Domestic Wastewater Treatment using Vetiver Grass Cultivated with Floating Platform Technique

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1 AU J.T. 12(2): 73-8 (Oct. 28) Domestic Wstewter Tretment using Vetiver Grss Cultivted with Floting Pltform Technique Knokporn Boonsong 1 nd Monchi Chnsiri 2 1 Deprtment of Generl Science, Fculty of Science, 2 Inter-Deprtment of Environment Science, Grdute School, Chullongkorn University, Bngkok, Thilnd Emil: Astrct This study ws imed to exmine the efficiencies of Vetiveri ziznioides (L.) Nsh cultivted with floting pltform technique to tret domestic wstewter. The study ws divided into three phses of eight weeks ech, using 7-, 5- nd 3-d hydrulic retention time (HRT), respectively. Two different control prmeters including vetiver ecotypes ( Songkhl 3, Surt Thni nd no plnt s control) nd wstewter strengths (HCW: high concentrtion wstewter, nd LCW: low concentrtion wstewter) were exmined. The verge HCW influent contined mg/l BOD (iochemicl oxygen demnd), mg/l TN (totl nitrogen) nd mg/l TP (totl phosphorus), wheres the verge of LWC were , nd mg/l, respectively. The results indicted tht the tretment efficiencies of different HRT nd wstewter concentrtions were significntly different. The 7-d HRT showed highest tretment efficiency. The tretment efficiencies of BOD, TN nd TP in HCW were higher thn in LCW, with the verge of , nd %, respectively. The tretment efficiencies of Songkhl 3 nd Surt Thni ecotypes were not significntly different. However, the tretment efficiencies of BOD nd TP of Surt Thni were slightly higher thn Songkhl 3. The iomss increment of Surt Thni in LCW ws higher thn in HCW, wheres Songkhl 3 showed the opposite trend. Thus, the overll results suggested tht the optiml condition of this technique should e designed t 7-d HRT nd plnted with Surt Thni ecotype. However, if wstewter contined high nutrients, Songkhl 3 ecotype should e plnted. Keywords: hydrulic retention time, ecotypes, Songkhl 3, Surt Thni, BOD, wstewter strengths. Introduction Domestic wstewter chrcteristiclly contins high level of orgnic mtter nd nutrients. The relese of nutrient-rich wstewter effluents into receiving rivers results in environmentl nd humn helth prolems such s eutrophiction in wter odies. Tretment of domestic wstewter hs minly een done using conventionl wstewter tretment systems such s ctivted sludge nd iologicl nutrient removl technologies. These technologies re expensive nd dependent on electricl energy nd skilled personnel. Currently, low-tech system like phytoremedition hs gined sustntil interest in its use for wstewter tretment nd resource recovery t low cost nd miniml mintennce. Vetiver grss (Vetiveri ziznioides (L.) Nsh), perennil grss, is fst growing grss with deep root system nd high iomss production. Due to its unique morphologicl chrcteristics nd its tolernce of dverse environmentl conditions, it hs een used effectively for wstewter tretment (Troung 23). V. ziznioides is not hydrophyte ut it prefers wet nd wterlogged hitt where it cn grow nd develop even though lrge portion of its shoots re sumerged for reltively long period, normlly in wter. Mny scientists hve confirmed tht vetiver grss is Regulr Pper 73

