Psych 2200, Lecture 2

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1 Honors Conversion Discussion Group Wed 3:30-4:30 PM Organizational meeting, Wed Sept 9 3:30p Room 109 Bousfield (Psych) Syllabus available at: Psych 2200, Lecture 2 Mammalian Brain Anatomy & Organization Thurs Sept 3, 2015 Class Website: click on Psych 2200 tab. 1

2 Two types of cells in the nervous system: 1) Neurons -- transmit information via action potential & neurochemical release 2) Glia (astrocytes & oligodendrocytes (CNS); schwann cells (PNS)) -- modulate, support, and insulate neurons with myelin sheaths **other special kinds of glia -- radial glia, microglia Two types of matter in the nervous system: 1) Grey matter -- unmyelinated neurons and parts of neurons 2) White matter -- myelinated parts of neurons and glia In CT scan and MRI, white indicates higher density than grey. 2

3 2.2 The Major Parts of the Neuron Input Dendritic spines Axonal Boutons Output Multi-polar Bi-polar Uni-polar hillock Myelin sheath & nodes of ranvier (spaces) Inter-neuronal connections or synapses happen between the axon terminal of one neuron (the sender ) and the dendrites of another (the receiver ). Some neurons (usually inhibitory) synapse right onto the hillock of the receiver. Most neurons Vision, Hearing, Touch, Pain in the brain 3

4 2.7 Synapses 2.17 Layers of the cerebral cortex MULTI-POLAR 4

5 Figure 2.7 Synapses (Part 2) Figure 2.6 Representative Glial Cells Remove waste, provide energy and O2 Insulate for speed/efficiency Primary: Astrocytes Oligodendrocytes Schwann (PNS) Transient: Microglia Radial glia 5

6 2.8 The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems CNS PNS The CNS = the brain and spinal cord, and is encased by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is not only surrounding membranes (dura & pia mater), but also a network of tightened blood vessel walls for vessels supplying the brain & spinal cord. The peripheral (PNS) exits and enters the CNS barrier, and includes: -cranial nerves (S(in)/M(out)) -spinal (somatic) nerves (S(in)/M(out)) -autonomic system sympathetic parasympathetic enteric (gut) BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER Claritin Allegra 6

7 2.9 The 12 Cranial Nerves Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) to the head SMELL VISION 12 CRANIAL NERVES: 3 sensory (blue; I, II, VIII) 5 motor (red; III, IV, VI, XI, XII) 4 both (re&blue; V, VII, IX, X) Tongue muscles Neck/shoulder muscles BALANCE, HEARING 2.10 The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves -- Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) to the body Regions of the spinal cord are identified by the vertebral bones that protect them 7

8 Spinal nerves (1 nerve pair per vertebra) match somatosensory/motor dermatomes 2.10 The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves in cross-section Ventral horn MOTOR (out/down) (also called efferent ) Dorsal horn (ganglia) SENSORY (up/in) (also called afferent ) An epidural goes into the fat between the dura membrane and the vertebrae. A spinal goes through the arachnoid into CSF. 8

9 2.11 The Autonomic Nervous System (Part 1) Sympathetic division is stimulated by fear/stress and promotes emergency functions. Prepares body to use all its oxygen and energy to run/fight ( fight or flight response). To accomplish this, homeostatic functions (such as food digestion, energy storage, ovulation) are put on hold. 1. Thoracic/Lumbar nerves 2. Ganglia inside spinal column 9

10 2.11 The Autonomic Nervous System (Part 2) Parasympathetic reverses these effects Calms the body and diverts oxygen and energy to promote homeostatic functions (digestion, reproduction) 1. Cranial/Sacral nerves 2. Ganglia are peripheral to (outside) the spinal column Symptoms of chronic sympathetic activation (stress) include: Skin break-outs High bood pressure, heart palpitations Muscle spasms Stomach and intestinal upset Headaches, anxiety Infertility & impotence Hair loss Asthma Diabetes, weight gain Exercise like yoga -- can boot-strap the parasympathetic system with slow, regular breathing. Long term effects include improved circulation, muscle tone, and digestion. Some evidence suggests meditation can also enhance brain activity patterns associated with calm (parasympathetic activation). 10

11 2.14 Divisions of the Human Nervous System in the Embryo and the Adult (Part 1) 2.9 Divisions of the Human Nervous System in the Embryo and the Adult (Part 2) (cerebral cortex) Language, decision making Motivation, complex movements Emotion Eating, drinking, sex (mid-brain: substantia nigra, VTA) (medulla) Sleep, simple movement Breathing, heart rate/blood pressure, sneeze, cough, vomit 11

12 Box 2.2 Three Customary Orientations for Viewing the Brain and Body 2.13 Inside the Brain (Part 1) CORONAL/TRANSVERSE PLANE HORIZONTAL PLANE 12

13 2.13 Inside the Brain 2.12 Three Views of the Human Brain (Part 3) 13

14 2.12 Three Views of the Human Brain (Part 2) Basal ganglia structures play an important role in motivation/reward & movement (to be discussed more later). All structures derive from forebrain (except substantia nigra (midbrain)). 14

15 Limbic structures play an important role in modulating emotion & learning/memory (to be discussed more later). All structures derive from forebrain Cortical-Tract Connections between Cortical Regions 15

16 Two types of cells in the nervous system: 1) Neurons (transmit information) 2) Glia -- astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, schwann cells (modulate, support and insulate neurons) Two types of matter in the nervous system 1) Grey matter -- unmyelinated neurons and parts of neurons 2) White matter -- myelinated parts of neurons and glia One of the largest white matter tracts in the brain connects the right and left hemispheres the corpus callosum The Cerebral Ventricles CSF in ventricles is continuous with CSF in spinal cord, and both derive from the hollow center of the neural tube 16

17 2.12 Three Views of the Human Brain (Part 1) 4 lobes à 5 cortices (because frontal lobe=frontal AND motor cortex) (Decisionmaking) (motor/ speech) (somatosensory) -- (Vision) -- (Hearing/language) 2.12 Three Views of the Human Brain (Part 2; repeat) LEFT RIGHT Midline view; the majority of brain structures have a left and right component. (Structures right on midline, like pituitary, are exceptions). The 2 sides do not always function identically, especially in higher structures (cortex). 17

18 Left versus right cortical hemispheric specialization in humans Crossed (contralateral) auditory pathways!!! Ascending auditory paths cross the mid-line, but not 100%. There is a stronger projection from each ear to the contra-lateral (other side) of the brain. 18

19 19

20 Crossed visual pathway Visual paths from the LEFT and RIGHT eye fields (not the eyes) cross the mid-line 100% 20

21 Somatosensory/motor projections also cross the mid-line (recall right-handed means you are left-brain dominant), so split brain individuals have trouble verbalizing what they touch with the LEFT hand (that info goes to R hemisphere). 21

22 In MOST people, language is processed in the LEFT hemisphere only.?!? When combined with fully crossed visual and SS paths, and strongly crossed auditory paths, this means that SPLIT BRAIN individuals: Can only NAME objects seen with the RIGHT visual field (although they can react to the emotional content of images seen in the left field.), or touched with the RIGHT hand. Can process words w/the left ear, but have a strong preference to understand/repeat words heard with the RIGHT ear. 22

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