# MINI LESSON. Lesson 5b Solving Quadratic Equations

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 MINI LESSON Lesson 5b Solving Quadratic Equations Lesson Objectives By the end of this lesson, you should be able to: 1. Determine the number and type of solutions to a QUADRATIC EQUATION by graphing 2. Identify solutions to QUADRATIC EQUATIONS in standard form as x-intercepts of the parabola 3. Solve QUADRATIC EQUATIONS by factoring (and check by graphing) 4. Solve QUADRATIC EQUATIONS using the QUADRATIC FORMULA 5. Identify members of the set of COMPLEX NUMBERS 6. Perform operations with COMPLEX NUMBERS Number and Types of Solutions to Quadratic Equations in Standard Form There are three possible cases for the number of solutions to a quadratic equation in standard form. Note that Standard Form just means the equation is set = 0 (see next page for more formal definition). CASE 1: Parabola: Touches the x-axis in just one location (i.e. only the vertex touches the x-axis) One, repeated, real number solution Example: (x - 2) 2 = 0 CASE 2: Parabola: Crosses the x-axis in two unique locations. Two, unique, real number solutions Example: x 2 4x 5 = 0 CASE 3: Parabola: Does NOT cross the x-axis No real number solutions but two, complex number solutions (explained later in the lesson) Example: 2x 2 + x + 1 = 0

2 REMINDER: A QUADRATIC FUNCTION is a function of the form f(x) = ax 2 +bx+c A QUADRATIC EQUATION in STANDARD FORM is an equation of the form ax 2 +bx+c = 0 Problem 1 MEDIA EXAMPLE HOW MANY AND WHAT KIND OF SOLUTIONS Use your graphing calculator to help you determine the number and type of solutions to each of the quadratic equations below. Begin by putting the equations into standard form. Drawn an accurate sketch of the parabola indicating the window you used. IF your solutions are real number solutions, use the graphing INTERSECT method to find them. Use proper notation to write the solutions and the x-intercepts of the parabola. Label the x-intercepts on your graph. a) x 2 10x + 25 = 0 b) -2x 2 + 8x 3 = 0 c) 3x 2 2x = -5 How are Solutions to a Quadratic Equation connected to X-Intercepts of the parabola? If the quadratic equation ax 2 +bx+c = 0 has real number solutions x1 and x2, then the x-intercepts of f(x) = ax 2 +bx+c are (x1, 0) and (x2, 0). Note that if a parabola does not cross the x-axis, then its solutions lie in the complex number system and we say that it has no real x-intercepts. 2

3 Problem 2 YOU TRY HOW MANY AND WHAT KIND OF SOLUTIONS Use your graphing calculator to help you determine the number and type of solutions to each of the quadratic equations below. Begin by putting the equations into standard form. Drawn an accurate sketch of the parabola indicating the window you used. IF your solutions are real number solutions, use the graphing INTERSECT method to find them. Use proper notation to write the solutions and the x-intercepts of the parabola. Label the x-intercepts on your graph. a) -x 2-6x - 9 = 0 b) 3x 2 + 5x + 20 = 0 c) 2x 2 + 5x = 7 3

4 Solving Quadratic Equations by Factoring So far, we have only used our graphing calculators to solve quadratic equations utilizing the Intersection process. There are other methods to solve quadratic equations. The first method we will discuss is the method of FACTORING. Before we jump into this process, you need to have some concept of what it means to FACTOR using numbers that are more familiar. Factoring Whole Numbers If I asked you to FACTOR the number 60, you could write down a variety of different responses some of which are below: 60 = 1 x 60 (not very interesting but true) 60 = 2 x = 3 x = 4 x 3 x 5 All of these are called FACTORIZATIONS of 60 meaning to write 60 as a product of some of the numbers that divide it evenly. If I wanted you to all get the same factorization of 60, then I would ask you to write 60 as a product of its prime factors (remember that prime numbers are only divisible by themselves and 1). So, you should all come up with the exact same list of numbers (though your order might be different). 60 = 2 x 2 x 3 x 5 There is only one PRIME FACTORIZATION of 60 so we can now say that 60 is COMPLETELY FACTORED when we write it as 60 = 2 x 2 x 3 x 5. 4

5 How does the above apply to what we are doing now? What we are working with now are QUADRATICS which are polynomials of degree 2. Polynomials are built of terms separated by + and combined together into an expression. When we set an expression equal to something, we get an equation. Terms: 3x 2, 6x Quadratic expression: 3x 2 + 6x (also called a binomial a polynomial with 2 terms) Quadratic equation: 3x 2 + 6x = 0 Factoring Quadratic Expressions and Solving Quadratic Equations by Factoring (Factoring using Greatest Common Factor Method) If I asked you to FACTOR 3x 2 + 6x, you may not have any idea of how to begin but think back to the whole number example with 60. Let s look at the building blocks of 3x 2 + 6x. The building blocks are the terms 3x 2 and 6x. Do these terms have FACTORS in common? Yes. Namely (3x) is common to both and 3x is the GREATEST COMMON FACTOR to both terms. 3x 2 = (3x)(x) and 6x = (3x)(2) Therefore, 3x is a common FACTOR to both terms and I can use sort of a reverse distribution process to write 3x 2 + 6x = (3x)(x + 2) I can always check my factorization by distributing back to see if I have all the pieces correct. If my (3x) and my (x + 2) have no other factors in common other than 1, then I say that 3x 2 + 6x = (3x)(x + 2) is in COMPLETELY FACTORED FORM (and notice that the two factors are both linear meaning first degree) How do I use this factored form to solve quadratic equations? To solve 3x 2 + 6x = 0, first, I FACTOR the left side to get (3x)(x + 2) = 0 Then, I set each linear factor to 0 to get Then, I solve each linear equation to get 3x = 0 OR x + 2 = 0 x = 0 OR x = -2 Therefore, the solutions to 3x 2 + 6x = 0 are x = 0 or x = -2. If I graphed the parabola 3x 2 + 6x, I should see that it crosses the x-axis at (0, 0) and (-2, 0). 5

