# Chapter 2. Basic Terminology and Preliminaries

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1 Chapter 2 Basic Terminology and Preliminaries 6

2 Chapter 2. Basic Terminology and Preliminaries Introduction This chapter is intended to provide all the fundamental terminology and notations which are needed for the present work. 2.2 Basic Definitions Definition A graph G = (V(G), E(G)) consists of two sets, V(G) = {v 1, v 2,...} called vertex set of G and E(G) = {e 1, e 2,...} called edge set of G. Sometimes we denote vertex set of G as V and edge set of G as E. Elements of V(G) and E(G) are called vertices and edges respectively. Definition The number of vertices in a given graph is called order of the graph. The order of a graph G is denoted by p. Definition The number of edges in a given graph is called size of the graph. The size of a graph G is denoted by q. Definition An edge of a graph that joins a vertex to itself is called a loop. A loop is an edge e = v i v i. Definition If two vertices of a graph are joined by more than one edge then these edges are called multiple edges. Definition A graph which has neither loops nor parallel edges is called a simple graph. Definition If two vertices of a graph are joined by an edge then these vertices are called adjacent vertices. Definition Two vertices of a graph which are adjacent are said to be neighbours. The set of all neighbours of a vertex v of G is called the neighbourhood set of v. It is denoted by N(v) or N[v] and they are respectively known as open and closed neighbourhood set. N(v) = {u V(G)/u adjacent to v and u v}

3 Chapter 2. Basic Terminology and Preliminaries 8 N[v] = N(v) {v} Definition An independent set of vertices in a graph G is a set mutually nonadjacent vertices. Definition The independence number of a graph G is the maximal cardinality of an independent set of vertices which is denoted as α(g). Definition If two or more edges of a graph have a common vertex then these edges are called incident edges. Definition Degree of a vertex v of any graph G is defined as the number of edges incident on v, counting twice the number of loops. It is denoted by deg(v) or d(v). Definition A walk is defined as a finite alternating sequence of vertices and edges of the form v i e j v i+1 e j+1... e k v m which begins and ends with vertices such that each edge in the sequence is incident on the vertex preceding and succeeding it in the sequence. A walk from v 0 to v n is denoted as v 0 v n walk. A walk v 0 v 0 is called a closed walk. Definition A walk is called a trail if no edge is repeated. Definition A walk in which no vertex is repeated is called a path. A path with n vertices is denoted as P n. A path from v 0 to v n is denoted as v 0 v n path. Definition A closed path is called a cycle. A cycle with n vertices is denoted as C n. Definition A graph G = (V(G), E(G)) is said to be connected if there is a path between every pair of vertices of G. A graph which is not connected is called a disconnected graph. Definition A chord of a cycle C n is an edge joining two non-adjacent vertices of cycle C n. Definition Two chords of a cycle are said to be twin chords if they form a triangle with an edge of the cycle C n.

4 Chapter 2. Basic Terminology and Preliminaries 9 For positive integers n and p with 3 p n 2, C n,p is the graph consisting of a cycle C n with a pair of twin chords with which the edges of C n form cycles C p, C 3 and C n+1 p without chords. Definition A cycle with triangle is a cycle with three chords which by themselves form a triangle. For positive integers p, q, r and n 6 with p + q + r + 3 = n, C n (p, q, r) denotes a cycle with triangle whose edges form the edges of cycles C p+2, C q+2 and C r+2 without chords. Definition Tadpole T(n, l) is a graph in which path P l is attached to any one vertex of cycle C n. Truszczyński[52] called it dragon. It is easy to observe that V(T(n, l)) = n + l and E(T(n, l)) = n + l. Definition A closed trail which covers all the edges of given graph is called an Eulerian trail. A graph which has an Eulerian trail is called an Eulerian graph. Definition A graph which does not contain any cycle is known as acyclic graph. Definition A connected acyclic graph is called a tree. Definition A caterpillar is a tree in which a single path is incident to every edge. Definition An olive tree is a rooted tree consisting of k branches, where the ith branch is a path of length i. Definition Let G and H be two graphs. Then H is said to be a subgraph of G if V(H) V(G) and E(H) E(G). Here G is called supergraph of H. Definition Let G = (V(G), E(G)) be a graph. If U is a non-empty subset of the vertex set V(G) then the subgraph G[U] of G induced by U is defined to be the graph having vertex set U and edge set consisting of those edges of G that have both end vertices in U. Similarly if F is a non-empty subset of the edge set E(G) then the subgraph G[F] of G induced by F is the graph whose vertex set is the set of vertices which are end vertices of edges of F and whose edge set is F.

