Solar, Wind and CAV Applications Influence the Development of Power Modules used for Motor Control

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1 Solar, Wind and CAV Applications Influence the Development of Power Modules used for Motor Control Jerry Gallagher Infineon Technologies Industrial Power, Inc.

2 Presentation Overview Solar review Wind review CAV review Motor Control IGBT Requirements IGBT improvements advanced by Solar, Wind & CAV Page 2

3 Solar and wind applications expand IGBT module use In 2011 in the USA ~ 2.8 GW of Solar Power was installed And ~ 6.8 GW of Wind Power was installed Page 3

4 Modules use for Renewable Energy predicted to increases The World Market for Power Semiconductor Modules by Key Applications * * March 2012 Page 4

5 Solar and Wind usage to increase as costs approach parity Solar & Wind Generation Usage and Costs in the USA PV was <0.15% of USA power generation in 2009 Wind was ~ 1.8% of USA power generation in 2009 * * The price pressure from natural gas fracking is affecting wind and solar parity costs. Wind at ~9c/kWh is near cost parity. PV now at 12c/kWh to 22c/kWh is expected to reach cost parity in the next five+ years March 2012 Page 5

6 Components of a Solar Array PV diode PV cell PV panel The cells in a PV panel are usually first connected in series to obtain the desired voltage (so called one string); the individual panels are then connected in parallel to allow the system to produce more current (power) PV array March 2012 Page 6

7 MPPT maximum power point tracking The Maximum Power Point (MPP) is the point where the maximum power from panel can be achieved with certain solar radiation. Due to the change of radiation intensity from time to time, a solar inverter has to be able to find this point under different circumstances. This function is called Maximum Power Point tracking (MPPT). The MPP of a solar panel depends on the intensity of sunlight and the ambient temperature. The MPPT in solar inverters is a DC/DC converter which sets the operation point of the solar panel according to actual intensity of sunlight and temperature. Solar strings connected to one common MPPT should have similar U- I properties and be installed identically. Output (U-I) Characteristic of a solar module MPP at different light intensities March 2012 Page 7

8 PV system configuration for single phase grid All panels in one PV array have the same properties Several strings in one PV array have different properties March 2012 PV array Source: SMA PV array Single string Inverter Multi String Inverter Typical power: 700W-5kW Typical power: 4kW- 5kW Grid Grid Solution for single phase house roof installation Page 8

9 PV system configuration for three phase grid Typical power: 5kW- 50kW Low voltage Grid March 2012 PV Array Source: SMA Single or multi string Inverter Cost effective 3-phase solution for small solar park Page 9

10 Elements of a wind turbine total height including rotor blade rotor blade hub Hub height power cabinets incl. converter and transformer Nacelle with drive train incl. generator tower concrete base converter March 2012 Page 10

11 Induction generator Developed in the 1950s in Denmark Fixed, high rotational speed Low efficiency Simple concept with standard gearbox and induction generator, directly grid-connected Later: soft connection to grid with Thyristors Semiconductors needed only for soft starter! fixed rotor speed gear asynchronous/ induction generator grid March 2012 Page 11

12 Double fed induction generator (DFIG) Market introduction in the 1990s Speed continuously variable Induction generator directly grid-connected Rotor with three-phase windings and slip rings Rotor converter for 25-30% of nominal wind turbine capacity controls difference of the mechanical rotor frequency (resp. its current frequency) to the grid frequency Pitch aerodynamic brake frequency converter variable rotor speed March 2012 gear Double fed induction generator grid f1: frequency of the grid, stator frequency f2: frequency of the rotor current p: number of pole pairs s: slip P1: active stator power P2: rotor power Page 12

13 Wind turbine with double fed induction generator (DFIG) and gearbox Generator and converter are industry standard products Small converter Slip rings Gearbox losses Source: BWE March 2012 Page 13

14 Synchronous generator Market introduction in the 1980s Speed continuously variable (from 0 to 100%) for highest efficiency No gear, special generator Low rotational speed Full converter with IGBTs Pitch aerodynamic brake converter Semiconductors needed for full converter variable rotor speed Synchronous generator grid March 2012 Page 14

15 Wind turbine with externally excited synchronous generator and no gearbox No gearbox (losses) Higher efficiency Special generator Large converter Source: BWE March 2012 Page 15

16 Converter topologies for typical wind turbines Induction generator Synchronous generator permanent magnets external excited w/o converter, with softstarter Double fed induction generator full converter (4Q) full converter (2Q) March 2012 Page 16

17 What exactly are CAV applications? kkkk Page 17

18 What is driving the different CAV applications? Page 18

19 CAV power train components Page 19

20 Example of CAV application Page 20

21 CAV generator/inverter types Page 21

22 SR inverters Page 22

23 Basic CAV topologies Page 23

24 Motor control requirements historically drive IGBT module development Page 24

25 What does module development focuses on? Page 25

26 What are the customer benefits? Page 26

27 Constructing a typical IGBT module Page 27

28 What s in a module that can be improved? Chips Bond wire & DCB Topology Power Cycling target.xt 1.E+09 Ref IGBT 4 Tvj 150 C.XT target Tvj 175 C 1.E+08 PC Tvj 175 C no of cycles 1.E+07 1.E+06 1.E+05 1.E delta Tj (K) DCB & Power Terminals Package & Base Plate Cycling Capability Page 28

29 IGBT chip/module evolution Page 29

30 Module construction improvements Page 30

31 Cycling capability is improved driven by CAV requirements Page 31

32 Chips- IGBT now, SiC in the future? Page 32

33 Chips, DCB & terminals Page 33

34 Package improvements represent the most significant evolution in modules Page 34

35 Standard drive topologies have stood for years Page 35

36 Wind and CAV have introduced some newer topologies Page 36

37 Solar topologies expand the possibilities Page 37

38 Solar topologies expand the possibilities Page 38

39 Solar topologies expand the possibilities Page 39

40 Heat sink alternatives are advanced by CAV & EV Zth,ja [K/W] 0,25 0,2 0,15 0,1 0,05 0 with baseplate without baseplate with direct pin fin Ratio 0,001 0,01 0, t [s] 180% 170% 160% 150% 140% 130% 120% 110% 100% 90% 80% Page 40

41 Thermal interface materials evolve from thermal grease stencils Page 41

42 Integration for wind is also available for motor drives Page 42

43 CAV load profiles Page 43

44 Calculations tools like IPOSIM are now more advanced Page 44

45 Tools to predict module design life I [A] Is Device power los P [W] A. Define mission and machine load cycle t [s] B. Calculate die power loss. Iposim Model IGBT IGBT Passive (Cross coupling Diode) P_D IGBT Active (Zth,ja IGBT) P_T P_IGBT P_Diode t [s] D. Estimate design life TEMP_IGBT Thermal V Model Diode Model TEMP_DIODE V Diode + + RTp2 CTp2 RDp2 CDp2 P_T RTp1 CTp1 RDp1 CDp1 RT1 CT1 RD1 CD1 RT2 RT3 RT4 CT2 CT3 CT4 RD2 CD2 RD3 CD3 P_D RD4 CD4 RT5 CT5 RD5 CD5 Ambient / coolant temperature Diode Passive Diode Active (Zth,ja Diode) (Cross coupling IGBT) C. Calculate device tempe Device design life/cycle curves Tj [ C] Diode IGBT y = E+12x E+00 R 2 = E Ambient t [s]

46 IGBT cycling limitations Page 46

47

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