1 MORAL VALUES AS REFLECTED IN CHILDREN SHORT STORIES ABSTRACT Moral values become the central issue in the national education day in It is because Indonesia is suffering from moral crisis. This undergraduate thesis focuses on moral values as reflected in English children short stories. The aim of the research is to describe the moral values for children short stories. The method employed in this research is reflexivity, namely a method which requires the researcher s contribution to the construction of meaning throughout the research process. The result of this research so is that, there are a number of moral values reflected in the short stories, such as: compassion, courage, dependability, friendship, integrity, kindness, loyalty, patience, respect, responsibility. INTRODUCTION Background of the Research Moral crisis was spreading and infecting this nation. Moral dimension is closely related to the dimensions of temperament. Every individual has the moral judgments vary. It also depends on the nature of each individual. In short, the moral crisis can be overcome with coaching character. Moral values are found in literary works. Good poetry, short stories, novels, and dramas. In every work of literature contained three charges: imagination, experience, and values. By reading the literature, it is expected a number of moral values can be understood, and practiced. Moral values are the standards of good and evil, which govern an individual s behavior and choices. Individual s morals may derive from society and government, religion, or self. An example of the impact of changing laws on moral values may be seen in the case of marriage vs. living together. (Bertens, 1999:7) In this research, the writer chooses this children short stories in English because has message through the story. The writer wants to find out whether it is possible to employ moral value to analyze. From this moral approach, the writer wants to see how far a short story contains moral messages. The definition of moral in philosophy is a concept that is formulated by society to determine goodness or badness. Moral is norm about life that gives special position in the activity or life in society. So that moral is about theory good and bad accepted by society concerning act, attitude, and obligation etc; moral and morality. Therefore, the writer takes Moral Values as Reflected in Children English Short Stories.
2 1.2 Problem Formulation In this study problems are formulated as follows: 1. What are kinds of moral values ethics in children English short stories? 2. What kind of ethic is found in moral life in the short stories? 1.3 Aim of the Study The aims of study are: 1. To describe the kinds of ethics moral values reflected in children English short stories. 2. To describe the kind of moral values in the perspective of ethics. 1.5 Scope of the Study This study only focuses about the wisdom moral values portrayed in children English short stories by using moral values development. Although, many kinds of aspects and topics which can be analyzed from this stories. 1.6 Significance of the Study There are many characters that the writer found in the children short stories of fairytales in English. In this children short story as a means to convey a moral, in addition to entertaining, because the future of children are the future of a nation that should be selected. So, short story can give the goodness and wisdom is very interesting to discuss. Material for teaching English for Indonesian learner for the purpose of developing national character building. THEORETICAL REVIEW Moral is the amount of zest and efficiency with which members of a social group participate in an activity. Moral may be high or low. Each member of a group learns something about the beliefs and attitudes of other members, and, to the extent that he accepts them, his moral is affected (Encyclopedia Americana International Edition Vol.19, 1976:437). "Morality" (from the Latin adjective moralists) has a meaning which is basically the same as "moral", there is only a more abstract tone. We are talking about the morality of an act, an act that is morally good or bad. Morality is a quality or overall moral principles and values with regard to good or evil. Although the moral values usually stay at a value - another value, but it appears as a new value, even as the highest value. (Bertens, 1999:7) Moral values are not separate from the values of other types. Each value can acquire a moral weight, if included in moral behavior. Although the moral values usually stay at a value - another value, but emerged as a new value, even as the highest value. Values - moral values are also derived from human freedom. (Bertens, 1999:142-3)
3 Based on Jacques Thiroux in his book, Ethnics Theory and Practice (Thiroux, 1995:3-7), morality comes from the word moralis (in Latin), meaning customs and manners. There are two major approaches to the study of moral: a. Scientific (Descriptive) Approach This approach is often used in the social science. Like ethics, it deals with human behavior and conduct. This approach emphasizes empirical; that is social scientist observe and collect data about human behavior and conduct, then draw certain conclusion. However, they make no value of judgments about what is morally right or wrong, nor they prescribe how human ought to behave. b. Philosophical Approach This approach consist of two parts: i. Normative (perspective Ethics) This kind of philosophical approach deals with norms or standard and instruction by using examples of human being s action of their own selfinterest. It covers the making of moral values judgments rather than just the presentation or description of fact and data. (Thiroux, 1995:3-7) ii. Meta ethics (Analytic Ethics) This approach is analytic in two ways; first, it analyzes the ethical language (using the good word). And second, it analyzes the rational foundation for ethical system or the logic and reasoning of various ethicists. Meta ethics does not prescribe anything, nor deal directly with normative systems. It goes beyond by concerning itself indirectly with normative ethical systems and concert raring on reasoning logical structures and language rather than on content. (Thiroux, 1995:3-7) Various Moral Perspectives The concept theories of morality according to the moral philosophy, including: 1. Aristotle According to the great Greek philosopher, Aristotle ( BC). Humans are good in the moral sense, if it has always held a choice - the right of rational choice in action - action to achieve excellence in its moral and intellectual reasoning. By virtue - the virtue of moral choices that need to run ratio held performance life - today. Performance his book, Ethika Nikomakheia he began by asserting that in every human activity to pursue a goal. Everyone would agree that the highest goal in modern terminology we could say the last meaning of human life is happiness (eudaimonia). By referring to the human condition of happiness in such a way, so that everything that should be there is to it (well - being). 