5 Chapter 2. Basic Terminology and Preliminaries 10 Definition A subgraph H of a graph G is called spanning subgraph of G if V(H) = V(G). Definition A graph is said to be planar if there exists some geometric representation of G which can be drawn on a plane such that no any two of its edges intersect. Definition A planar graph is outerplanar if it can be embedded in the plane so that all its vertices lie on the same region. Definition An outerplanar graph is maximal outerplanar if no edge can be added without losing outerplanarity. Definition A simple, connected graph is said to be complete if every pair of vertices of G = (V(G), E(G)) is connected by an edge. A complete graph on n vertices is denoted by K n. Definition A graph G = (V(G), E(G)) is said to be bipartite if the vertex set can be partitioned into two disjoint subsets V 1 and V 2 such that for every edge e i = v i v j E(G), v i V 1 and v j V 2. Definition A complete bipartite graph is a simple bipartite graph such that two vertices are adjacent if and only if they are in different partite sets. If partite sets V 1 and V 2 are having m and n vertices respectively then the related complete bipartite graph is denoted by K m,n and V 1 is called m-vertices part and V 2 is called n-vertices part of K m,n. Definition A complete bipartite graph K 1,n is known as star graph. Definition A banana tree is a tree which is obtained from a family of stars by joining one end vertex of each star to a new vertex. Definition A graph G = (V(G), E(G)) is called n-partite graph if the vertex set V can be partitioned into n nonempty sets V 1, V 2,..., V n such that every edge of G joins the vertices from different subsets. It is often called a multipartite graph. Definition The n-partite graph G = (V(G), E(G)) is called complete n-partite if for each i j, each vertex of the subset V i is adjacent to every vertex of the subset V j. The complete n-partite graph with n partitions of vertex set is denoted by K m1,m 2,...,m n.

6 Chapter 2. Basic Terminology and Preliminaries 11 Definition If G 1 and G 2 are subgraphs of a graph G then union of G 1 and G 2 is denoted by G 1 G 2 which is the graph consisting of all those vertices which are either in G 1 or in G 2 (or in both) and with edge set consisting of all those edges which are either in G 1 or in G 2 (or in both). Definition Let G and H be two graphs such that V(G) V(H) = φ. Then join of G and H is denoted by G + H. It is the graph with V(G + H) = V(G) V(H), E(G + H) = E(G) E(H) J, where J = {uv/u V(G), v V(H)}. Definition Let G 1 = (V 1, E 1 ) and G 2 = (V 2, E 2 ) be two graphs. Then cartesian product of G 1 and G 2 which is denoted by G 1 G 2, is the graph with vertex set V = V 1 V 2 consisting of vertices u = (u 1, u 2 ), v = (v 1, v 2 ) such that u and v are adjacent in G 1 G 2 whenever (u 1 = v 1 and u 2 adjacent to v 2 ) or (u 1 adjacent to v 1 and u 2 = v 2 ). Definition Let G = (V(G), E(G)) be a graph and G 1, G 2,..., G n, n 2 be n copies of graph G. Then the graph obtained by adding an edge from G i to G i+1 (for i = 1, 2,..., n 1) is called path union of G. Definition The one point union of m cycles of length n denoted as C (m) n graph obtained by identifying one vertex of each cycle. is the Definition Duplication of a vertex v k of graph G produces a new graph G 1 by adding a vertex v k with N(v k ) = N(v k). In other words a vertex v k is said to be duplication of v k if all the vertices which are adjacent to v k are now adjacent to v k also. Definition A vertex switching G v of a graph G is obtained by taking a vertex v of G, removing all the edges incident with v and adding edges joining v to every vertex which are not adjacent to v in G. Definition Let u and v be two distinct vertices of a graph G. A new graph G 1 is constructed by identifying(fusing) two vertices u and v by a single vertex x is such that every edge which was incident with either u or v in G is now incident with x in G 1. Definition Let G = (V(G), E(G)) be a graph. Let e = uv be an edge of G and w is not a vertex of G. The edge e is subdivided when it is replaced by edges e = uw and e = wv.

7 Chapter 2. Basic Terminology and Preliminaries 12 Definition Let G = (V(G), E(G)) be a graph. If every edge of graph G is subdivided then the resulting graph is called barycentric subdivision of G. In other words barycentric subdivision is the graph obtained by inserting a vertex of degree 2 into every edge of the original graph. The barycentric subdivision of any graph G is denoted by S (G). It is easy to observe that V(S (G)) = V(G) + E(G) and E(S (G)) = 2 E(G). Definition Let G = (V(G), E(G)) be a graph. A graph H is called a supersubdivision of G if H is obtained from G by replacing every edge e i of G by a complete bipartite graph K 2,mi for some m i, 1 i q in such a way that the ends of each e i are merged with the two vertices of 2-vertices part of K 2,mi after removing the edge e i from graph G. Definition A supersubdivision H of G is said to be an arbitrary supersubdivision of G if every edge of G is replaced by an arbitrary K 2,m where m may vary for each edge arbitrarily. Definition The corona G 1 G 2 of two graphs G 1 and G 2 is defined as a graph obtained by taking one copy of G 1 (which has p 1 vertices) and p 1 copies of G 2 and attach one copy of G 2 at every vertex of G 1. Definition An armed crown is a graph in which path P m is attached at each vertex of cycle C n. This graph is denoted by C n P m. Definition Consider a cycle C m. Let T i (i = 1, 2,..., n m) be a rooted tree, that is to say, a vertex in T i is distinguished as the root of T i. Form a graph G from C m and the T i s by identifying the root of each tree T i with a vertex of C m so that different roots are identified with different vertices of C m. Then G is a unicyclic graph which will be denoted by C m (T 1, T 2,..., T n ). Definition The cartesian product of two paths is known as grid graph which is denoted by P m P n. In particular the graph L n = P n P 2 is known as ladder graph. Definition The one-point union of n copies of cycle C 3 is known as friendship graph. It is denoted by F n. That is F n = C (n) 3.

