Managing Pesticide Resistance

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1 Chapter 2 Managing Pesticide Resistance In This Chapter Keywords What is Pesticide Resistance? After learning the information in this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define pesticide resistance. 2. Define Mode of Action (MoA). 2. State a pesticide s Mode of Action Group number when given the pesticide label. 3. List strategies to prevent resistance to herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. 4. List the questions to ask to determine if you have a resistant pest. pesticide resistance, Mode of Action, Group number Pesticide resistance happens because of genetic diversity and selection. Pesticide Resistance = Genetic Diversity + Selection Genetic diversity. Some individuals within a species are naturally resistant to a pesticide. You may notice a resistant pest when you apply a pesticide at a rate that previously controlled the pest and it no longer works. When these resistant pests reproduce, the next generation of pests, like their parents, will not be controlled by the pesticide. Selection. Pesticides select for the resistant individuals since all the susceptible individuals are killed, leaving only the resistant pests to reproduce. Resistance may develop if you use the same pesticide season after season or many times within a season, or if you use a different pesticide, but it controls the pest in a similar way, through the same Mode of Action. Mode of Action (MoA) is the term that describes the way a pesticide works to control the pest. Pesticide Groupings Pesticides are divided into Groups according to their Mode of Action. By knowing the Group number, we can choose pesticides from different Groups and rotate the Mode of Action. Rotating the Mode of Action is a key practice to help slow the selection of resistant pests. Chapter 2 Managing Pesticide Resistance 11

2 Most labels of Commercial and Restricted class products have these numbered Groupings on the front panel and additional resistance management information under Use Directions. GROUP 1 HERBICIDE You can also find the Group numbers in the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) publications along with up-to-date information about resistance in Ontario. Refer to Publication 75, Guide to Weed Control, Publication 360, Guide to Fruit Production, and Publication 838, Vegetable Crop Protection Guide. Resistance in Ontario In Ontario, pests have developed resistance to herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides. Check with OMAFRA for up-to-date lists of the weeds, insects, mites and disease pathogens that are resistant to pesticides by Mode of Action. Herbicide Resistance. There are weeds that are resistant to herbicides in Groups 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9 and 22. Consult with crop and weed specialists to plan ways to manage these resistant weeds. Herbicide resistance is an Ontario wide problem as resistant biotypes move quickly across the province. Glyphosate resistant Canada Fleabane is an example of one weed that is now an Ontario wide problem. With over 200,000 seeds produced per plant, it spreads quickly. It was first confirmed in Essex County in 2010 and is now in 28 counties stretching all the way to Quebec. In addition, a Canada Fleabane biotype with multiple-resistance to both Group 2 and Group 9 herbicides is in 11 counties. Multiple-resistance is when a weed is resistant to 2 or more Modes of Action. Insecticide and Miticide Resistance. There are insects resistant to insecticides in Groups 1, 3, 4, 5, 10 and 18. Insects such as codling moth and pear psylla are resistant to Group 1 insecticides, the carbamates (1A) and organophosates (1B), which includes such products as Imidan, Sevin and Lannate. Pear psylla and spotted tentiform leafminer are resistant to the pyrethroids which are in Group 3. As well, mites are resistant to Group 10, Apollo. Some insects have multiple-resistance. For example, codling moths are resistant to both Group 1B, organophosphates, and Group 18, growth regulators. Fungicide Resistance. Plant pathogens are also resistant. Apple scab is resistant to a number of fungicides including Group 3 (Nova and Nustar) and Group 11 (Flint and Sovran). 12 Chapter 2 Managing Pesticide Resistance

3 How Can You Manage Resistance? Strategies for All Types of Pesticides Resistance management is a complex challenge. Our use of pesticides selects for the pests that are already naturally resistant to the products, leaving farmers with fewer and fewer pesticide options for the resistant pests. And the discovery of pesticides with new Modes of Action is rare and not the solution to the problem. It is the responsibility of pesticide users to slow down the selection of resistant pests. The specific methods you need to use will depend on the crop you are growing and the pest you are trying to control. There are two key practices everyone must do to slow down the selection of resistant pests: 1. Use an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program that includes ways of managing pests other than just pesticides. 2. Use pesticides from different Groups when it is necessary to use pesticides. 1. Scout regularly and identify the pests. You need this information to make informed pest management decisions. Scout before an application to identify the pest and its growth stage Scout after an application to determine if the pesticide worked 2. Use alternatives to pesticides. Use physical, cultural, biological or genetic pest control if possible. 3. Apply pesticides only when necessary. Fewer applications reduce the selection pressure applied to the pest, which helps prevent resistance. 4. Follow the pesticide label directions. Use only the recommended: rate number of applications per season number of consecutive applications volume of water tank mixes. 5. Rotate crops when possible. Crop rotation may help to control the pest without using pesticides or it may allow you to use pesticides from another pesticide Group. 6. Know the Group of the pesticides you use and rotate them. 7. Reduce the number of applications of pesticides from the same Group during a growing season and in subsequent seasons. Chapter 2 Managing Pesticide Resistance 13

