Exploring the Basics: Solar Photovoltaic, Solar Thermal and Wind Energy Systems

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1 Exploring the Basics: Solar Photovoltaic, Solar Thermal and Wind Energy Systems Matthew Bennett NABCEP & GLREA Certified Solar PV Installer A Division of Dovetail Construction Co. Inc.

2 Why renewable energy? Renewable energy projects are an investment in our quality of life, our national security, and our environment. RE systems can provide energy independence and freedom from utility cost increases. Payback times for renewable energy sources are becoming shorter as traditional energy sources are becoming more expensive. Incentives are available in some areas.

3 Renewable Energy Applications Indoor and Outdoor Lighting Emergency Back-up Mobile Power Remote Battery Charging Space Exploration Water Pumping Water and Space Heating

4 Dovetail Solar & Wind Dovetail Construction Company Inc. was founded in 1995 and now exclusively provides solar & wind power equipment, installation and project management. Installations include: 20kW PV at the Cincinnati Zoo s Education Center 20kW PV at Melink Corp. HQ in Milford OH 4kW PV at Ohio University s Innovation Center 2kW PV at the Hershey Montessori Farm School 3kW PV at the Ohio Governor s Mansion PV & Wind Systems at residences around OH & WV

5 Why use a certified installer? Turn-key systems = less headache Ohio ODOD incentive program requires a certified installer for rebates on PV systems Installation warranty included with system Customized, codecompliant design, installation, and followup assistance from experienced technicians

6 Certified installers provide: Information about renewable energy technology & access to available financial incentives Site visit to determine the best options for your home/business and to take measurements for a complete system design & cost estimate Contracted work with a warranty, & licensed electricians or plumbers where required Maintenance assistance & follow-up to insure that system is working at peak performance

7 Incentives as % of system cost The State of Ohio offers a rebate program for solar PV, solar thermal, and wind turbine installations The Federal government s 2005 Energy Bill included an income tax credit, starting in 2006, for individuals or businesses who install solar PV or solar thermal systems Costs of system State Federal Consumer

8 ODOD Rules. System must be in territory of an investorowned utility (AEP, Cinergy, First Energy, Ohio Edison, Dayton Power & Light) All solar PV installations require NABCEP certified installer New construction projects must demonstrate Energy Star compliance Rebates are paid out AFTER project is completed and paid; reduced interest rate loans are available through the Energy Loan Fund

9 Total rebate capped at $25,000 for residential and $150,000 for commercial projects Solar PV rebate calculated based on system size: 1 kw- 10 kw: $3.50 / watt kw 25 kw: $2.50 / watt kw 75 kw: $1.50 / watt Solar Thermal rebate calculated at $30 per kbtu/day, up to 50% of system Wind Energy rebate calculated at $2.50 per watt at 25mph, up to 50% of total costs ODOD Office of Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

10 Federal Tax Credit Guidelines Solar Photovoltaic or Solar Thermal (domestic water heating no pools/spas) only; no Wind credit Residential tax credit of up to $2000 or 30% of system after all other incentives are applied Commercial tax credit of 30% of remaining cost of system after all other incentives are applied Only valid for systems purchased and installed between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2008 Tax credit is taken off of tax liability for the year. This generates an additional tax refund or a carry-over credit for up to five years

11 Additional Incentives Energy Efficiency Revolving Loan Fund Ohio Air Quality Development Authority Net Metering USDA Grants Independent Power Supply Peak Demand Shaving for Timeof-Day metering Marketing/PR Value

12 Photovoltaic cells convert sunlight into direct current (DC) electric energy. Variety of types & styles Non-mechanical, maintenance free year warranty Solar Array

13 Solar Power Expected Monthly Yield in kilowatt hours (kwh) Size of Solar PV system (kw) Average Daily Hours of Sun

14 Solar PV System Components PV power generation systems are made up of interconnected components. Equipment needed varies depending on the function of the system. Solar Array Inverter Charge Controller* Battery Bank* Balance of System Wire, Conduit Fusing, Grounding Meters, Monitors

15 Types of Systems Stand-Alone: Off-grid system with batteries provides electrical power needs and may have generator back-up Grid-Tie w/ Back-up: Versatile system provides battery back-up as well as grid-tie for supplemental power & selling back Direct Grid-Tie: Sends electricity directly into grid to offset consumption, net-meter or sell back to the utility. Most efficient operation.

