CHAPTER 10 MODERN ATOMIC THEORY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE SOLUTIONS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS

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1 HEINS v4.qxd 12/30/06 2:05 PM Page 118 CHAPTER 10 MODERN ATOMIC THEORY AND THE PERIODIC TABLE SOLUTIONS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. An electron orbital is a region in space around the nucleus of an atom where an electron is most probably found. 2. A second electron may enter an orbital already occupied by an electron if its spin is opposite that of the electron already in the orbital and all other orbitals of the same sublevel contain an electron. 3. The valence shell is the outermost energy level of an atom. 4. Valence electrons are the electrons located in the outermost energy level of an atom. Valence electrons are involved in bonding. They are important because information involves the gain or loss of valence electrons. Covalent bonding involves sharing valence electrons. 5. All the electrons in the atom are located in the orbitals closest to the nucleus. 6. Both 1s and 2s orbitals are spherical in shape and located symmetrically around the nucleus. The sizes of the spheres are different the radius of the 2s orbital is larger than the 1s. The electrons in 2s orbitals are located further from the nucleus. 7. The letters used to designate the energy sublevels are s, p, d, and f. 8. 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p. 9. s 2 electrons per shell p 6 electrons per shell after the first energy level d 10 electrons per shell after the second energy level. 10. The main difference is that the Bohr orbit has an electron traveling a specific path around the nucleus while an orbital is a region in space where the electron is most probably found. 11. Bohr s model was inadequate since it could not account for atoms more complex than hydrogen. It was modified by Schrödinger into the modern concept of the atom in which electrons exhibit wave and particle properties. The motion of electrons is determined only by probability functions as a region in space, or a cloud surrounding the nucleus. 12. s orbital

2 HEINS v4.qxd 12/30/06 2:05 PM Page 119 p orbitals p x z z z p y p z x x x y is the third energy level d indicates an energy sublevel 7 indicates the number of electrons in the d sublevel. 14. Transition elements are found in the center of the periodic table. The last electrons for these elements are found in the d or f orbitals. Representative elements are located on either side of the periodic table (Group 1A 7A). The valence electrons for these elements are found in s and/or p orbitals. 15. Elements in the s-block all have one or two electrons in their outermost energy level. These valence electrons are located in an s-orbital. 16. Atomic # Symbol 8 O 16 S 34 Se 52 Te 84 Po All of these elements have an outermost electron structure of 17. F, Cl, Br, I, At (Halogens). 18. The greatest number of elements in any period is 32. The period has this number of elements. 19. The elements in Group A always have their last electrons in the outermost energy level, while the last electrons in Group B lie in an inner level. 20. Pairs of elements which are out of sequence with respect to atomic masses are: Ar and K; Co and Ni; Te and I; Th and Pa; U and Np; Pu and Am; Lr and Rf; Sq and Bh. 6 th s 2 p

3 HEINS v4.qxd 12/30/06 2:05 PM Page 120 CHAPTER 10 SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES 1. (a) H 1 proton (c) Sc 21 protons B 5 protons (d) U 92 protons 2. (a) F 9 protons (c) Br 35 protons Ag 47 protons (d) Sb 51 protons 3. (a) B Ti (c) Zn (d) Sr 4. (a) Cl Ag (c) Li (d) Fe (e) I 1s 2 2s 2 2p 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 2 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 1 4d 10 1s 2 2s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 6 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 5 5. The spectral lines of hydrogen are produced by energy emitted when the electron from on hydrogen atom, which has absorbed energy, falls from a higher energy level to a lower energy level (closer to the nucleus). 6. Bohr said that a number of orbits were available for electrons, each corresponding to an energy level. When an electron falls from a higher energy orbit to a lower energy orbit, energy is given off as a specific wavelength of light. Only those energies in the visible range are seen in the hydrogen spectrum. Each line corresponds to a change from one orbit to another orbitals in the third energy level: 3s, 3p x, 3p y, 3p z plus five d orbitals electrons in the fourth energy level