6 Problem 3 WORKED EXAMPLE SOLVE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS BY FACTORING (GCF) Use the method discussed on the previous page, Factoring using the GCF, to solve each of the quadratic equations below. Verify your result by graphing and using the Intersection method. a) Solve by factoring: 5x 2-10x = 0 One way you can recognize that GCF is a good method to try is if you are given 2 terms only (called a BINOMIAL). This will be more important when we have other factoring methods to try and quadratics with more terms. Step 1: Make sure the quadratic is in standard form (check!). Step 2: Check if there is a common factor, other than 1, for each term (yes 5x is common to both terms) Step 3: Write the left side in Completely Factored Form 5x 2-10x = 0 (5x)(x - 2) = 0 Step 4: Set each linear factor to 0 and solve for x: 5x = 0 OR x 2 = 0 x = 0 OR x = 2 Step 5: Verify result by graphing (Let Y1 = 5x 2-10x, Y2 = 0, zoom:6 for standard window then 2 nd >Calc>Intersect (two separate times) to verify solutions are x = 0 and x = 2). Step 6: Write final solutions (usually separated by a comma): x = 0, 2 b) Solve by factoring: -2x 2 = 8x Step 1: Make sure the quadratic is in standard form (need to rewrite as -2x 2-8x = 0) Step 2: Check if there is a common factor, other than 1, for each term (yes -2x is common to both terms note that you can also use 2x but easier to pull the negative out with the 2x) Step 3: Write the left side in Completely Factored Form -2x 2-8x = 0 (-2x)(x + 4) = 0 Step 4: Set each linear factor to 0 and solve for x: -2x = 0 OR x + 4 = 0 x = 0 OR x = -4 Step 5: Verify result by graphing (Let Y1 = -2x 2-8x, Y2 = 0, zoom:6 for standard window then 2 nd >Calc>Intersect (two separate times) to verify solutions are x = 0 and x = -4). Step 6: Write final solutions (usually separated by a comma): x = 0, -4 6

7 Problem 4 MEDIA EXAMPLE SOLVE QUADRATIC EQUNS BY TRIAL/ERROR FACTORING Use the Trial and Error Factoring Method to solve each of the quadratic equations below. Verify your result by graphing the quadratic part of the equation and looking at where it crosses the x-axis. a) Solve x 2 + 3x + 2 = 0 b) Solve x 2 x 6 = 0 c) Solve 2x 2 5x 3 = 0 7

8 Problem 5 WORKED EXAMPLE SOLVE QUADRATIC EQUNS BY TRIAL/ERROR FACTORING Use the Trial and Error Factoring Method to solve each of the quadratic equations below. Verify your result by graphing the quadratic part of the equation and looking at where it crosses the x-axis. a) Solve x 2 + x - 6 = 0 Step 1: Make sure the equation is in standard form (check!). Step 2: Can we use GCF method? If no common factor other than one then no (can t use here). Step 3: Try to factor the left side by Trial and Error Factor x 2 + x - 6 = (x + 3)(x 2) and check by Foiling to be sure your answer is correct. Check: (x + 3)(x 2)= x 2 2x + 3x 6 = x 2 + x 6 (checks!) Step 4: Write the factored form of the quadratic then set each factor to 0 and solve for x. (x + 3)(x 2)=0 so x + 3 = 0 or x 2 = 0 x = -3 or x = 2 are the solutions to x 2 + x - 6 = 0. Can also write as x = -3, 2 Note: Be sure to graph x 2 + x - 6 and verify it crosses the x-axis at -3 and at 2. b) Solve x 2 4x 32 = 0 Steps 1 and 2: In standard form (check!) and no GCF other than 1. Step 3: Trial and error factoring of left side to get x 2 4x 32= (x 8)(x + 4). Check (x 8)(x + 4) = x 2 + 4x 8x 32 = x 2 4x 32 Step 4: Write the factored form of the quadratic then set each factor to 0 and solve for x. (x 8)(x + 4)= 0 so x 8 = 0 or x + 4 = 0. Therefore x = 8 or x = -4. Solutions to x 2 4x 32 = 0 are x = 8, -4. Verify by graphing. c) Solve 2x 2 + 7x =15 Steps 1, 2: Standard form is 2x 2 + 7x 15 = 0 and no GCF other than 1. Step 3: Use Trial and Error to Factoring of the left side to get 2x 2 + 7x 15 = (2x 3)(x + 5) Check by FOIL to verify correct factoring. Step 4: Write the factored form of the quadratic then set each factor to 0 and solve for x. (2x 3)(x + 5)= 0 so 2x 3 = 0 or x + 5 = 0. Therefore x = 3/2 or x = -5. Solutions to 2x 2 + 7x =15 are x = 3/2, -5. Verify by graphing. 8