16 Building Integrated Photovoltaics Integrating Solar PV Systems in Building Design Improves the security of the system. Addresses aesthetic and zoning limitations of traditional PV. Double as functional components. Commercial & industrial buildings with time of day metering can benefit greatly from peak load shaving provided by solar array.

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19 Sizing a Solar PV System Sizing is critical for battery-based systems which rely on solar input & energy storage. 1) Implement or plan efficiency measures 2) Determine watt/hrs. per day needed 3) Size battery bank and generator, if present 4) Determine the sun hours available per day 5) Size the solar array, inverter, etc. 6) Determine budget & timeline

20 Issues to Consider Does electric utility provider allow Net Metering? What loads, if any, need back up power from batteries? Do you have a good winter wind site to balance the summer solar? If so, consider a hybrid system. Size system for summer, average or winter sun?

21 Site Analysis Panels should be oriented within 15 degrees of True South Distance from panels to inverter should be less than 200 ft. due to wire resistance Avoid Shading Mount panels with access for cleaning and adjusting, if possible S

22 Mounting Options Roof Any material, flat or sloped roofs Solar PV Laminate requires standing seam metal or membrane Awning/Walkway Integrated in high exposure areas Ground Pole or Rack mounts Longfellow Elementary School in Westerville, OH

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26 Panel Angles Latitude is the panel s average angle: 40 degrees in Columbus, OH Summer = Latitude minus 15 degrees Fall/Spring = Latitude Winter = Latitude plus 15 degrees

27 Solar Electric Costs Complete systems installed: $8-14/watt 1 KW System: $10-15,000 2 KW System: $16-22,000 3 KW System: $24-30,000 4 KW System: $32-38,000 Solar panels: $5-7/watt, approx. 50% of total cost Installation: $1-2/Watt, 10-20% of total cost Inverter & Balance of System: $2-5/Watt, 30-40% of total cost

28 Wind Energy Most wind turbines begin generating power at 6-8 mph wind speeds Compare the power curves of a wind turbine to local wind speeds Most sites in the Midwest will average under 15 mph Look for a turbine with good production at wind speeds between 8 and 20 mph Power = wind velocity³(cubed)

29 New Ohio Wind Map

30 Wind Towers Tower height and location critical Wind speeds average 50% to 60% higher at 100 feet compared to ground level. Turbine should be 30 feet above highest obstruction within 300 feet Towers generally made of galvanized steel mounted on a concrete base

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32 Eoltec Scirocco Wind Turbine Performances Wind (m/s) P (kw) WT output power: The data represent the averaged output power of the WT for each wind speed, at sea level. These values are measured at the output of the grid inverter or battery charger in real condition, so they take in account the losses induced by the electronics devices. P (kw) Scirocco useful output power (kw) Wind speed (m/s) Estimated Annual 6 m/s = 16,000 kwh

33

34 Utility Scale Wind Turbines

35 Wind Power Costs Complete Systems Installed Turbine, Tower, Inverter, Balance of System 1kW System $10-15, kW System $21-32,000 10kW System $50-78, kW (2MW) turbines generally have a much lower cost per watt.

36

37 Solar Water Heating (Solar Thermal) Will meet most of a building s hot water needs. Can provide space heating and pool heating. Most affordable and cost effective solar energy investment.

38

39 Solar Thermal System Costs Complete System Installed Residential Hot Water $5-12,000 Residential Pool Heating $10-20,000 Residential Space Heating $10-20,000 Commercial project costs vary by design & size.

40 An Investment in Our Future! The value of a renewable energy system is more than the avoided costs on today s utility bills. Safe, clean, reliable energy gives peace of mind and saves resources for future generations. It is an investment in education and development. Payback economics must consider energy inflation energy costs in 20 years?. Establishes fixed energy cost for years. Power source available for next 5 billion years.

41 The Power to Change the World

42 Matthew Bennett NABCEP, GLREA Uni-Solar Certified (740) (440)

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