4 Lesson 6 Measuring Earthquake Waves. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Shake, Rattle, and Roll What happens during an earthquake? As plates of the lithosphere move, the stress on rocks at or near the edges of the plates increases. This stress causes faults to form. A fault

More information

4 Deforming the Earth s Crust

4 Deforming the Earth s Crust CHAPTER 4 4 Deforming the Earth s Crust SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What happens when rock is placed under stress?

More information

NATURAL HAZARDS & NATURAL DISASTERS

NATURAL HAZARDS & NATURAL DISASTERS NATURAL HAZARDS & NATURAL DISASTERS The World is always changing. Natural disasters are changes which are so great they may cause damage to the shape of the land or to the lives of people and other living

More information

PLATE TECTONICS. The Basic Premise of Plate Tectonics

PLATE TECTONICS. The Basic Premise of Plate Tectonics PLATE TECTONICS The Basic Premise of Plate Tectonics The lithosphere is divided into plates that move relative to one another, and relative to the earth s asthenosphere. Movement occurs at very slow (cm/yr)

More information

The Structure of the Earth and Plate Tectonics

The Structure of the Earth and Plate Tectonics The Structure of the Earth and Plate Tectonics Structure of the Earth The Earth is made up of 3 main layers: Core Mantle Crust Mantle Outer core Inner core Crust The Crust This is where we live! The Earth

More information

PLATE TECTONICS. 1. "Tectonics" - is a term that refers to the deformation of the earth's crust.

PLATE TECTONICS. 1. Tectonics - is a term that refers to the deformation of the earth's crust. PLATE TECTONICS I. Introduction A. General 1. The theory of plate tectonics is a recent development in the geological sciences, really accepted by scientific community since the early 1960's. 2. Earlier

More information

Earthquake, its causes, classification, seismic zones of India and geological consideration for construction of building, projects in seismic areas.

Earthquake, its causes, classification, seismic zones of India and geological consideration for construction of building, projects in seismic areas. Earthquake, its causes, classification, seismic zones of India and geological consideration for construction of building, projects in seismic areas. An earthquake is a sudden vibration of earth surface

More information

Plate Tectonics. Structure of the Earth

Plate Tectonics. Structure of the Earth Plate Tectonics Structure of the Earth The Earth can be considered as being made up of a series of concentric spheres, each made up of materials that differ in terms of composition and mechanical properties.

More information

THIRD GRADE EARTHQUAKES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

THIRD GRADE EARTHQUAKES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES THIRD GRADE EARTHQUAKES 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF THIRD GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Explaining why there are many types of volcanic rocks. LAB: Comparing rocks

More information

Investigation 3: Seismic Waves

Investigation 3: Seismic Waves Investigation 3: Seismic Waves Table of Contents: Folder 1: Seismic Waves... 25 Folder 2: Locating Earthquakes... 26 Folder 3: Exploring Earth s Interior... 29 Investigation Summary... 32 Folder 1: Seismic

More information

Tennessee. Earthquakes Good and Bad. The Bad: Cause significant injury, destruction of property, and loss of life. West New Madrid Seismic Zone

Tennessee. Earthquakes Good and Bad. The Bad: Cause significant injury, destruction of property, and loss of life. West New Madrid Seismic Zone Earthquakes Good and Bad The Bad: Cause significant injury, destruction of property, and loss of life The Good: Energy released during earthquakes (seismic energy) provides much information about Earth

More information

Earthquakes and Seismic Waves ;Everything You need to know

Earthquakes and Seismic Waves ;Everything You need to know Earthquakes and Seismic Waves ;Everything You need to know What Are Plate Tectonics? Seismic Zones Recycling of Crustal Material What is an earthquake? What are Seismic Waves? Magnitude and Intensity of

More information

STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH

STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH The Ancient Greeks knew that the Earth was about 12,750 kilometres in diameter, but it was only in the 20 th century that geophysical studies showed that the Earth has several distinct

More information

Exam 2 review Earth Science 2 Exam on April 8th

Exam 2 review Earth Science 2 Exam on April 8th 1. How is Earth organized? A. Earth has an inner and outer core, a mantle, and a crust. B. Earth has an inner mantle and an outer lithosphere. with a liquid inner core. C. Earth's crust rests atop the

More information

FIFTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FIFTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FIFTH GRADE PLATE TECTONICS 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES PLATE TECTONIC CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIFTH GRADE VOLCANOES WEEK 1. PRE: Exploring the rocks produced by volcanoes. LAB: Comparing igneous rocks.

More information

3. When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source, which is called the. a. epicenter c. fault b. focus d.

3. When an earthquake occurs, energy radiates in all directions from its source, which is called the. a. epicenter c. fault b. focus d. NAME EARTH SCIENCE CHAPTER 8 1. A fault is. a. a place on Earth where earthquakes cannot occur b. a fracture in the Earth where movement has occurred c. the place on Earth s surface where structures move

More information

Key topics today: How do we know about the Earth s interior structure? Earth s layering: By composition

Key topics today: How do we know about the Earth s interior structure? Earth s layering: By composition Solid-earth geology: Plate tectonics, earthquakes, and volcanoes Explain shape and structure of the ocean basins Explain cycle of oceanic opening and closing Explain many aspects of basic marine geology

More information

Interior Structures of Planets

Interior Structures of Planets Interior Structures of Planets Thematic Questions about Planetary Interiors Planetary interiors tend to be layered structures How does differentiation of planetary materials to form a layered structure

More information

What is this section called? Credits

What is this section called? Credits Station 1: Age of ocean floor Seafloor spreading is a process of plate tectonics. New oceanic crust is created as large slabs of the Earth's crust split apart from each other and magma moves up to fill

More information

1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers.

1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. 1. The diagram below shows a cross section of sedimentary rock layers. Which statement about the deposition of the sediments best explains why these layers have the curved shape shown? 1) Sediments were

More information

Q. What is the concept of plate tectonics theory? - It is a scientific theory which describes the large scale motion of Earth s lithosphere.

Q. What is the concept of plate tectonics theory? - It is a scientific theory which describes the large scale motion of Earth s lithosphere. Q. What is the concept of plate tectonics theory? - It is a scientific theory which describes the large scale motion of Earth s lithosphere. The theory builds on the older concepts of continental drift

More information

12.001: Origin and Interior of the Earth Taylor Perron/Oliver Jagoutz

12.001: Origin and Interior of the Earth Taylor Perron/Oliver Jagoutz 12.001: Origin and Interior of the Earth Taylor Perron/Oliver Jagoutz Begin with the story of Fritz Haber, and how he followed up his discovery of a procedure for industrial Nitrogen fixation by spending

More information

What do you imagine about the nature

What do you imagine about the nature CHAPTER INTERIOR OF THE EARTH What do you imagine about the nature of the earth? Do you imagine it to be a solid ball like cricket ball or a hollow ball with a thick cover of rocks i.e. lithosphere? Have

More information

Chapter 3 Earth Structure

Chapter 3 Earth Structure Chapter 3 Earth Structure Geologic Structure of Earth - The interior of the Earth is layered. Concentric layers: crust, mantle, liquid outer core and solid inner core. Evidence (indirect) for this structure

More information

Contents. Ohio Revised Standards and Model Curriculum Correlation Chart... 5

Contents. Ohio Revised Standards and Model Curriculum Correlation Chart... 5 Contents Ohio Revised Standards and Model Curriculum Correlation Chart....................................... 5 Chapter 1 Earth Science........................................ 13 Lesson 1 Earth s Internal

More information