4 HEINS v4.qxd 12/30/06 2:05 PM Page (a) 7p 7n 2e 5e 14 7 N (c) 17p 18n 30p 35n 2e 8e 35 7e 17Cl 2e 8e 18e 65 2e 30Zn (d) 40p 51n 2e 8e 18e 10e 2e 91 40Zr (e) 53p 74n 2e 8e 18e 18e 7e I 10. (a) 14p 14n 2e 8e 28 4e 14Si 16p 16n 2e 8e 32 6e 16S (c) 18p 22n 2e 8e 40 8e 18Ar (d) 23p 28n 2e 8e 11e 51 2e 23V (e) 15p 16n 2e 8e 31 5e 15P 11. (a) O 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 Ca 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 (c) Ar 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 (d) Br 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 5 (e) Fe 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d

5 HEINS v4.qxd 12/30/06 2:05 PM Page (a) Li P (c) Zn (d) Na (e) K 1s 2 2s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 3 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s (a) Mg (c) Ni Al (d) Mn 14. (a) Sc (c) Sn Zn (d) Cs 15. atomic No. electron structure (a) 8 1s 2 2s 2 2p s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 (c) 17 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5 (d) 23 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 3 (e) 28 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 8 (f) 34 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p atomic No. electron structure (a) 9 [He]2s 2 2p 5 26 [Ar]4s 2 3d 6 (c) 31 [Ar]4s 2 3d 10 4p 1 (d) 39 [Kr]5s 2 4d 1 (e) 52 [Kr]5s 2 4d 10 5p 4 (f) 10 [He]2s 2 2p (a) Titanium (Ti) q q

6 HEINS v4.qxd 12/30/06 2:05 PM Page 123 (c) (d) (e) Argon (Ar) Arsenic (As) Bromine (Br) Manganese (Mn) 18. (a) Phosphorus (P) Zinc (Zn) ` (c) Calcium (Ca) (d) (e) 19. (a) F (c) (d) (e) Selenium (Se) Potassium (K) S Co Kr Ru qp qp q q q q q q q q qp q q qp qp q q q q qp qp q q q q q qp q q q qp qp q q q

7 HEINS v4.qxd 12/30/06 2:05 PM Page (a) Cl Mg (c) Ni (d) Cu (e) Ba qp qp q qp qp qp q q q S 21. (a) Ni p (a) 2e 8e 3e 14n 27 13Al 22p 2e 8e 10e 2e 26n 48 22Ti 23. The eleventh electron of sodium is located in the third energy level because the first and second levels are filled. Also the properties of sodium are similar to the other elements in Group 1A. 24. The last electron in potassium is located in the fourth energy level because the 4s orbital is at a lower energy level than the 3d orbital. Also the properties of potassium are similar to the other elements in Group 1A. 25. Noble gases all have filled s and p orbitals in the outermost energy level. 26. Noble gases each have filled s and p orbitals in the outermost energy level. 27. Moving from left to right in any period of elements, the atomic number increases by one from one element to the next and the atomic radius generally decreases. Each period (except period 1) begins with an alkali metal and ends with a noble gas. There is a trend in properties of the elements changing from metallic to nonmetallic from the beginning to the end of the period

8 HEINS v4.qxd 12/30/06 2:05 PM Page The elements in a group have the same number of outer energy level electrons. They are located vertically on the periodic table. 29. (a) 4 6 (c) 1 (d) 7 (e) (a) 5 5 (c) 6 (d) 2 (e) The outermost energy level contains one electron in an s orbital. 32. All of these elements have a s 2 d 10 electron configuration in their outermost energy levels. 33. (a) and (g) and (d) 34. (a) and (f) (e) and (h) , 38 since they are in the same periodic group , 33 since they are in the same periodic group. 37. (a) K, metal (c) S, nonmetal Pu, metal (d) Sb, metalloid 38. (a) I, nonmetal (c) Mo, metal W, metal (d) Ge, metalloid 39. Period 6, lanthanide series, contains the first element with an electron in an f orbital. 40. Period 4 Group 3B contains the first element with an electron in a d orbital. 41. Group 7A contain 7 valence electrons. Group 7B contain 2 electrons in the outermost level and 5 electrons in an inner d orbital. Group A elements are representative while Group B elements are transition elements. 42. Group 3A contain 3 valence electrons. Group 3B contain 2 electrons in the outermost level and one electron in an inner d orbital. Group A elements are representative while Group B elements are transition elements. 43. The valence energy level of an atom can be determined by looking at what period the element is in. Period 1 corresponds to valence energy level 1, period 2 to valence energy level 2 and so on. The number of valence electrons for element s 1 18 can be determined by looking at the group number. For example, boron is under Group 3A, therefore it has three valence shell electrons