9 Problem 6 YOU TRY SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS: GCF and Trial/Error Use an appropriate factoring method to solve each of the quadratic equations below. Verify your result by graphing and using the Intersection method. a) Solve 2x 2 + 6x = 0 [Hint: Use GCF] b) Solve x 2 + 3x 10 = 0 c) Solve 2x 2-3x = 2 9

11 Problem 7 WORKED EXAMPLE SOLVE QUADRATIC EQUNS USING QUADRATIC FORMULA Solve the quadratic equation by using the Quadratic Formula. Verify your result by graphing and using the Intersection method. Solve 3x 2 2 = -x using the quadratic formula. a. Set to zero and write in standard form 3x 2 + x - 2 = 0 b. Identify a = 3, b = 1, and c = -2 c. x = "(1) ± (1)2 " 4(3)("2) 2(3) = "1 ± 1 " ("24) 6 = "1 ± = "1 ± 25 6 d. Make computations for x1 and x2 as below and note the complete simplification process: " So, x 1 = = "1+ 5 = = 2 3 x 2 = "1 " 25 6 = "1" 5 6 = " 6 6 = "1 Final solution x = 2, x = -1 (be sure to verify graphically you may also need to obtain a decimal 3 approximation for a given value depending on how you are asked to leave your final answer) Graphical verification of Solution x = 2 3 Graphical verification of Solution x = -1 [Note that 2 3! ] You can see by the graphs above that this equation is an example of the Case 2 possibility of two, unique real number solutions for a given quadratic equation. 11

12 Problem 8 MEDIA EXAMPLE SOLVE QUADRATIC EQUNS USING QUADRATIC FORMULA Solve each quadratic equation by using the Quadratic Formula. Verify your result by graphing and using the Intersection method. Quadratic Formula: x = "b ± b2 " 4ac 2a a) Solve -x 2 +3x + 10 = 0 b) Solve 2x 2 4x = 3 12

14 COMPLEX NUMBER SYSTEM Complex Numbers all numbers of the form a + bi where a, b are real numbers and Examples: 3 + 4i, 2 + (-3)I, 0 + 2i, 3 + 0i Real Numbers all the numbers on the REAL NUMBER LINE include all RATIONAL NUMBERS and IRRATIONAL NUMBERS Rational Numbers ratios of integers decimals that terminate or repeat Examples: 0.50 = 1 2,! = , Integers Zero, Counting Numbers and their negatives { -7, -6, -5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,..} Whole Numbers Counting Numbers and Zero {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,..} Counting Numbers {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7,..}, Irrational Numbers Examples:!, e, 5, 47 Decimal representations for these numbers never terminate and never repeat

15 Problem 9 WORKED EXAMPLE OPERATIONS WITH COMPLEX NUMBERS Simplify each of the following and write in the form a + bi a) "16 = "1 16 = 4 "1 = 0 + 4i b) (3 2i) (4 + i) = 3-2i 4 - i = -1-3i [Notice this is SUBTRACTION and not FOIL] c) (2 + i)(4 2i) = 8 4i + 4i 2i 2 = 8 2(-1) = = i [This one is FOIL. You can also just enter (2 + i)(4 2i) on your calculator if you put your calculator in a + bi mode. To work with i on your calculator, press MODE then change REAL to a+bi by using your arrow keys. The i button is on the bottom row. Problem 10 MEDIA EXAMPLE OPERATIONS WITH COMPLEX NUMBERS Simplify each of the following and write in the form a + bi. To work with i on your calculator, press MODE then change REAL to a+bi by using your arrow keys. The i button is on the bottom row. a) (2 3i) (4 + 2i) = b) 4i(5 2i) = c) (2 i)(1 + i) = 15

16 Work through the following to see how to deal with equations that can only be solved in the Complex Number System. Problem 11 WORKED EXAMPLE SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUNS - COMPLEX SOLUTIONS Solve 2x 2 + x + 1= 0 for x. Leave results in the form of a complex number, a+bi. First, graph the two equations as Y1 and Y2 in your calculator and view the number of times the graph crosses the x-axis. The graph below shows that the graph of y = 2x 2 + x + 1 does not cross the x-axis at all. This is an example of our Case 3 possibility and will result in no Real Number solutions but two unique Complex Number Solutions. To find the solutions, make sure the equation is in standard form (check). Identify the coefficients a = 2, b = 1, c = 1. Insert these into the quadratic formula and simplify as follows: x =!1± 12! 4(2)(1) 2(2)!1± 1!8!1±!7 = = 4 4 Break this into two solutions and use the a+bi form to get!1+!7 x 1 = =! !7 4 =! i 7 4 =! i and x 2 =!1!!7 4 =! 1 4!!7 4 =! 1 4! i 7 4 =! 1 4! 7 4 i So, the final solutions are x1 =! i,!!x 2 =! 1 4! 7 4 i Remember that so "1 = i "7 = i 7 16

