# BASIC MATH CALCULATIONS

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1 BASIC MATH CALCULATIONS It is highly suggested you complete this packet to assist you in being successful with the basic math competency test. You will be allowed to use a BASIC calculator for all math calculations. Included in this review: 1. Basic Math a. Addition b. Subtraction c. Multiplication d. Division 2. Metric conversion 3. Decimals a. Addition b. Subtraction c. Multiplication d. Division 4. Rounding answers to the whole number, tenth, or hundredth. 5. Ratio and Proportion 6. Roman Numerals with Arabic Equivalent RULES for ZERO (0) To avoid overlooking the decimal point When the decimal is NOT preceded by a whole number ALWAYS place a zero (0) to the left of the decimal. Express as 0.12 NOT.12 NEVER follow a whole number by a decimal point Express as 3 NOT 3.0 1

2 ADDITION & SUBTRACTION MULTIPLICATION & DIVISION When multiplying and dividing, use your calculator! X 10 = X 351 = X 643 = X 41 = X 40 = = = = = = 2

3 METRIC CONVERSION The common conversion factors in the metric system below MUST be are memorized in order to be able to convert with 100% accuracy. 1. Kilogram (kg) to gram (g) 1 kg = 1,000 g 2. Gram (g) to milligrams (mg) 1 g = 1,000 mg 3. Milligram (mg) to micrograms (mcg) 1 mg = 1,000 mcg 4. Liter (L) to milliliter (ml) 1 L = 1,000 ml An easy way to remember this. Converting common metric units is easily done by: Multiplying or dividing by 1000 OR Moving the decimal To convert grams (g) to kilograms (kg) use the conversion 1 kg = 1000 g Divide the number of grams by 1000, or move the decimal three places to the left. To convert kilograms (kg) to grams (g) use the conversion 1000 g = 1 kg Multiply the number of kilograms by 1000, or move the decimal three places to the right. kg g mg mcg L ml 3

4 METRIC CONVERSION 1. 1 g = mg L = ml 3. 2 mg = mcg ml = L 5. 5 mg = mcg 6. 6 kg = g g = mg mg = g L = ml mcg = mg kg = g g = kg 4

5 DECIMALS Decimals are fractional parts of a whole. For example: 0.1 = one tenth 0.01 = one hundredth = one thousandth ADDING and SUBTRACTING DECIMALS When ADDING & SUBTRACTING decimals, use your calculator! _ _ DECIMALS & MULTIPLICATION When MULTIPLYING decimals, use your calculator! X = X 0.25 = X 1,000 = X 0.2 = X 7.2 = 5

6 DECIMALS & DIVISION When DIVIDING decimals, use your calculator! = = = = = 6

7 RATIO & PROPORTION Ratio and proportion is a way of calculating medication dosages. A ratio is used to indicate a relationship between two numbers. A proportion is an equation of two ratios of equal value. A proportion can be written as follows: 1. Separated with an = sign 2. Written as a fraction 3 : 4 = 6 : 8 3 = Medication calculation problems will require you to solve for an unknown quantity, which may be expressed as x. Solve for X: 3 = 12 4 X 1. Cross multiply. 3x = Solve for x by dividing both sides 3x = 48 by the coefficient of x (3) x = 16 You may check this problem by substituting the answer to X (16) back in the problem. 3 X 16 = 48 4 X 12 = 48; Therefore.. 48 = 48 ANSWER is CORRECT! 7

8 RATIO and PROPORTION Use your calculator! = 24 5 X 2. 1 = x = X = X = X = 13 X = 8 X = 5 2 x = x

9 ROMAN NUMERALS with Arabic Equivalents Some medication orders require knowledge of Roman numerals. The most common are: I = 1 V = 5 X = 10 The following is a list of the first twenty Roman numerals: I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, XIV, XV, XVI, XVII, XVIII, XIX, XX 9

10 ANSWERS TO PROBLEMS: Addition & Subtraction page # , , , ,243, , , , ,723 Metric Conversion page # ,000 mg 2. 1,200 ml 3. 2,000 mcg 4. 1 L 5. 5,000 mcg 6. 6,000 g mg g (rounding rule!) 9. 58,500 ml mg (rounding rule!) g kg Decimals & Multiplication page # (rounding rule!) (rounding rule!) 3. 9, (rounding rule!) (rounding rule!) Ratio and Proportion page # (rounding rule!) (rounding rule!) Multiplication & Division - page # , ,790, ,425, ,803, (rounding rule!) 8. 1,427.3 (rounding rule!) (rounding rule!) (rounding rule!) Decimals page # (rounding rule!) (rounding rule!) (rounding rule!) (rounding rule!) Decimals & Division page # (rounding rule!) (rounding rule!) (rounding rule!) (rounding rule!) 10

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