# Prioritization of Climate Change Adaptation Options. The Role of Cost-Benefit Analysis. Session 7: Conducting CBA Step 6

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1 Prioritization of Climate Change Adaptation Options The Role of Cost-Benefit Analysis Session 7: Conducting CBA Step 6 Accra (or nearby), Ghana October 25 to 28, 2016

2 8 steps Step 1: Define the scope of analysis. Step 2: Identify all potential physical impacts of the project. Step 3: Quantify the predicted impacts: With and without project Step 4: Monetize impacts. Step 5: Discount to find present value of costs and benefits. Step 6: Calculate net present value. Step 7: Perform expected value and/or sensitivity analysis. Step 8: Make recommendations.

3 Net Present Value: Net Present Value = PV of Benefits PV of Costs B t t t0 (1 r) t0 (1 r) = t t C = ( B C t t t t0 (1 r) ) Decision rule: Project is good if NPV is positive; or Choose project (or option) with the largest NPV.

4 Different calculation: Internal rate of return IRR is the value of the discount rate such that: ( B t C t t t0 (1 ) ) = 0 Decision rule: If > r then this is a good project; If < r then this is a bad project; Choose the project with the largest

5 NPV 0 Internal rate of return Discount rate

6 Different calculation: Benefit-cost ratio: B/C ratio is simply Decision rule: t0 t0 (1 (1 B r) C t t r) t t If If B/C ratio is greater than 1, then this is a good project; B/C ratio is less than 1, then this is a bad project.

7 Net Present Value: Net Present Value = PV of Benefits PV of Costs Decision rule: Project is good if NPV is positive; or Choose project (or option) with the largest NPV. Cost Benefit Ratio: Cost Benefit Ratio = PV of Benefits / PV of Costs Decision rule: Project is good if B/C is greater than 1; Choose project (or option) with the largest B/C ratio. Internal Rate of Return: Internal Rate of Return is the discount rate such that NPV equals zero. Decision rule: Project is good if IRR is larger than some target rate of return; Choose project (or option) with the largest IRR.

8 If there is only one project, or one activity to consider, then NPV, IRR, and B/C ratio will provide us with the same answer as to whether or not the project is good or not good for society.

9 If only one project: Decision to make: Is this a good project or not? All 3 criteria should give the same answer: If PV benefits > PV costs i.e. NPV > 0 Then it must be that B / C > 1 All 3 criteria yield the same answer. And it must be that IRR > Discount rate

10 If only one project: However, there could be problems with IRR. There could be more than one IRR. Descartes rule of signs: The number of IRR depends on the number of times the net benefits change signs. Net benefits NB change signs once: 1 IRR Net benefits NB change signs twice: 2 IRR

11 You may then have two IRRs. NPV 0 IRR 1 IRR 2 Discount rate Better to use NPV

12 If more than one project (mutually exclusive projects): If there is more than one project, or more than one activity, or more than one option and if we aim to rank these projects or activities or options to choose the best one(s), then it is better to use NPV. IRR and B/C ratio could lead us to choose the wrong project.

13 If more than one project (mutually exclusive projects): Decision to make: Which project to accept? Consider the following situation: PV of costs PV of benefits Project A Project B NPV vs. B/C ratio. Better to use NPV

14 If more than one project (mutually exclusive projects): Consider the following situation: Year Net Benefits Project A Net Benefits Project B NPV with r = 5% \$ \$ IRR 25% 20%

15 If more than one project (mutually exclusive projects): \$ \$ \$ \$ \$ \$0.00 (\$100.00) (\$200.00) Project A Project B

16 If more than one project (mutually exclusive projects): Consider the following situation: Year Net Benefits Project A Net Benefits Project B NPV with r = 5% \$ \$ IRR 25% 20% Better to use NPV

17 Always better to use NPV. NPV will always guide you to the correct decision.

18 Prioritization of Climate Change Adaptation Options The Role of Cost-Benefit Analysis Session 7: Conducting CBA Step 6 Accra (or nearby), Ghana October 25 to 28, 2016

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