17 Work through the following problem to put the solution methods of graphing, factoring and quadratic formula together while working with the same equation. Problem 12 YOU TRY SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Given the quadratic equation x 2 + 3x 10 = 0, solve using the processes indicated below. a) Solve by graphing (use your calculator and the Intersection process). Draw a good graph, label the x-intercepts, and list your final solutions using proper notation. b) Solve by factoring. Show all steps as previously seen in this lesson. Clearly identify your final solutions. c) Solve using the Quadratic Formula. Clearly identify your final solutions. 17

18 ANSWERS YOU TRY PROBLEMS You Try Prob 2: a) 1 repeated real solution, x = -3 b) no real solution c) 2 real solutions, x = -3.5, 1 You Try Prob 6: a) x = 0, -3 b) x = 2, -5 c) x = -1/2, 2 You Try Prob 12: a, b, and c All solutions are x=2, -5 18

### Practice Problems. Lesson 5b - Solving Quadratic Equations

1. Use your graphing calculator to help you determine the number type of solutions to each of the quadratic equations below. a) Begin by putting the equations into stard form. b) Drawn an accurate sketch

### The x-intercepts of the graph are the x-values for the points where the graph intersects the x-axis. A parabola may have one, two, or no x-intercepts.

Chapter 10-1 Identify Quadratics and their graphs A parabola is the graph of a quadratic function. A quadratic function is a function that can be written in the form, f(x) = ax 2 + bx + c, a 0 or y = ax

MA 134 Lecture Notes August 20, 2012 Introduction The purpose of this lecture is to... Introduction The purpose of this lecture is to... Learn about different types of equations Introduction The purpose

Section 5.4 The Quadratic Formula 481 5.4 The Quadratic Formula Consider the general quadratic function f(x) = ax + bx + c. In the previous section, we learned that we can find the zeros of this function

### FACTORING QUADRATICS 8.1.1 and 8.1.2

FACTORING QUADRATICS 8.1.1 and 8.1.2 Chapter 8 introduces students to quadratic equations. These equations can be written in the form of y = ax 2 + bx + c and, when graphed, produce a curve called a parabola.

### CHAPTER 2: POLYNOMIAL AND RATIONAL FUNCTIONS

CHAPTER 2: POLYNOMIAL AND RATIONAL FUNCTIONS 2.01 SECTION 2.1: QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (AND PARABOLAS) PART A: BASICS If a, b, and c are real numbers, then the graph of f x = ax2 + bx + c is a parabola, provided

### 1.1 Solving a Linear Equation ax + b = 0

1.1 Solving a Linear Equation ax + b = 0 To solve an equation ax + b = 0 : (i) move b to the other side (subtract b from both sides) (ii) divide both sides by a Example: Solve x = 0 (i) x- = 0 x = (ii)

### CHAPTER 2: POLYNOMIAL AND RATIONAL FUNCTIONS

CHAPTER 2: POLYNOMIAL AND RATIONAL FUNCTIONS 2.01 SECTION 2.1: QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS (AND PARABOLAS) PART A: BASICS If a, b, and c are real numbers, then the graph of f x = ax2 + bx + c is a parabola, provided

Definition of the Quadratic Formula The Quadratic Formula uses the a, b and c from numbers; they are the "numerical coefficients"., where a, b and c are just The Quadratic Formula is: For ax 2 + bx + c

### MATH 65 NOTEBOOK CERTIFICATIONS

MATH 65 NOTEBOOK CERTIFICATIONS Review Material from Math 60 2.5 4.3 4.4a Chapter #8: Systems of Linear Equations 8.1 8.2 8.3 Chapter #5: Exponents and Polynomials 5.1 5.2a 5.2b 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6a 5.7a 1

### Algebra Revision Sheet Questions 2 and 3 of Paper 1

Algebra Revision Sheet Questions and of Paper Simple Equations Step Get rid of brackets or fractions Step Take the x s to one side of the equals sign and the numbers to the other (remember to change the

### First Degree Equations First degree equations contain variable terms to the first power and constants.

Section 4 7: Solving 2nd Degree Equations First Degree Equations First degree equations contain variable terms to the first power and constants. 2x 6 = 14 2x + 3 = 4x 15 First Degree Equations are solved

### This unit has primarily been about quadratics, and parabolas. Answer the following questions to aid yourselves in creating your own study guide.

COLLEGE ALGEBRA UNIT 2 WRITING ASSIGNMENT This unit has primarily been about quadratics, and parabolas. Answer the following questions to aid yourselves in creating your own study guide. 1) What is the

### COGNITIVE TUTOR ALGEBRA

COGNITIVE TUTOR ALGEBRA Numbers and Operations Standard: Understands and applies concepts of numbers and operations Power 1: Understands numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers,

### In this lesson you will learn to find zeros of polynomial functions that are not factorable.

2.6. Rational zeros of polynomial functions. In this lesson you will learn to find zeros of polynomial functions that are not factorable. REVIEW OF PREREQUISITE CONCEPTS: A polynomial of n th degree has

### Solving Quadratic Equations by Completing the Square

9. Solving Quadratic Equations by Completing the Square 9. OBJECTIVES 1. Solve a quadratic equation by the square root method. Solve a quadratic equation by completing the square. Solve a geometric application

### 2.3. Finding polynomial functions. An Introduction:

2.3. Finding polynomial functions. An Introduction: As is usually the case when learning a new concept in mathematics, the new concept is the reverse of the previous one. Remember how you first learned