9 HEINS v4.qxd 12/30/06 2:05 PM Page (a) valence energy level 2, 1 valence electron valence energy level 3, 7 valence electrons (c) valence energy level 3, 4 valence electrons (d) valence energy level 3, 6 valence electrons (e) valence energy level 2, 2 valence electrons 45. (a) Na +, (d) F - and (e) Ne have 8 valence electons. 46. (a) 7A, Halogens (d) 8A, Noble Gases 2A, Alkaline Earth Metals (e) 8A, Noble Gases (c) 1A, Alkali Metals (f) 1A, Alkali Metals 47. (a) The four most abundant elements in the earth s crust, seawater, and air are: O: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 Si: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 2 Al: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 1 Fe: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 6 The five most abundant elements in the human body are: O: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 4 C: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 H: 1s 1 N: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 3 Ca: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s Maximum number of electrons (a) Any orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons. A d sublevel can hold a maximum of ten electrons. (c) The third principal energy level can hold two electrons in 3s, six electrons in 3p, and ten electrons in 3d for a total of eighteen electrons. (d) Any orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons. (e) An f sublevel can hold a maximum of fourteen electrons. 49. Name of elements (a) Magnesium Phosphorus (c) Argon 50. Nitrogen has more valence electrons on more energy levels. More varied electron transitions are possible * = 150,000,000 = 1.0 * (a) Ne Ge (c) F (d) N 53. The outermost electron structure for both sulfur and oxygen is s 2 p Transition elements are found in Groups 1B 8B lanthanides and actinides. 55. In transition elements the last electron added is in a d or f orbital. The last electron added in a representative element is in an s or p orbital

10 HEINS v4.qxd 12/30/06 2:05 PM Page Elements number 8, 16, 34, 52, 84 all have 6 electrons in their outer shell. 57. Family names (a) Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals (c) Halogens 58. Sublevels (a) sublevel p sublevel d (c) sublevel f 59. (a) Na representative element metal N representative element nonmetal (c) Mo transition element metal (d) Ra representative element metal (e) As representative element metalloid (f) Ne noble gas nonmetal 60. If element 36 is a noble gas, 35 would be in periodic Group 7A and 37 would be in periodic Group 1A. 61. Answers will vary but should at least include a statement about: (1) Numbering of the elements and their relationship to atomic structure; (2) division of the elements into periods and groups; (3) division of the elements into metals, nonmetals, and metalloids; (4) identification and location of the representative and transition elements. 62. (a) [Rn]7s 2 5f 14 6d 10 7p 5 7 valence electrons, 7s 2 7p 5 (c) F, Cl, Br, I, At (d) halogen family, Period (a) The two elements are isotopes. The two elements are adjacent to each other in the same period. 64. Most gases are located in the upper right part of the periodic table (H is an exception). They are nonmetals. Liquids show no pattern. Neither do solids, except the vast majority of solids are metals. 65. excited sulfur atom: electron configuration: orbital diagram: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 3p 5 q qp qp q 66. Electrons are located in seven principal energy levels. The outermost energy level has one electron residing in a 7s orbital

11 HEINS v4.qxd 12/30/06 2:05 PM Page Metals are located on the left side of the periodic table. The elements in Group 1A have only one valence electron and those in Group 2A have only tow valence electrons. All metals easily lose their valence electrons to obtain a Noble Gas configuration. Nonmetals are located on the right side of the periodic table where they are only 1 or 2 electrons short of a noble gas configuration. Nonmetals gain valence electrons to obtain a noble gas configuration. 68. On the periodic table, the period number corresponds to the principal energy level in which the s and p sublevels are filling. The group number of the Main Representative elements corresponds to the number of electrons filling in the principal energy level. Groups 1A and 2A are known as the s block elements and Groups 3A through 8A are known as the p block elements

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