2 AU J.T. 12(2): 73-8 (Oct. 28) powerful to remove nitrogen nd phosphorus from wter nd, therefore, is good plnt for purifying eutrophic wter (Zheng, et l. 1997). The ojective of the present study were to: (1) compre the efficiencies of two vetiver ecotypes in treting domestic wstewter of different strengths using hydroponic technique, nd (2) determine the growth nd the degree of nutrient ccumultion in two vetiver ecotypes received different wstewter strengths. The results of this study hve een reported during the 31st Congress on Science nd Technology of Thilnd (Chnsiri nd Boonsong 25) nd the 4th Interntionl Conference on Vetiver (Boonsong nd Chnsiri 26). Mterils nd Methods The experiments were crried out under well-ventilted temporry greenhouse. The twelve plstic continers of.85 x 1.55 x.5 m 3 ech (width x length x height) were set up together with the inlet pipe nd vlve connected to the wter storge tnk. The wter depth ws mintined t.4 m. The outlet pipe ws plced t pproximtely 5 cm elow wter surfce. The continers were seprted into 3 groups, ech group ws plnted with Songkhl 3 nd Surt Thni ecotypes, nd no plnts s control. Two different domestic wstewter strengths, i.e. HCW: high concentrtion wstewter (which ws treted y screening) nd LCW: low concentrtion wstewter (which ws treted y neroic filter), were continuously distriuted to ech group. The fomed ord which dimension of.6 x 1.2 x.25 m 3 (width x length x height) ws plced on wter surfce s the floting pltform. Ech fomed ord, the sixty 4.5 cm dimeter holes with 1 x 1 cm 2 intervls were mde. Ech hole ws covered with sponge for holding vetiver. Similr-sized vetiver plnts were selected nd then pruned to 2 cm for the shoots (stems nd leves) nd 13.5 cm for the roots. Ech vetiver ws plnted onto hole in pltform. Thus, pproximtely 1 cm of roots were sumerged under wstewter. The experiment ws divided into 3 phses of 8 weeks ech using 7-, 5- nd 3-d hydrulic retention time (HRT). At the end of ech phse, the treted vetiver plnts were removed. The influent nd effluent were smpled t weekly intervl nd nlyzed for ph, DO (dissolved oxygen), BOD (iochemicl oxygen demnd), TN (totl nitrogen), nitrte-n, mmonium-n, TP (totl phosphorus) nd phosphte-p ccording to stndrd methods for wter nd wstewter nlysis (AWWA, WEF nd APHA 1998). The survivl rte nd iomss production of shoots nd roots were studied. In ddition, the concentrtions of TN nd TP ccumulted in shoots nd roots were determined ccording to stndrd methods (AOAC 23). The collected dt were treted with one wy nlysis of vrince (ANOVA) to test for the significnt difference etween wstewter strengths, vetiver ecotypes nd HRT. The Duncn s new multiple rnge test t 5% proility level were clculted. Results nd Discussion Influent Wstewter Qulity The verge DO concentrtions of oth HCW (high concentrtion wstewter) nd LCW (low concentrtion wstewter) were. mg/l. The BOD, TN, TP nd phosphte-p of HCW ( , , nd mg/l, respectively) were significntly higher thn LCW ( , , nd mg/l, respectively). In contrst, the concentrtions of mmonium-n nd nitrte-n of HCW ( nd mg/l) were generlly lower thn HCW ( , mg/l). This my e the result of low BOD concentrtion in LCW. Thus, t the erlier stge, the supply of DO ws still ville for mmonifiction nd nitrifiction processes, resulting in incresed of mmonium-n nd nitrte-n concentrtions. DO Increment nd BOD, TN nd TP Removl fter Tretment The effluent DO of 7-, 5- nd 3-d HRT were significntly different, rnging from , nd mg/l, respectively. During the 3-d HRT, the effluent Regulr Pper 74