### ) represents the original function, will a, r 1

Transformations of Quadratic Functions Focus on Content: Download Problem Sets Problem Set #1 1. In the graph below, the quadratic function displayed on the right has been reflected over the y-axis producing

### Algebra I Pacing Guide Days Units Notes 9 Chapter 1 ( , )

Algebra I Pacing Guide Days Units Notes 9 Chapter 1 (1.1-1.4, 1.6-1.7) Expressions, Equations and Functions Differentiate between and write expressions, equations and inequalities as well as applying order

### NSM100 Introduction to Algebra Chapter 5 Notes Factoring

Section 5.1 Greatest Common Factor (GCF) and Factoring by Grouping Greatest Common Factor for a polynomial is the largest monomial that divides (is a factor of) each term of the polynomial. GCF is the

Name: Period: 10.1 Notes-Graphing Quadratics Section 1: Identifying the vertex (minimum/maximum), the axis of symmetry, and the roots (zeros): State the maximum or minimum point (vertex), the axis of symmetry,

### Norwalk La Mirada Unified School District. Algebra Scope and Sequence of Instruction

1 Algebra Scope and Sequence of Instruction Instructional Suggestions: Instructional strategies at this level should include connections back to prior learning activities from K-7. Students must demonstrate

### x button, the number 13, close

Calculator Skills: Know the difference between the negative button (by the decimal point) and the subtraction button (above the plus sign). Know that your calculator automatically does order of operations,

### Actually, if you have a graphing calculator this technique can be used to find solutions to any equation, not just quadratics. All you need to do is

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Definition ax 2 + bx + c = 0 a, b, c are constants (generally integers) Roots Synonyms: Solutions or Zeros Can have 0, 1, or 2 real roots Consider the graph of quadratic equations.

### Zeros of Polynomial Functions

Review: Synthetic Division Find (x 2-5x - 5x 3 + x 4 ) (5 + x). Factor Theorem Solve 2x 3-5x 2 + x + 2 =0 given that 2 is a zero of f(x) = 2x 3-5x 2 + x + 2. Zeros of Polynomial Functions Introduction

### ALGEBRA 2: 4.1 Graph Quadratic Functions in Standard Form

ALGEBRA 2: 4.1 Graph Quadratic Functions in Standard Form Goal Graph quadratic functions. VOCABULARY Quadratic function A function that can be written in the standard form y = ax 2 + bx+ c where a 0 Parabola

### Math 2: Algebra 2, Geometry and Statistics Ms. Sheppard-Brick Chapter 3 Test Review

Math 2: Algebra 2, Geometry and Statistics Ms. Sheppard-Brick 617.596.4133 http://lps.lexingtonma.org/page/2434 Name: Date: Students Will Be Able To: Chapter 3 Test Review Use the quadratic formula to

Table of Contents Sequence List 368-102215 Level 1 Level 5 1 A1 Numbers 0-10 63 H1 Algebraic Expressions 2 A2 Comparing Numbers 0-10 64 H2 Operations and Properties 3 A3 Addition 0-10 65 H3 Evaluating

### Mathematics Chapter 8 and 10 Test Summary 10M2

Quadratic expressions and equations Expressions such as x 2 + 3x, a 2 7 and 4t 2 9t + 5 are called quadratic expressions because the highest power of the variable is 2. The word comes from the Latin quadratus

### What are the place values to the left of the decimal point and their associated powers of ten?

The verbal answers to all of the following questions should be memorized before completion of algebra. Answers that are not memorized will hinder your ability to succeed in geometry and algebra. (Everything

### with "a", "b" and "c" representing real numbers, and "a" is not equal to zero.

3.1 SOLVING QUADRATIC EQUATIONS: * A QUADRATIC is a polynomial whose highest exponent is. * The "standard form" of a quadratic equation is: ax + bx + c = 0 with "a", "b" and "c" representing real numbers,

### 2.5 Zeros of a Polynomial Functions

.5 Zeros of a Polynomial Functions Section.5 Notes Page 1 The first rule we will talk about is Descartes Rule of Signs, which can be used to determine the possible times a graph crosses the x-axis and

### Equations and Inequalities

Rational Equations Overview of Objectives, students should be able to: 1. Solve rational equations with variables in the denominators.. Recognize identities, conditional equations, and inconsistent equations.

### Determinants can be used to solve a linear system of equations using Cramer s Rule.

2.6.2 Cramer s Rule Determinants can be used to solve a linear system of equations using Cramer s Rule. Cramer s Rule for Two Equations in Two Variables Given the system This system has the unique solution

### Mth 95 Module 2 Spring 2014

Mth 95 Module Spring 014 Section 5.3 Polynomials and Polynomial Functions Vocabulary of Polynomials A term is a number, a variable, or a product of numbers and variables raised to powers. Terms in an expression

### Higher Education Math Placement

Higher Education Math Placement Placement Assessment Problem Types 1. Whole Numbers, Fractions, and Decimals 1.1 Operations with Whole Numbers Addition with carry Subtraction with borrowing Multiplication

### Algebra 1 Chapter 3 Vocabulary. equivalent - Equations with the same solutions as the original equation are called.

Chapter 3 Vocabulary equivalent - Equations with the same solutions as the original equation are called. formula - An algebraic equation that relates two or more real-life quantities. unit rate - A rate

