Outlines. Resources. 6. Agencies Responsible for Water Supply 7. Conclusion

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3 Outlines 1. An Overview of Thailand s s Water Resources 2. Water Resources Problems in Thailand 3. Strategies for Problem Solutions 4. Water Resources Management in Thailand and Problems 5. Agencies Involved with Water Resources 6. Agencies Responsible for Water Supply 7. Conclusion

4 1. An Overview of Thailand s s Water Resources

5 1.1 General Information Total area Average annual rainfall Total volume of water - (71%) evaporation - (29%) annual runoff Population Average water/population UN standard - serious water shortage 512,000 km 2 1,426 mm 732,975 mil.cu.m. 519,670 mil.cu.m. 213,303 mil.cu.m. 62 mil. 3,413 m 3 /person <1,000 m 3 /person

6 7,176 3,819 3,413 48,590 22,305 12,804 22,642 23,255 4,779 5, (average runoff per capita, cu.m/year) 0 Global Asia Thailand Cambodia Loas Indonesia Malaysia Mynmar Philipines Viet Nam Average annual runoff per capita in Average annual runoff per capita in SEA (M 3 )

7 River Basin Groups in Thailand 9 River Basin Groups (Regional Basins) 25 Main River Basins 254 Minor River Basins

8 1.2 Surface Water Resources Regions in Catchment area Average annual Amount of rainfall Amount of runoff Thailand (sq.km.) rainfall (mm/year) (mcm.) (mcm.) Northern 169,640 1, ,140 65,140 Central 30,130 1,226 38,270 7,650 Northeastern 168,840 1, ,500 36,680 Eastern 34,280 2,008 73,360 22,000 Western 39,840 1,761 60,560 18,170 Southern 70,140 2, ,130 49,240 Total 512,870 1, , ,880 Source : Department of Water Resources, Ministry of Nat. Resources & Environment

9 1.3 Groundwater Resources More than 200,000 groundwater wells are undertaken by both government and private sectors with total capacity of about 7.55 million m 3 /day (2,774 million m 3 /year) 75% of domestic water is obtained from groundwater sources which can serve approximately 35 million of people in villages and rural areas Groundwater is mainly recharged by rainfall of about 38,000 million m 3 annually

10 2. Water Resources Problems in Thailand

11 2.1 Water Resources Problems Flooding Scarcity of Fresh Water Pollution by Wastewater Water Resources Management

12 Flooding From 1983 to present Agricultural areas affected by floods = 27.2 million Rais (= million acres) Urban areas affected by floods = 6.8 million Rais (=2.72 million acres) 2,370 villages vulnerable to immediate floods & landslides

13 Damage Caused by Flooding Average damage between caused to urban communities, agricultural areas and infrastructures was 2,165 million US dollars per year. September 2006, a depression caused damage to economic zones of 2.6 million acres, with 340 death tolls. 702 million US dollars were spent for damage recovery.

14 Scarcity of Fresh Water 7,479 villages have no piped water supply schemes 21,336 villages have to get their water supply schemes rehabilitated

15 3. Strategies for Problems Solutions

16 Strategies for Problem Solutions 3.1 Strategies for Flooding Problem Solutions 3.2 Strategies for Water Scarcity Problem Solutions 3.3 Strategies for Wastewater Problem Solutions 3.4 Strategies for Management Problem Solutions

17 3.1 Strategies for Flooding Problem Solutions Protect and rehabilitate watersheds Rehabilitate water sources, waterways and wet lands. Develop and improve water sources, and drainage and irrigation system Manage land use and prevent flooding in economic zones Improve agricultural patterns and use agricultural areas to store flooding water Manage and attenuate flooding

18 By 2012 : Target Plan for Flooding Management Prevent flooding for 70% of major cities Be able to warn of flooding in lowlands of all river basins Be able to warn of torrent & landslides for all 2,370 villages vulnerable to immediate floods and landslides

19 3.2 Strategies for Water Scarcity Problem Solution Increase surface water by constructing more reservoirs or dams to store water Distribute water to an area with water shortage Increase the efficiency of water supply schemes Manage drought problem

20 By 2012 : Target Plan for Drought Management All 50,000 villages have perfect water supply schemes All industrial estates have sufficient water All tourist destinations have adequate water Target irrigated agricultural areas have enough water

21 3.3 Strategies for Wastewater Problem Solutions Urgently recover water quality in river basins with a critical problem of water quality Oversee and control waste and wastewater drainage from source of origin Encourage active participation of local authorities and people

22 Target Plan for Wastwater By 2012 : Management Less than 15% of water sources with degenerated and very degenerated water quality (now 26%) Preserve & protect water sources of good and fair quality to avoid degeneration