8 Chapter 2. Basic Terminology and Preliminaries 13 Definition The wheel graph W n is join of the graphs C n and K 1. i.e. W n = C n + K 1. Here vertices corresponding to C n are called rim vertices and C n is called rim of W n while the vertex corresponds to K 1 is called apex vertex. Definition A helm H n, n 3 is the graph obtained from the wheel W n by adding a pendant edge at each vertex on the wheel s rim. Definition A closed helm CH n is the graph obtained by taking a helm H n and by adding edges between the pendant vertices. Definition A web graph is the graph obtained by joining the pendant vertices of a helm to form a cycle and then adding a single pendant edge to each vertex of this outer cycle. Definition A shell S n is the graph obtained by taking n 3 concurrent chords in a cycle C n. The vertex at which all the chords are concurrent is called the apex. The shell S n is also called fan f n 1. That is, S n = f n 1 = P n 1 + K 1. It is clear that V(S n ) = n and E(S n ) = 2n 3. Definition A multiple shell MS {n t 1 1, nt 2 2,..., nt r r } is a graph formed by t i shells each of order n i, 1 i r which have a common apex. Definition A k-angular cactus is a connected graph all of whose blocks are cycles with k vertices. Definition A triangular snake is the graph obtained from a path v 1, v 2,... v n by joining v i and v i+1 to a new vertex w i for i = 1, 2,..., n 1. Definition A t ply P t (u, v) is a graph with t paths, each of length atleast two and such that no two paths have a vertex in common except the end vertices u and v. Definition The shadow graph of a connected graph G is constructed by taking two copies of G say G and G. Join each vertex u in G to the neighbours of the corresponding vertex u in G. The graph obtained is denoted as D 2 (G). Definition Consider barycentric subdivision of cycle C n and join each newly inserted vertices of incident edges by an edge. We denote the new graph by C n (C n ) as it looks like C n inscribed in C n.

9 Chapter 2. Basic Terminology and Preliminaries 14 It is clear that V(C n (C n )) = 2n and E(C n (C n )) = 3n. Definition The middle graph, M(G) of a graph G is the graph whose vertex set is V(G) E(G) in which two vertices are adjacent if and only if either they are adjacent edges of G or one is a vertex of G and the other is an edge incident with it. Definition The total graph, T(G) of graph G is the graph whose vertex set is V(G) E(G) in which two vertices are adjacent whenever they are either adjacent or incident in G. Definition Generalized Petersen graph, denoted by P(n, k), is a graph with n 5 and 1 k n which has vertex set {a 0, a 1,..., a n 1, b 0, b 1,..., b n 1 } and edge set {a i a i+1 i = 0, 1,..., n 1} {a i b i i = 0, 1,..., n 1} {b i b i+k i = 0, 1,..., n 1}, where all subscripts are taken modulo n. The standard Petersen graph is P(5, 2). Definition A graph obtained by replacing each vertex of star graph K 1,n by a graph G is called star of G. We denote it as G. We name central graph in G is the graph which replaces central vertex of graph K 1,n. Definition Consider two shells S (1) n and S (2) n then the graph G =< S (1) n : S (2) n > is obtained by joining apex vertices of shells to a new vertex x. Definition Consider k copies of shells S (1) n, S (2) n,..., S (k) n then the graph G = < S n (1) : S n (2),..., : S n (k) > is obtained by joining an apex vertex of each S n (p) and apex of S (p 1) n to a new vertex x p 1 where 2 p k. Definition Consider two stars K (1) 1,n and K(2) 1,n then the graph G =< K(1) 1,n : K(2) 1,n > is obtained by joining apex vertices of stars to a new vertex x. Definition Consider k copies of stars K (1) 1,n, K(2) 1,n,..., K(k) 1,n then the graph G = < K (1) 1,n : K(2) 1,n :... : K(k) 1,n > is obtained by joining an apex vertex of each K(p) 1,n and apex of K (p 1) 1,n to a new vertex x p 1 where 2 p k.

10 Chapter 2. Basic Terminology and Preliminaries Concluding Remarks This chapter provides basic definitions and terminology required for the advancement of the topic. For all other standard terminology and notations we refer to Harrary[23], West[59], Gross and Yellen[22], Clark and Holton[12]. The next chapter is focused on cordial labeling of graphs.

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