### Section 2.1 Intercepts; Symmetry; Graphing Key Equations

Intercepts: An intercept is the point at which a graph crosses or touches the coordinate axes. x intercept is 1. The point where the line crosses (or intercepts) the x-axis. 2. The x-coordinate of a point

Chapter 9: Quadratic Functions 9.3 SIMPLIFYING RADICAL EXPRESSIONS Vertex formula f(x)=ax 2 +Bx+C standard d form X coordinate of vertex is Use this value in equation to find y coordinate of vertex form

### CD 1 Real Numbers, Variables, and Algebraic Expressions

CD 1 Real Numbers, Variables, and Algebraic Expressions The Algebra I Interactive Series is designed to incorporate all modalities of learning into one easy to use learning tool; thereby reinforcing learning

### ALGEBRA I A PLUS COURSE OUTLINE

ALGEBRA I A PLUS COURSE OUTLINE OVERVIEW: 1. Operations with Real Numbers 2. Equation Solving 3. Word Problems 4. Inequalities 5. Graphs of Functions 6. Linear Functions 7. Scatterplots and Lines of Best

### 4. A rocket is shot off ground the ground at time t, the height the rocket is off the ground is

NAME: HOUR: Page 1 1. What is a quadratic equation(look up on ipad)? 2. What does the graph look like? 3. Circle the functions that are quadratic? a) f (x) = 2x + 5 b) g(x) = x 2 c) y = 3x 1 d) y = 3x

### Functions and Equations

Centre for Education in Mathematics and Computing Euclid eworkshop # Functions and Equations c 014 UNIVERSITY OF WATERLOO Euclid eworkshop # TOOLKIT Parabolas The quadratic f(x) = ax + bx + c (with a,b,c

### Algebra I Vocabulary Cards

Algebra I Vocabulary Cards Table of Contents Expressions and Operations Natural Numbers Whole Numbers Integers Rational Numbers Irrational Numbers Real Numbers Absolute Value Order of Operations Expression

### Chapter 1 Notes: Quadratic Functions

1 Chapter 1 Notes: Quadratic Functions (Textbook Lessons 1.1 1.2) Graphing Quadratic Function A function defined by an equation of the form, The graph is a U-shape called a. Standard Form Vertex Form axis

### Name Date Block. Algebra 1 Laws of Exponents/Polynomials Test STUDY GUIDE

Name Date Block Know how to Algebra 1 Laws of Eponents/Polynomials Test STUDY GUIDE Evaluate epressions with eponents using the laws of eponents: o a m a n = a m+n : Add eponents when multiplying powers

### 2. Simplify. College Algebra Student Self-Assessment of Mathematics (SSAM) Answer Key. Use the distributive property to remove the parentheses

College Algebra Student Self-Assessment of Mathematics (SSAM) Answer Key 1. Multiply 2 3 5 1 Use the distributive property to remove the parentheses 2 3 5 1 2 25 21 3 35 31 2 10 2 3 15 3 2 13 2 15 3 2

### Portable Assisted Study Sequence ALGEBRA IIA

SCOPE This course is divided into two semesters of study (A & B) comprised of five units each. Each unit teaches concepts and strategies recommended for intermediate algebra students. The first half of

### PPS TI-83 Activities Algebra 1-2 Teacher Notes

PPS TI-83 Activities Algebra 1-2 Teacher Notes It is an expectation in Portland Public Schools that all teachers are using the TI-83 graphing calculator in meaningful ways in Algebra 1-2. This does not

### Vocabulary Words and Definitions for Algebra

Name: Period: Vocabulary Words and s for Algebra Absolute Value Additive Inverse Algebraic Expression Ascending Order Associative Property Axis of Symmetry Base Binomial Coefficient Combine Like Terms

### STUDY GUIDE FOR SOME BASIC INTERMEDIATE ALGEBRA SKILLS

STUDY GUIDE FOR SOME BASIC INTERMEDIATE ALGEBRA SKILLS The intermediate algebra skills illustrated here will be used extensively and regularly throughout the semester Thus, mastering these skills is an

### Algebra. Indiana Standards 1 ST 6 WEEKS

Chapter 1 Lessons Indiana Standards - 1-1 Variables and Expressions - 1-2 Order of Operations and Evaluating Expressions - 1-3 Real Numbers and the Number Line - 1-4 Properties of Real Numbers - 1-5 Adding

Graphing Quadratic Functions In our consideration of polynomial functions, we first studied linear functions. Now we will consider polynomial functions of order or degree (i.e., the highest power of x

### Math 0980 Chapter Objectives. Chapter 1: Introduction to Algebra: The Integers.

Math 0980 Chapter Objectives Chapter 1: Introduction to Algebra: The Integers. 1. Identify the place value of a digit. 2. Write a number in words or digits. 3. Write positive and negative numbers used

### BROCK UNIVERSITY MATHEMATICS MODULES

BROCK UNIVERSITY MATHEMATICS MODULES 11A.4: Maximum or Minimum Values for Quadratic Functions Author: Kristina Wamboldt WWW What it is: Maximum or minimum values for a quadratic function are the largest

9.3 Solving Quadratic Equations by Using the Quadratic Formula 9.3 OBJECTIVES 1. Solve a quadratic equation by using the quadratic formula 2. Determine the nature of the solutions of a quadratic equation

### expression is written horizontally. The Last terms ((2)( 4)) because they are the last terms of the two polynomials. This is called the FOIL method.