4 8. Keep records of crop rotations and the pesticides customers use. Records help you evaluate your program and plan a long term strategy to slow the development of pesticide resistance. 9. Learn about resistant pests in your area and how to manage them. Communicate with farm organizations and crop specialists. See Chapter 2 - Integrated Pest Management, IPM and Crop Specialists for contact information. If you suspect that you may have a resistant pest, contact experts in your area. Additional Strategies for Herbicides Additional Strategies for Insecticides TM: A trade mark owned by the Canadian Seed Trade Association 1. Apply tank mixes or formulated mixtures of pesticides from more than one Group. Make sure that the mixtures you choose include products from different Modes of Action to kill the weed. 2. Advise customers to clean tillage and harvesting equipment before leaving an affected field to avert spreading resistant weed seeds. 3. Prevent weeds from going to seed to reduce the weed population. 1. Know the biology of the insect you want to control. Apply insecticides when the pest is at a susceptible life cycle stage. 2. Rotate insecticide Groups between each generation (one complete life cycle) of the pest, not within the generation. If you use insecticides from more than one Group on the same generation, you may actually encourage resistance. 3. Protect beneficial insects and mites. Use products that cause the least damage to beneficial insects and mites that help control pest populations. 4. Plant an insect susceptible refuge. When you plant insect protected corn hybrids such as Bt corn, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency requires farmers to also plant an insect susceptible refuge either 5% or 20% of the acreage depending on the hybrid used. Check the refuge requirement for your hybrid on the Canadian Corn Pest Coalition website. Planting a refuge will reduce the risk of insect populations developing resistance to Bt. Additional Strategies for Fungicides and Bactericides 1. Use cultural methods to reduce disease pressure. Remove debris. Some pathogens survive in plant debris or wood from the previous year and can infect the next crop. 14 Chapter 2 Managing Pesticide Resistance

5 Help air flow through the crop canopy so it will dry quickly. Most fungi and bacteria prefer moist or wet conditions. When you plant annual or perennial crops you may need to increase the spaces between and within the rows so that leaves, stems and fruits will dry quickly. Use pruning and training methods to manage the canopies of perennial crops such as tree fruits, cane fruits and grapes. In low-growing crops you may also need to control weeds that can add to relative humidity of the canopy and prevent drying. Schedule irrigation so the crop will not stay wet for hours and it can dry out before nightfall. 2. Apply protectant fungicides when crop and weather conditions favour disease development. Protectants can help prevent infection and keep fungus populations low. Also, many protectant fungicides control the fungus with more than one way (Mode of Action) and so resistance is less likely to develop. 3. Use fungicides from different Modes of Action in tank mixes and during the growing season. 4. When possible, mix an eradicant fungicide with a protectant fungicide. Researchers have found that combining these will help prevent the development of resistance to the eradicant fungicide. Most eradicant fungicides have only one Mode of Action and are at risk for resistance development. The protectant treatment helps prevent disease infection, which then helps reduce the amount of the fungus that is exposed to the eradicant fungicide. Do You Have a Resistant Pest? If you see that a pest has survived a pesticide application, don t assume right away that the customer has a resistance problem. Rule out these other possible reasons first. Could there have been an application error? Was the sprayer calibrated correctly? Were all the recommendations followed on the product label? Was the timing correct? Was the correct water volume used? Was the ph of the water suitable for the product, or did the water have sediment in it? Did the application equipment work correctly? Did a nozzle plug or was there another possible problem with the equipment? Chapter 2 Managing Pesticide Resistance 15

6 What were the environmental conditions? Did it rain, or did overhead irrigation occur too soon after the application? Were there concerns with the temperature, humidity, wind or a drought? Was the target pest correctly identified? For example, it is very difficult to tell some weed species apart from each other when they are seedlings. Check Pesticide Application Records If you can t explain why the pest survived with one of the reasons above, then the customer may have a resistant pest. Check pesticide records and answer the following questions: Did the pesticide do a good job of controlling the other pests listed on the product label? You will usually first notice resistance with only one pest species. If the pesticide application also failed to control the other pests stated on the label, this is likely due to a problem other than resistance. Did a pesticide from this Group fail to control these pests last year? Did you use pesticides from the same Group frequently in this field year after year? If You Suspect That a Customer Has a Resistant Pest If you suspect that a customer has a resistant pest, contact a crop specialist in your area. See Chapter 1 - Integrated Pest Management for ways to contact IPM and Crop Specialists. These specialists will confirm the resistance. They will know which pests in your region are resistant to which Groups of pesticides and they can advise you on the best Integrated Pest Management strategy to use to manage the resistant pest. Let s work together to slow down the development of pesticide resistance. Advise customers to watch for and identify resistant pests on their farms. If they have resistant pests, learn the best ways to manage them so farmers don t waste money on pesticides that no longer work and so you can help slow the spread of these pests across Ontario. By slowing down the selection of resistant pests, currently registered pesticides stay effective longer, giving us more options for managing pests economically. 16 Chapter 2 Managing Pesticide Resistance

7 Practice Your Understanding 1. The best way to manage resistance is to: a) spray on a weekly basis. b) rotate the pesticide Groups you use. c) use the lowest label rate of the pesticide. 2. What are the two key practices you can use to prevent or delay the development of resistance? Fill in the chart using Table 4-1 Herbicides Use in Ontario in OMAFRA Publication 75, the Guide to Weed Control and Table 10-3 Insecticide/Miticide Groups in OMAFRA Publication 360, the Guide to Fruit Production. Crop Pesticide Group Number Soybeans Corn Apples Boundary Guardian Dual II Magnum Marksman Matador 120 EC Entrust SC Chapter 2 Managing Pesticide Resistance 17

8 4. What weeds in Ontario are resistant to Group 2 herbicides? Use Table 4-6, Weed Populations Confirmed Resistant to Herbicide Group in Ontario Counties, in the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) Publication 75, Guide to Weed Control. This publication is available on the OMAFRA website. 5. Define Mode of Action. 18 Chapter 2 Managing Pesticide Resistance

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