2. Immanuel Kant According to I. Kant that creates a moral system is larger than the German philosopher, Immanuel Kant ( ). Their thinking is not easy but very influential, so that he could be considered as one of the largest thinker in the field of moral philosophy. According to Kant, who could at really only good in the sense of
4 good will. The will be good, if acted out of obligation. Liabilities contain a categorical imperative, which requires that the command means simply, unconditionally. In contrast, the hypothesis has always included an imperative requirement. Thus, in acting morally will be autonomous and not heteronymous. The will is autonomous when determine himself, while the heteronymous will let themselves be determined by external factors such as trends or her emotions. According to Kant, the will is autonomous by giving the moral law to himself. By finding the autonomy of the will, concurrent Kant also found human freedom. 3. John Stuart Mill According John Stuart Mill (20 May May 1873) was a British philosopher, economist and civil servant. He was a proponent of utilitarianism.utilitarianism fully formulated by Jeremy Bentham and developed more extensively by James Mill and John Stuart Mill. Highest moral principle he called 'principle of use or benefit' (the principle of utility). Utility purpose or usefulness, says Bentham, is a principle that tells everyone to do what produces the greatest happiness or pleasure desired by all people to as many people or for the whole society. Mill argued that the only source for all the recognition is experience. Therefore, according to the utilitarian view, the ultimate goal of man is also a measure of morality. In short, Classical Utilitarianism, which carried by Jeremy Bentham, James Mill and his son, John Stuart Mill, can be summarized in the following three propositions: First, all measures must be judged true or false, good-bad solely on the consequences or the consequences. Second, in assessing the consequences or the consequences, the only thing that matters is the amount of happiness or suffering that result. Thus, the correct actions are resulting in a surplus rather than suffering the greatest happiness. Third, in calculating the resulting happiness or suffering, one's happiness should not be considered more important than the happiness of others. (Bertens, 1999:242-7) Aspect of Moral Application Moral aspect is something which is related to norms of humanity that is found within story. Meanwhile, according to Thiroux, there are four aspects of moral application: 1. Religious Moral Religious moral refers to human being in relationship to a supernatural being or beings. 2. Moral and Nature It refers to human being in relationship to nature. Natural moral has been prevalent in all primitive cultures. 3. Individual Moral
5 Individual moral refers to individual in relation to themselves and to an individual code of morality that may or may not be sanctioned by any society or religion. 4. Social Moral Social moral concerns a human being in relation to other human being. (Thiroux, 1995:11-3) Based on the definition above, moral aspect can be found in the story, the content of it is something which is related to norms of humanity. (Anderson, 1989:27) Definition of Moral Approach Referring to Semi (1990:71), moral approach based on basic assumption that one of the purposes of existence of literature in the midst of the readers society constitutes an attempts in raising human dignity as a creature of culture, intelligent, and devotion in God. Through immoral approach, the researcher wants to research how far that literary work has a moral. Moral approach has conception and criteria as follow: 1. The high valuable literary work consist of high moral that can raise human dignity. 2. In giving measure good or bad more emphasis on content of problem such as theme, thinking, philosophy, and messages rather than form. 3. Didactic problem, that is education and teaching, which can bring the readers to a certain direction. 4. Moral approach requires literature becoma a media of period record, that has spirit to move society toward noble character. 5. This approach believes that society is capable in raising their life s quality if helped by philosopher, scientist, cultural observer, and man of letters. 6. Aspects of society movements from time to time. It means moral approach also analysis human s struggle to release from under development. (Semi, 1990:71) From the explanation above, we can see that moral approach has a purpose in raising quality of human s behavior through a means of literary works. Kinds of Moral Value Kind of moral fiction can be a wide - range and variety - like the type. Depending on the viewpoint where it visits. Nurgiyantoro (2005:324-5) argues that morality can be grouped into problems of human relationships with self, relationships with fellow human beings, human relationships with the natural environment, and man's relationship with god. The kinds of moral value, namely: compassion, courage, courtesy, dependability, diligence, fairness, fortitude, friendship, generosity, honesty, integrity, kindness, loyalty, moderation, optimism, patience, respect, responsibility, trustworthiness, truthfulness.