3 AU J.T. 12(2): 73-8 (Oct. 28) DO of experimentl sets plnted with Songkhl 3 nd Surt Thni were higher thn control sets. Wheres during the 7-d HRT, the control sets showed higher effluent DO. This indicted tht the min fctor influenced the rising of DO during the limit HRT ws oxygen trnsloction through the root system of vetiver. Wheres the ertion y wind nd lgl photosynthesis should e the min fctors during long HRT resulted in much higher DO in control sets which hve no plnt to inhiit wind nd sunlight to penetrte to wter column. Generlly, the effluent DO in HCW system ( mg/l) ws lower thn LCW ( mg/l) since the ville DO in HCW system my e consumed in eroic decomposition of orgnic mtter. The verge BOD removl efficiency of 7-d HRT ws significntly higher thn 5- nd 3-d HRT, rnging from , nd %, respectively. The longer HRT yielded higher DO which resulted in high eroic decomposition rte of orgnic mtter. The removl efficiency of HCW system ws significntly higher thn LCW, rnging from nd %, respectively. Generlly Surt Thni yield higher BOD removl efficiency thn Songkhl 3 with the vlues of nd % respectively. Moreover, experiment sets plnted with vetiver hd higher BOD removl efficiency thn the control sets especilly during the 5- nd 3-d HRT. This oviously indicted the eneficil effect of vetiver. The verge TN nd mmonium-n removl efficiencies were nd %, respectively. The TN removl efficiencies of Songkhl 3 nd Surt Thni ecotypes were similr. Moreover, the efficiencies of experiment sets plnted with vetiver were oviously higher thn the control sets, especilly during 5- nd 3-d HRT. This fct indicted tht if limit HRT ws pplied, plnting with vetiver would e very eneficil. The removl efficiencies significntly incresed with HRT, rnging from , nd % for 3-, 5- nd 7- d HRT. Moreover, the efficiency in HCW system ws significntly higher thn LCW system (Fig. 1). The phosphorus in wstewter my e removed through sedimenttion nd uril, dsorption nd precipittion, nd exchnge process etween soil nd overlying wter column. However, the hydroponic technique (without soil) tht ws used in this experiment yielded low phosphorus removl efficiency compred to other studies. The verge TP nd phosphte-p removl efficiencies were rnging from nd %, respectively. The TP removl efficiencies of Songkhl 3 nd Surt Thni ecotypes were similr. But Surt Thni ecotype tended to yield slightly higher efficiencies. Moreover, the efficiency of experiment sets plnted with vetiver plnts were significntly higher thn control sets since they could sor phosphte- P nd their roots could slow wter velocity, thus incresed sedimenttion of orgnic phosphorus. The removl efficiencies significntly incresed with HRT, rnging from , nd % for 3-, 5- nd 7-d HRT. Moreover, the efficiency in HCW system ws significntly higher thn LCW system (Fig. 2). Survivl Rte, Biomss nd Nutrient Accumultion of Vetiver After eight weeks of ech experiment, the survivl percentges of Surt Thni nd Songkhl 3 ecotypes were rnging from 75-1%. The survivl percentge during 3-d HRT ws lower thn 7- nd 5-d HRT. This my e the result of low oxygen ville, thus, resulting in retrding respirtion nd ion sorption of vetiver. Moreover, the survivl percentge of vetiver plnted in LCW tended to e slightly higher thn in HCW. According to root iomss, there ws tendency tht the increment of root iomss of Surt Thni ecotype plnted in oth HCW nd LCW ws higher thn Songkhl 3. This indicted tht Surt Thni ecotype could develop etter root system. Thus, higher mounts of phosphorus which ws mcronutrient needed for root development ws required. As result, higher TP removl efficiencies were chieved s mentioned previously. Regrding to shoot iomss, Songkhl 3 plnted in HCW tended to hve Regulr Pper 75

4 AU J.T. 12(2): 73-8 (Oct. 28) higher shoot iomss thn Surt Thni nd thn those plnted in LCW. On the other hnd, Surt Thni plnted in LWC showed higher shoot nd root iomss. The TN ccumultion in shoots of Songkhl 3 nd Surt Thni ( nd mg/g dry wt., respectively) were lower thn the ccumultion in roots ( nd mg/d dry wt., respectively), possily due to the smll size of vetiver in this study. As result, smll mount of TN ws needed for the growth of stems nd leves. When compring etween vetiver ecotypes, Songkhl 3 plnted in HCW showed higher TN ccumultion in shoots nd roots thn Surt Thni In contrst, Surt Thni plnted in LCW showed higher ccumultion thn Songkhl 3. Effi ciency (%) HRT () HCW HRT () LCW. Songkhl 3; Surt Thni; Control c Songkhl3 Surt Thni Control (c) HCW. c c c c c (d) LCW. 7-d HRT; 5-d HRT; 3-d HRT Note: Letters denote the significnt difference mong HRT t p = Songkhl3 Surt Thni Control (e) 7-d HRT. Songkhl3 Surt Thni Control (f) 5-d HRT. Songkhl3 Surt Thni Control (g) 3-d HRT. HCW; LCW Note: Letters denote the significnt difference mong wstewter concentrtions t p =.5. Fig. 1 Comprison of totl nitrogen removl efficiencies mong fctors: ()-() vetiver ecotypes; (c)-(d) HRT; (e)-(g) wstewter concentrtions. Regulr Pper 76

5 AU J.T. 12(2): 73-8 (Oct. 28) Effici ency (%) HRT () HCW HRT () LCW. Songkhl 3; Surt Thni; Control Note: Letters denote the significnt difference mong vetiver ecotypes t p =.5. Effi ciency (%) Effi ciency (%) Songkhl3 Surt Thni Control (c) HCW. Songkhl3 Surt Thni Control c Efficie ncy (%) Efficie ncy (%) Songkhl3 Surt Thni Control (e) 7-d HRT. Songkhl3 Surt Thni Control (f) 5-d HRT. Songkhl3 Surt Thni Control (g) 3-d HRT. HCW; LCW Note: Letters denote the significnt difference mong wstewter concentrtions t p =.5. Fig. 2. Comprison of totl phosphorus removl efficiencies mong fctors: ()-() vetiver ecotypes; (c)-(d) HRT; (e)-(g) wstewter concentrtions. (d) LCW. 7-d HRT; 5-d HRT; 3-d HRT Note: Letters denote the significnt difference mong HRT t p =.5. Regulr Pper 77

