Courtney Hough General Secretary Federation of European Aquaculture Producers

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1 Courtney Hough General Secretary Federation of European Aquaculture Producers

2 o The basic role of European aquaculture is to provide o healthy, o safe and o nutritious food for the European consumer and o to reduce the chronic imbalance between fisheries imports and exports o The core challenge to the profession is to achieve this within the context of sustainability

3 Fish Farming - The blue revolution Every week, new studies raise alarming questions about the safety of farmed fish and the risk farms pose to the environment The salmon scandal they tried to ignore The connection between seafood and health is undeniable, yet information available to consumers is confusing at best and often conflicting

4 o Fish farming looks mighty easy when your tank/cage is a keyboard, and you're a thousand miles from the site o adapted from Dwight D. Eisenhower

5 Global news reports France: Fish industry posted record deficit in billion World: 11 countries plan to cut prawn catches by 50% Norway: Cod population in Barents Sea may be depleted France: CO2 emissions threaten oysters and mussels Chile: Hake assessed as in "high risk El Salvador: Shrimp fishing ban to take effect in June European Parliamentary [draft opinion] In 20 years, EU fisheries will have been transformed by climate change, and our own actions Need to end the disgraceful discards and by-catch problem key consequences of TACs and Quotas

6 Global news reports UK: Scottish economy gains GB 197mn from salmon farms Spain: Aqua Culture to invest EUR 40mn in fish farm Chile: Novatec enters smolt farm market Turkey: Nireus of Greece with 100% stake in Carbon Norway: Codfarmers forecast increased production 2008 Panama: Tilapia industry doing well Malaysia: Aquaculture industry to be developed European Parliamentary [draft opinion] Increasing significance of fish farming as marine stocks diminish Aquaculture products will soon exceed wild catch Europe must maintain its leadership position Importance of aquaculture in rural and coastal communities cannot be overstressed

7 million tons fisheries 0.96 million tons aquaculture 370,000 fish 590,000 shellfish Trade deficit -2.9 million tons million tons fisheries (- 10%) 1.3 million tons aquaculture (+35%) 580,000 fish (+57%) 703,000 shellfish (+19%) Trade deficit -3.2 million tons (+10%)

8 Aquaculture Production in EU-15 1,400,000 1,200,000 1,000, , , , ,000 0 Shellfish production Fish production

9 Aquaculture Production in Europe 2,500,000 2,000,000 1,500,000 1,000, ,000 0 Shellfish production Fish production

10 EU Trade deficit in seafood is growing Europe alone cannot supply seafood demand from fisheries stock availability, imposed measures and pressure Can aquaculture expand to meet the widening gap?

11 European aquaculture grew within a policy vacuum First development strategy made in 2002 to be reviewed in 2007 Proposal (Green Paper) on Maritime Policy includes aquaculture consultation ends June 2007 Debate on the creation for a European Aquaculture Technology Platform to define RTDI needs of the European aquaculture sector

12 Must avoid mismanagement of the sector Need an enabling environment and Legislation that makes sense for development 2 key questions What do we want? What do we need?

13 Recognise the differences the North is not the South, the West is not the East climate, geography, consumer preferences legislation enabling environment licensing, financing, insurance, education, market Like farming, it is essential to understand the details

14

15 Bigger and bigger cages metres circumference Source: Aqualine

16 Bigger and bigger cages metres circumference m x 4 m depth = 550 m3 6 persons employed 180 tonnes production m x 30 m depth = m3 2 persons employed Source: Aqualine 1100 tonnes production

17 > 1100 tonnes produced per cage is not unusual If the average weight of a cow is 500 kg, this equates to Source: Aqualine

18 .2,200 cows Source: Aqualine

19 Source: Aqualine

20 Source: Aqualine

21 Different breeding programs Terms for production, risk assessment Genetic tools, molecular biology new techniques But need to provide responses to Ethical issues Welfare considerations Consumer demands

22 Increase in production intensification: Potential risk for diseases Bringing new species into production Disease problems will be encountered and knowledge gained Any disease problem must be kept at/below acceptable levels, through Vaccination Site quality / locations Production technology and methods Biological improvement Feed quality Prevention better than treatment!

23 Encouragement needed to develop vaccines/therapeutics for minor species Facilitated validation and approval mechanisms for vaccines/ therapeutics Patenting frameworks international policy Patenting of biological material Biotechnology Ethics Consumer demands

24 Until early 80s: farm-made semi moist pellets Replaced gradually with steam-extruded pelleted feeds Improved durability Improved physical characteristics Increased carbohydrate and nutrient digestibility Better technology for farm feeding 2/3 of the feed composed of fish meal and fish oil

25 By-catch and waste: 27 million mt globally Plant-based raw materials Waste from farmed animals mill. mt Use of zooplankton Cultivation of algae Industrial production of protein and fat Krill? 500 mill t

26 Source: Akvasmart

27 European expansion has brought in more freshwater (mainly carps) and extensive farming Big challenges for integration of this sector Competition from fisheries and other sectors of European aquaculture Live carp vs. salmon fillet. Opportunities exist but diversification is evident Restocking Sport fishing Organic production Exploiting niche markets

28 Blocked by WFD, Natura 2000 and Habitats Increasingly difficult to get new licenses Composed mainly of SMEs and family farms Inundated by legislative demands Overpowered by the conditions of the MRStores Extremely important to provide valid solutions for growth Water recirculation potential Appraisal of diversification opportunities Generational change Financing

29 Good sites must be available (prioritising) with licensing conditions that encourage investment Development of technology (RTD) Inciting the use of best available (and adoptable) technology promoting innovation and technology transfer Using new material technologies, sensors Applying appropriate surveillance and monitoring Zoning, placing/siting, assessing polyculture, area effectiveness Improving funding/capital investment actions

30 Skilled and competent labour and management Long-term availability of capital and financing Infrastructure that supports production Alternative feed resources Producers of sustainable food, of high quality in all ways (environmental, fish health, food safety) Availability of high quality juveniles Best available knowledge in biology, technology, environmental parameters, area management interaction and optimisation

31 The future development of an enabling framework for the activity, Appropriate regulation and facilitated licensing, internationalisation, consumer awareness, priorities etc which deals with all aspects of the aquaculture food chain, infrastructure, consumer trends, R&D, education, etc and allows the sustainable growth of European fish farming

BIO 208 Environmental Impact of Aquaculture Topics include:

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