A polynomial of degree n (in one variable, with real coefficients) is an expression of the form: a n x n + a n 1 x n 1 + a n 2 x n 2 + + a 2 x 2 + a 1 x + a 0 where a n, a n 1, a n 2, a 2, a 1, a 0 are

### Chapter R - Basic Algebra Operations (69 topics, due on 05/01/12)

Course Name: College Algebra 001 Course Code: R3RK6-CTKHJ ALEKS Course: College Algebra with Trigonometry Instructor: Prof. Bozyk Course Dates: Begin: 01/17/2012 End: 05/04/2012 Course Content: 288 topics

### Polynomial and Rational Functions

Polynomial and Rational Functions Quadratic Functions Overview of Objectives, students should be able to: 1. Recognize the characteristics of parabolas. 2. Find the intercepts a. x intercepts by solving

### MATH 10034 Fundamental Mathematics IV

MATH 0034 Fundamental Mathematics IV http://www.math.kent.edu/ebooks/0034/funmath4.pdf Department of Mathematical Sciences Kent State University January 2, 2009 ii Contents To the Instructor v Polynomials.

Axis of Symmetry MA 158100 Lesson 8 Notes Summer 016 Definition: A quadratic function is of the form f(x) = y = ax + bx + c; where a, b, and c are real numbers and a 0. This form of the quadratic function

### Zeros of Polynomial Functions

Zeros of Polynomial Functions The Rational Zero Theorem If f (x) = a n x n + a n-1 x n-1 + + a 1 x + a 0 has integer coefficients and p/q (where p/q is reduced) is a rational zero, then p is a factor of

### Polynomial Operations and Factoring

Algebra 1, Quarter 4, Unit 4.1 Polynomial Operations and Factoring Overview Number of instructional days: 15 (1 day = 45 60 minutes) Content to be learned Identify terms, coefficients, and degree of polynomials.

### Math 1111 Journal Entries Unit I (Sections , )

Math 1111 Journal Entries Unit I (Sections 1.1-1.2, 1.4-1.6) Name Respond to each item, giving sufficient detail. You may handwrite your responses with neat penmanship. Your portfolio should be a collection

### 4.1 Graph Quadratic Functions in Standard Form (Parabolas) Tuesday, June 08, 2010

4.1 Graph Quadratic Functions in Standard Form (Parabolas) Tuesday, June 08, 2010 12:31 PM Vertex Axis of symmetry Link to Parabola Animation Another Cool Animation Ch 4 Page 1 Graph: Graph: Graph: 3.

### x n = 1 x n In other words, taking a negative expoenent is the same is taking the reciprocal of the positive expoenent.

Rules of Exponents: If n > 0, m > 0 are positive integers and x, y are any real numbers, then: x m x n = x m+n x m x n = xm n, if m n (x m ) n = x mn (xy) n = x n y n ( x y ) n = xn y n 1 Can we make sense

### 5-1. Lesson Objective. Lesson Presentation Lesson Review

5-1 Using Transformations to Graph Quadratic Functions Lesson Objective Transform quadratic functions. Describe the effects of changes in the coefficients of y = a(x h) 2 + k. Lesson Presentation Lesson

### Partial Fractions. (x 1)(x 2 + 1)

Partial Fractions Adding rational functions involves finding a common denominator, rewriting each fraction so that it has that denominator, then adding. For example, 3x x 1 3x(x 1) (x + 1)(x 1) + 1(x +

### Higher Education Math Placement

Higher Education Math Placement 1. Whole Numbers, Fractions, and Decimals 1.1 Operations with Whole Numbers Addition with carry (arith050) Subtraction with borrowing (arith006) Multiplication with carry

### LAKE ELSINORE UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT

LAKE ELSINORE UNIFIED SCHOOL DISTRICT Title: PLATO Algebra 1-Semester 2 Grade Level: 10-12 Department: Mathematics Credit: 5 Prerequisite: Letter grade of F and/or N/C in Algebra 1, Semester 2 Course Description:

### Chapter 8. Quadratic Equations and Functions

Chapter 8. Quadratic Equations and Functions 8.1. Solve Quadratic Equations KYOTE Standards: CR 0; CA 11 In this section, we discuss solving quadratic equations by factoring, by using the square root property

### Step 1: Set the equation equal to zero if the function lacks. Step 2: Subtract the constant term from both sides:

In most situations the quadratic equations such as: x 2 + 8x + 5, can be solved (factored) through the quadratic formula if factoring it out seems too hard. However, some of these problems may be solved

### ALGEBRA 2 CRA 2 REVIEW - Chapters 1-6 Answer Section

ALGEBRA 2 CRA 2 REVIEW - Chapters 1-6 Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: C 2. ANS: A 3. ANS: A OBJ: 5-3.1 Using Vertex Form SHORT ANSWER 4. ANS: (x + 6)(x 2 6x + 36) OBJ: 6-4.2 Solving Equations by

