Types of X-ray Detectors. C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

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1 Types of X-ray Detectors C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

2 Types of X-ray Detectors Gas detectors C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

3 Types of X-ray Detectors Gas detectors Scintillation counters C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

4 Types of X-ray Detectors Gas detectors Scintillation counters Solid state detectors C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

5 Types of X-ray Detectors Gas detectors Scintillation counters Solid state detectors Charge coupled device detectors C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

6 Types of X-ray Detectors Gas detectors Ionization chamber Scintillation counters Solid state detectors Charge coupled device detectors C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

7 Types of X-ray Detectors Gas detectors Ionization chamber Proportional counter Scintillation counters Solid state detectors Charge coupled device detectors C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

8 Types of X-ray Detectors Gas detectors Ionization chamber Proportional counter Geiger-Muller tube Scintillation counters Solid state detectors Charge coupled device detectors C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

9 Types of X-ray Detectors Gas detectors Ionization chamber Proportional counter Geiger-Muller tube Scintillation counters Solid state detectors Intrinsic semiconductor Charge coupled device detectors C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

10 Types of X-ray Detectors Gas detectors Ionization chamber Proportional counter Geiger-Muller tube Scintillation counters Solid state detectors Intrinsic semiconductor P-I-N junction Charge coupled device detectors C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

11 Types of X-ray Detectors Gas detectors Ionization chamber Proportional counter Geiger-Muller tube Scintillation counters Solid state detectors Intrinsic semiconductor P-I-N junction Silicon drift Charge coupled device detectors C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

12 Types of X-ray Detectors Gas detectors Ionization chamber Proportional counter Geiger-Muller tube Scintillation counters Solid state detectors Intrinsic semiconductor P-I-N junction Silicon drift Charge coupled device detectors Indirect C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

13 Types of X-ray Detectors Gas detectors Ionization chamber Proportional counter Geiger-Muller tube Scintillation counters Solid state detectors Intrinsic semiconductor P-I-N junction Silicon drift Charge coupled device detectors Indirect Direct coupled C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

14 Gas Detector Curve C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

15 Ionization Chamber Useful for beam monitoring, flux measurement, fluorescence measurement, spectroscopy. C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

16 Ionization Chamber Useful for beam monitoring, flux measurement, fluorescence measurement, spectroscopy. Closed (or sealed) chamber of length L with gas mixture µ = ρ i µ i C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

17 Ionization Chamber Useful for beam monitoring, flux measurement, fluorescence measurement, spectroscopy. Closed (or sealed) chamber of length L with gas mixture µ = ρ i µ i High voltage applied to plates C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

18 Ionization Chamber Useful for beam monitoring, flux measurement, fluorescence measurement, spectroscopy. Closed (or sealed) chamber of length L with gas mixture µ = ρ i µ i High voltage applied to plates Calculate fraction of beam absorbed I /I o = e µl C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

19 Ionization Chamber Useful for beam monitoring, flux measurement, fluorescence measurement, spectroscopy. Closed (or sealed) chamber of length L with gas mixture µ = ρ i µ i High voltage applied to plates Calculate fraction of beam absorbed I /I o = e µl When x-ray interacts with gas atom, photoionized electrons swept rapidly to positive electrode and current (nano Amperes) is measured. C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

20 Ionization Chamber Useful for beam monitoring, flux measurement, fluorescence measurement, spectroscopy. Closed (or sealed) chamber of length L with gas mixture µ = ρ i µ i High voltage applied to plates Calculate fraction of beam absorbed I /I o = e µl When x-ray interacts with gas atom, photoionized electrons swept rapidly to positive electrode and current (nano Amperes) is measured. Count rates up to photons/s/cm 3 C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

21 Ionization Chamber Useful for beam monitoring, flux measurement, fluorescence measurement, spectroscopy. Closed (or sealed) chamber of length L with gas mixture µ = ρ i µ i High voltage applied to plates Calculate fraction of beam absorbed I /I o = e µl When x-ray interacts with gas atom, photoionized electrons swept rapidly to positive electrode and current (nano Amperes) is measured. Count rates up to photons/s/cm ev per electron-hole pair (depending on the gas) makes this useful for quantitative measurements. C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

22 Scintillation Counter Useful for photon counting experiments C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

23 Scintillation Counter Useful for photon counting experiments NaI(Tl), Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite (YAP) or plastic which, absorb x-rays and fluoresce in the visible spectrum. C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

24 Scintillation Counter Useful for photon counting experiments NaI(Tl), Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite (YAP) or plastic which, absorb x-rays and fluoresce in the visible spectrum. Light strikes a thin photocathode which emits electrons into the vacuum portion of a photomultiplier tube. C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

25 Scintillation Counter Useful for photon counting experiments NaI(Tl), Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite (YAP) or plastic which, absorb x-rays and fluoresce in the visible spectrum. Light strikes a thin photocathode which emits electrons into the vacuum portion of a photomultiplier tube. Photoelectrons are accelerated in steps, striking dynodes and becoming amplified. C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

26 Scintillation Counter Useful for photon counting experiments NaI(Tl), Yttrium Aluminum Perovskite (YAP) or plastic which, absorb x-rays and fluoresce in the visible spectrum. Light strikes a thin photocathode which emits electrons into the vacuum portion of a photomultiplier tube. Photoelectrons are accelerated in steps, striking dynodes and becoming amplified. Output voltage pulse is proportional to initial x-ray energy. C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

27 Solid State Detectors Open circuit p-n junction has a natural depletion region C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

28 Solid State Detectors Open circuit p-n junction has a natural depletion region When reverse biased, the depletion region grows C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

29 Solid State Detectors Open circuit p-n junction has a natural depletion region When reverse biased, the depletion region grows creating a higher electric field near the junction C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

30 Ge Detector Operation C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

31 Silicon Drift Detector Same principle as intrinsic or p-i-n detector but much more compact and operates at higher temperatures Relatively low stopping power is a drawback C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

32 CCD Detectors - Direct C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

33 CCD Detectors - Indirect C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

34 CCD Detectors - Lightpipe Taper C. Segre (IIT) PHYS Fall 2010 September 21, / 10

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