6 AU J.T. 12(2): 73-8 (Oct. 28) Plte 1. The experimentl sets t the strting period under temporry greenhouse. () dy. () 2 dys. (c) dys. (d) 6 dys. Plte 2. The growth of vetiver grss t, 2, nd 6 dys. Regulr Pper 78

7 AU J.T. 12(2): 73-8 (Oct. 28) Plte 3. Root nd shoot fter the tretment experiment. The TP ccumultion in shoots of Songkhl 3 nd Surt Thni ( nd mg/d dry wt., respectively) were lower thn the ccumultion in roots ( nd mg/d dry weight, respectively). Generlly Surt Thni yielded higher vlues thn Songkhl 3. This result correlted to higher TP nd phosphte-p tretment efficiencies of Surt Thni thn Songkhl 3. When compring etween HRT, the TN nd TP ccumultions in roots during 7-d HRT ws higher thn 3- nd 5-d HRT, respectively. But no ovious trend ws oserved in TN nd TP ccumultions in shoots. Conclusions The results from this present study using hydroponic technique indicted tht even tretment efficiencies of nitrogen nd phosphorus were low compre to other studies which hd soils s medi, vetiver showed good potentil to e used in situ to tret domestic wstewter. The 7-d HRT time posted highest tretment efficiencies. The tretment efficiencies of BOD, TN nd TP incresed with concentrtions which indicted high potentil of vetiver to tret HCW. In ddition, the tretment efficiencies of BOD nd TP of Surt Thni ecotype were slightly higher thn Songkhl 3 ecotype. The results closely correlted with the study of growth which found tht Surt Thni could develop etter root system thn Songkhl 3 in oth HCW nd LCW. As result, it sored higher mount of phosphte-p for root development. The results closely correlted with the study of growth which found tht Songkhl 3 plnted in HCW tended to hve higher shoot iomss nd nitrogen ccumultion. In conclusion, the optiml condition of this ppliction should e designed t 7-d HRT nd plnted with Surt Thni ecotype. However, if wstewter contined high nutrients, Songkhl 3 ecotype should e plnted in sted. References AOAC. 23. Officil methods of nlysis of AOAC Interntionl. 17th edition (2nd revision). Assocition of Officil Anlyticl Chemists, Arlington, VA, USA. AWWA, WEF nd APHA Stndrd method for the exmintion of wter nd wstewter. 2th edition. Americn Pulic Helth Assocition, Wshington, DC, USA. Boonsong, K.; nd Chnsiri, M. 26. Efficiency of vetiver grss cultivted with floting pltform technique in domestic wstewter tretment. Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Vetiver (ICV-4), Pper BA2, Fundción Empress Polr, Crcs, Venezuel, Octoer 26. Chnsiri, M.; nd Boonsong, K. 25. Efficiency of vetiver grss (Vetiveri ziznioides (L.) Nsh) cultivted with floting pltform technique in municipl wstewter tretment. Proc. 31st Congress Regulr Pper 79

8 AU J.T. 12(2): 73-8 (Oct. 28) on Science nd Technology of Thilnd (STT 25), Pper H41, Surnree University of Technology, Nkorn Rtchsim, Thilnd, 18-2 Octoer 25. Truong, P. 23. Vetiver system for wter qulity improvement. Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Vetiver (ICV-3), Gungzhou, Chin, 6-9 Octoer 23. Aville: Proceedings/AUS Wter%2 qulity.pdf Zheng, C.; Tu, C.; nd Chen, H Preliminry study on purifiction of eutrophic wter with vetiver. Proc. Int. Vetiver Workshop, Fuzhou, Chin, Octoer Regulr Pper 8

Treatment Spring Late Summer Fall 0.10 5.56 3.85 0.61 6.97 3.01 1.91 3.01 2.13 2.99 5.33 2.50 1.06 3.53 6.10 Mean = 1.33 Mean = 4.88 Mean = 3.

Treatment Spring Late Summer Fall 0.10 5.56 3.85 0.61 6.97 3.01 1.91 3.01 2.13 2.99 5.33 2.50 1.06 3.53 6.10 Mean = 1.33 Mean = 4.88 Mean = 3. The nlysis of vrince (ANOVA) Although the t-test is one of the most commonly used sttisticl hypothesis tests, it hs limittions. The mjor limittion is tht the t-test cn be used to compre the mens of only

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