### Integration Unit 5 Quadratic Toolbox 1: Working with Square Roots. Using your examples above, answer the following:

Integration Unit 5 Quadratic Toolbox 1: Working with Square Roots Name Period Objective 1: Understanding Square roots Defining a SQUARE ROOT: Square roots are like a division problem but both factors must

### CCSS: N.CN.7: Solve quadratic equations with real coefficients that have complex solutions

4.5 Completing The Square 1) Solve quadratic equations using the square root property 2) Generate perfect square trinomials by completing the square 3) Solve quadratic equations by completing the square

### Chapter 3. Algebra. 3.1 Rational expressions BAa1: Reduce to lowest terms

Contents 3 Algebra 3 3.1 Rational expressions................................ 3 3.1.1 BAa1: Reduce to lowest terms...................... 3 3.1. BAa: Add, subtract, multiply, and divide............... 5

### Copy in your notebook: Add an example of each term with the symbols used in algebra 2 if there are any.

Algebra 2 - Chapter Prerequisites Vocabulary Copy in your notebook: Add an example of each term with the symbols used in algebra 2 if there are any. P1 p. 1 1. counting(natural) numbers - {1,2,3,4,...}

Exponents and Radicals (a + b) 10 Exponents are a very important part of algebra. An exponent is just a convenient way of writing repeated multiplications of the same number. Radicals involve the use of

### MA107 Precalculus Algebra Exam 2 Review Solutions

MA107 Precalculus Algebra Exam 2 Review Solutions February 24, 2008 1. The following demand equation models the number of units sold, x, of a product as a function of price, p. x = 4p + 200 a. Please write

### SECTION 2.5: FINDING ZEROS OF POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS

SECTION 2.5: FINDING ZEROS OF POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS Assume f ( x) is a nonconstant polynomial with real coefficients written in standard form. PART A: TECHNIQUES WE HAVE ALREADY SEEN Refer to: Notes 1.31

### 4-6 The Quadratic Formula and the Discriminant. Solve each equation by using the Quadratic Formula.

2. Solve each equation by using the Quadratic Formula. Write the equation in the form ax 2 + bx + c = 0 and identify a, b, and c. Substitute these values into the Quadratic Formula and simplify. esolutions

### Zero: If P is a polynomial and if c is a number such that P (c) = 0 then c is a zero of P.

MATH 11011 FINDING REAL ZEROS KSU OF A POLYNOMIAL Definitions: Polynomial: is a function of the form P (x) = a n x n + a n 1 x n 1 + + a x + a 1 x + a 0. The numbers a n, a n 1,..., a 1, a 0 are called

### Chapter 6: Polynomials and Polynomial Functions. Chapter 6.1: Using Properties of Exponents Goals for this section. Properties of Exponents:

Chapter 6: Polynomials and Polynomial Functions Chapter 6.1: Using Properties of Exponents Properties of Exponents: Products and Quotients of Powers activity on P323 Write answers in notes! Using Properties

### Pre-Calculus III Linear Functions and Quadratic Functions

Linear Functions.. 1 Finding Slope...1 Slope Intercept 1 Point Slope Form.1 Parallel Lines.. Line Parallel to a Given Line.. Perpendicular Lines. Line Perpendicular to a Given Line 3 Quadratic Equations.3

### Just Remember, The Vertex is the highest or lowest point of the graph.

Quadratic Functions Quadratic functions are any functions that may be written in the form y = ax 2 + bx + c where a, b, and c are real coefficients and a 0. For example, y = 2x 2 is a quadratic function

### Developmental Math Course Outcomes and Objectives

Developmental Math Course Outcomes and Objectives I. Math 0910 Basic Arithmetic/Pre-Algebra Upon satisfactory completion of this course, the student should be able to perform the following outcomes and

### Exploring Rational Functions

Name Date Period Exploring Rational Functions Part I - The numerator is a constant and the denominator is a linear factor. 1. The parent function for rational functions is the reciprocal function: Graph

Review Session #5 Quadratics Discriminant How can you determine the number and nature of the roots without solving the quadratic equation? 1. Prepare the quadratic equation for solving in other words,

### Section 5.0A Factoring Part 1

Section 5.0A Factoring Part 1 I. Work Together A. Multiply the following binomials into trinomials. (Write the final result in descending order, i.e., a + b + c ). ( 7)( + 5) ( + 7)( + ) ( + 7)( + 5) (

### What students need to know for... ALGEBRA II

What students need to know for... ALGEBRA II 2015-2016 NAME Students expecting to take Algebra II at Cambridge Rindge & Latin School should demonstrate the ability to... General: o Keep an organized notebook

### 5.1 The Remainder and Factor Theorems; Synthetic Division

5.1 The Remainder and Factor Theorems; Synthetic Division In this section you will learn to: understand the definition of a zero of a polynomial function use long and synthetic division to divide polynomials

### Rockhurst High School Algebra 1 Topics

Rockhurst High School Algebra 1 Topics Chapter 1- Pre-Algebra Skills Simplify a numerical expression using PEMDAS. Substitute whole numbers into an algebraic expression and evaluate that expression. Substitute

### Power of the Quadratic Formula

Power of the Quadratic Formula Name 1. Consider the equation y = x 4 8x 2 + 4. It may be a surprise, but we can use the quadratic the quadratic formula to first solve for x 2. Once we know the value of