23 3.4 Strategies for Management Problem Solutions Draft water resources act Reform water agencies (done in 2002) Strengthen river basin committees Establish a national water sources data center Set up water resources fund Research on sustainable water resources management

24 Target Plan for Water Resources Management 2008 : Declaration of water resources act : Establishment of water resources fund : Efficient water agencies in case of crises 2009 : Efficient national water data center 2010 : Efficient water management; more precise, definite and rapid forecast

25 Target Plan for Water Resources Management (Cont.) 2011 : Societies have accord in water use among river basins : All sectors participation in sustainable water use and conservation 2012 : Societies have equal, efficient and sustainable use of water

26 Current Water Demand Domestic Consumption 2,460 MCMY (3.5%) Industry & Tourism 2,396 MCMY (3.4%) Agriculture & Power Generating Ecological Maintenance 53,034 MCMY (75.5%) 12,359 MCMY (17.6%)

27 Current Water Demand Ecological Maintenance 17.6% Domestic Consumption Industry & Tourism 3.5% 3.4% 75.5% Agriculture & Power Generating

28 Current Water Usage Agriculture Industrial Sector Household Consumption 91.61% 4.14% 4.25%

29 Water Shortage Forecast in 20 Years It is estimated that in the next 20 years or 2027 water shortage in Thailand will be : Case 1 : If agricultural areas are expanded for 20%, water shortage will be 33,982 MCMY. Case 2 : If agricultural areas are the same as it is now, but water demand for domestic consumption, tourism and industry increases, water shortage will be 17,368 MCMY. Case 3 : If agricultural areas are the same as it is now, but water demand for domestic consumption. tourism and industry increases while water use efficiency is also augmented by 10%, water shortage will be 12,566 MCMY, which is approximate to the current shortage.

30 4. Water Resources Management in Thailand

31 Problems Confronting Water Resources Management 1. National Level 2. Basin Level

32 Problems Confronting Water Resources Management (Cont.) 1. National Level Policy & Plan Institutional Framework Budgeting Legal Framework Available Information

33 Problems Confronting Water Resources Management (Cont.) 2. Basin Level Management Mechanism Participation of Stakeholders Involvement of Stakeholders in Development Process Conflict Management Sense of Ownership & Sharing of Responsibility

34 5. Agencies Involved with Water Resources

35 Agencies Involved with Water Resources Natural Economic and Social Development Board RTG Cabinet Ministry of Finance State Enterprise Policy Commission Ministry of Natural Resources & Environment Office of Prime Minister Ministry of Energy Ministry of Agriculture & Cooperatives Water Resources Department Groundwater Resources Department National Water Resources Committee National Waterworks Committee Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand Numerous Sub-Committee Including: - River Basin Committee - Water Resources Policy Committee - Groundwater Management Committee - Flood and Drought Mitigation Committee Royal Irrigation Department O ffice of Permanent Secretary Agriculture & Co-operatives Bureau of Rain Making and Agriculture Aviation Division

36 6. Agencies Responsible for Water Supply

37 Agencies Responsible for Water Supply State Enterprise Pol icy Commis sion RTG Cabinet Nati onal Economi c and Soci al Development Board M inistry of Finance M inistry of In terior Min istry of Natural Resources & E nvi ronment M inistry of I ndustry Bulk W ater -East Water -Privately Operated BOTs raw water to Departm ent of Local Administration Promotion Water Resources Department Groundwater Resources Dep artment Ind ustrial Es tate Authority of T hailand PWA water s upply to PWA S upply Areas in 228 Waterworks 73 Provinces M WA -Bangkok -Nonth aburi -Sam utp rakarn 3 Provinces water supply to Governm ent Fu nding In dependent Water Su pply Systems in Municip alities water supply to Ru ral Areas water supp ly to Indu strial Estates

38 Major Agencies Responsible for Water Supply Provincial Waterworks Authority (PWA) Metropolitan Waterworks Authority (MWA) Local Authorities

39 Metropolitan Waterworks Authority (MWA) Branches 16 Offices, 4 Plants Service Areas Bangkok, Nonthaburi & Samutprakarn Provinces Water Provided 3.2 Million M 3 /day Customers 1.7 Million Connections (10 Million People)

40 Provincial Waterworks Authority (PWA) Branches 228 Waterworks > 500 Small schemes taken over from local authorities Service Areas 73 Provinces Water Provided 1.98 Million M 3 /day Customers 2.48 Million Connections (12.4 Million People)

41 Local Authorities > 50,000 Villages Piped Water Schemes Hand-Pumps Simple Technology Low Tariff Rate Operated by Village Committee

42 7. Conclusion

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