6 RESEARCH METHOD Research Design In order to analyze the research, the writer uses qualitative research and qualitative descriptive methodology. Qualitative research assumes that all knowledge is relative, that there is a subjective element to all knowledge and research. A qualitative itself means that a research procedures which produces descriptive data such as written words or verbal expression come from the people and their behavior that have been observed ( Bagdan and Taylor, 1975:5). According Soemanto, (1994) in Pedoman Teknik Penulisan Skripsi, descriptive study is method in a research that focuses on observation to the indication, events an actual condition present time. As the secondary the data, which can used by the writer, includes dictionaries, references books in order to get the theory. This study is classified into a qualitative research. This is concerned with the what and how of developing reflexive research practice. Reflexivity requires an awareness of the researcher's contribution to the construction of meanings throughout the research process, and an acknowledgment of the impossibility of remaining 'outside of' one's subject matter while conducting research. Reflexivity then, urges us "to explore the ways in which a researcher's involvement with a particular study influences, acts upon and informs such research." (Nightingale and Cromby, 1999, p. 228). Source of the Data The primary data of this research is from the short stories. And the writer uses a library research and materials from the internet in order to support the primary data. Data Collection Procedure In collection the data, the writer takes the following procedures: 1. Reading the short stories 2. Construct the meaning 3. Writing all the data related to research 4. Notification Data Analysis Procedure After collecting the data, the writer tries to analyze the data by: 1.Categorizing what kind of moral values implied in the wisdom from the short stories for children. 2.Classifying each moral value implied in the wisdom from the short stories for children. 3.Draw the conclusion from all the data of analyzing the moral values implied in the wisdom from the short stories for children that the writer has obtained. The conclusion it self will be in the fourth chapter of this research paper, Result of the study.
7 RESULT OF STUDY AND DISCUSSION Result of Study Moral Values in Children Short Stories This chapter presents moral values as reflected in English children short stories. Since short stories convey focuses on one incident, have a single plot and a single setting, the number of moral values that will be presented this chapter. There are ten values that will be presented in this chapter, namely: 1. Compassion 2. Courage 3. Dependability 4. Friendship 5. Integrity 6. Kindness 7. Loyalty 8. Patience 9. Respect 10. Responsibility Discussion Moral values are not separate from the values of other types. Each value can acquire a moral weight, if included in moral behavior. Although the moral values usually stay at a value - another value, but emerged as a new value, even as the highest value. Moral values are also derived from human freedom. (Bertens, 1999:142-3) In this part the writer uses Immanuel Kant s theory with relation moral values as reflected in English children short stories. According to Kant (Bertens, 1999:242-7) said, who could at really only good in the sense of good will. The will be good, if acted out of obligation. Thus, in acting morally will be autonomous and not heteronymous. The will is autonomous when determine himself, while the heteronymous will let themselves be determined by external factors such as trends or her emotions. By finding the autonomy of the will, concurrent Kant also found human freedom.
8 CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS Conclusion Based on the data analyzed, the writer drew concluding of the moral values reflected in the children short stories, as follows: a. The moral values found in each stories, namely : Compassion are found in Two Brother with Farms Quarrel and Chocolate Tears Courage are found in The Brave Little Tortoise and the Monster, The Creature in the Attic, Manute the brave, An Octopus in Trouble, and The Hare and The Tortoise Dependability are found in My Little World has Broken and The Magic Key Friendship are found in Be Good to Your Enemies I and Fiona Famous Integrity are found in Be Good to Your Enemies II and Be Good to Your Enemies III Kindness is found in You Can t Please Everyone Loyalty is found in The Town-Mouse and the Country-Mouse Patience is found in That s Enough! Respect are found in The Color of Friendship, The Ugly Fairy, andthe Best Robot Responsibility is found in The Tidy Toys b. Ethical aspects reflected in children English short stories are as the follows: Normatively, moral values experienced by characters in the short stories. Meta ethically, by using Kant s theory, the characters experienced imperative category in their moral actions. Suggestion Though the English children short stories, it is very interesting in analyzing the wisdom of moral values approach. After analyzing the research, the writer finds that in every story there must be a reason why the author wrote the story, which may came from the author s personal experience. By learning and knowing more detail about the story in the in English children short stories, the writer would like to give some suggestion to be readers especially students of Faculty of Letters who are interested in reading and learning more about the story or other study that would be analyzed. This research found that every short story contain moral value. The students can also analyze the other values of the wisdom with using another approach in other to create different point of view. However, this research is limited in analyzing ten short stories. The writer hopes for next researcher, to try another approach in order to get different perspective of analyzing this story. So, it suggested that another research be conducted about moral value stories to find other kind of moral values.