Atomic Number. Electron Arrangement. Chemical Symbol. Element Name. Atomic Mass

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1 Atom and Periodic Table Notes 6 C Carbon Atomic Number Electron Arrangement Chemical Symbol Element Name Atomic Mass A. Element Key Information about elements are listed on the periodic table. This may include the element name, chemical symbol, atomic number, atomic mass, and electron arrangement. 1. Atomic Number is used to identify the element by representing the number of protons. 2. Chemical symbol one or two letters that identify the element, the first letter is always a capital, the second if present is lower case. 3. Atomic Mass is the mass of one atom. 4. Electron arrangement number of electrons at each energy level. Can be found on some periodic tables. B. Atoms 1. Atom - the smallest unit of matter that still retains properties of the element. 2. Atomic mass unit (amu) unit of measurement used for atomic mass 3. Nucleus positively charged center of the atom, contains protons and neutrons.

2 4. Electron Cloud - space around the nucleus where the electrons are found 5. Energy Levels represent the most likely location of electrons within the electron cloud, based on energy. 6. Protons a. have a positive charge b. mass is 1 amu c. found in the nucleus d. number of protons = the atomic number 7. Neutrons a. have no charge (Neutral) b. mass is 1 amu c. found in the nucleus d. number of neutrons = Atomic mass Atomic number (Atomic mass) (# of protons) = (# of neutrons) 8. Electrons a. have a negative charge b. nearly no mass, 0 amu c. likely location within the electron cloud is based on energy d. electron arrangement number of electrons at each energy level. Can be found on some periodic tables.

3 Element Atomic Number Atomic Mass # Protons # Neutrons Electron Arrangement Carbon 6 12 Potassium Phosphorus 15 Manganese 25 Silver 47 Krypton 36 C. Drawing atoms - Bohr Model is a representation of the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus. 1. Identify numbers of P, N, and E at each energy level. 2. Label # P and # N inside the nucleus 3. Mark the electron arrangement, draw rings for each energy level 4. Spread out E at each energy level. D. Periodic Table - The periodic table is a classification system. 1. Vertical columns of elements are called groups or families. Elements within the same group or family have similar but not identical properties 2. Horizontal rows are called periods. The properties change as you go across a row, however there is a pattern to this change

4 E. Metals 1. Found to the left of the staircase line, including aluminum 2. Identified by their shine, or luster 3. Generally high melting points 4. Generally high densities 5. Malleable able to be hammered into a thin sheet 6. Ductile able to be stretched or pulled into wires 7. Good conductors of heat and electricity F. Nonmetals 1. Found to the right of the staircase line, includes hydrogen 2. Not shiny, dull in appearance 3. Usually low melting points 4. Usually low densities 5. Brittle, hard or soft 6. Poor conductors of heat and electricity G. Metalloids 1. Found along the staircase line, minus aluminum 2. Can be shiny or dull 3. Fairly high melting points and densities 4. Conduct heat and electricity better than nonmetals, but not as well as metals. H. Classifying matter 1. Element Pure substance made up of only one kind of atom a. Ex) iron nail, copper penny, gold ring

5 2. Compound - Pure substance made up of two or more elements chemically bonded a. Ex) water, hydrogen peroxide, sugar, salt 3. Mixture - Combinations of two or more substances that do not combine to make a new substance. a. Ex) air, blood, fruit salad, salt water I. Compounds 1. Cannot be separated by simple means 2. Elements gain new properties when they form a compound 3. Chemical formula a way of describing the number of atoms that make up one molecule of a compound a. Molecule smallest particle of a substance that still has the properties of that substance J. Mixtures 1. Each substance retains its own physical and chemical properties 2. Does not need to contain the same amount of each substance 3. Separation techniques: mechanically, filtering, sieves, sifters, evaporation, magnets, distillation, centrifuge 4. Two types of mixtures heterogeneous and homogeneous a. Heterogeneous mixtures heterogeneous means different throughout. Heterogeneous mixtures have larger parts that are different from each other. Ex) milk, taco, suspensions b. Homogeneous mixtures homogeneous means the same throughout. Homogeneous mixtures have uniform composition, appearance, and properties. Ex) brass, black coffee, solutions

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