AQUACULTURE IN ICELAND AND COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT

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1 AQUACULTURE IN ICELAND AND COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT Valdimar Ingi Gunnarsson M.Sc. Fisheries

2 INTRODUCTION Aquaculture in Iceland An overview Sea cage farms in Iceland Environmental impacts of aquaculture Licences in Icelandic aquaculture Environmental issues - Protection areas and import restrictions

3 OVERVIEW SPECIES IN ICELANDIC AQUACULTURE Atlantic salmon Atlantic cod Arctic charr Atlantic halibut Rainbow trout Turbot Blue mussel Experimental Macrobrachium rosenbergii, River eel, Spotted catfish, Abalone, Tilapia and Haddock etc.

4 Production (t) OVERVIEW AQUACULTURE PRODUCTION IN ICELAND Other Cod Char Rainbow Salmon

5 OVERVIEW LAND-BASED FARMS IN ICELAND 2008 Silfurstjarnan Tungusilungur Hólalax Fiskeldid Haukamýragili Arctic charr (< m 3 ) Arctic charr (> m 3 ) Atlantic halibut Turbot Islandsbleikja Islandsbleikja Glædir

6 OVERVIEW LAND-BASED FARMS: SILFURSTJARNAN

7 SEA CAGE FARMS IN ICELAND LOCATION OF FARMS

8 SEA CAGE FARMS IN ICELAND RIFÓS, HRAÐFRYSTIHÚSIÐ GUNNVÖR AND HB GRANDI

9 Number of cage farms SEA CAGE FARMS IN ICELAND DEVELOPMENT East North Westfjord South and West

10 SEA CAGE FARMS IN ICELAND DIFFICULT ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS Over the past decades there has been little success in cage aquaculture in Iceland. The environmental conditions for cage aquaculture are difficult in Iceland. Damage of equipment and mortality and escape of farmed fish has been common, especially in the years Recent years have seen more success in cage aquaculture in Iceland.

11 SEA CAGE FARMS IN ICELAND INCREASING OPTIMISM There is more knowledge in general about environmental conditions and the operation of sea cage farms. Cages have been adapted to the environmental conditions in Iceland and climatic changes (global warming) increase the potential for cage aquaculture in Icelandic waters. The farming of Atlantic cod has recently started. Cod is better adapted than Atlantic salmon to the conditions in Iceland. Today, Atlantic cod, Arctic char and Atlantic salmon, rainbow trout are commercially reared in cages in Iceland.

12 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF AQUACULTURE Noise, odour and visual impacts of associated activities Associated imputs, such as antifouling and antiseptic Sea level Enrichment (nitrogen and phosphorus) increased phytoplanton blooms Chemical from medication and treatments Escapes interbreeding with wild populations Solid organic material smothering bentic communities Excess feed and faeces H2S Disease and parasisters (sea lice)

13 Licence in Icelandic aquaculture Environmental and Operating licences Licence requirements in aquaculture A licence is required to engage in aquaculture and sea ranching activities in Iceland. This means that activities without a licence are illegal. The main components of the licence consist of the right to produce specific species, in a specific quantity at specific sites. Two licences Environmental licence Operating licence Licences are issued by two governmental institutions, one agency under the Ministry for the Environment and the other under the Ministry of Fisheries and Agriculture.

14 LICENCE IN ICELANDIC AQUACULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL LICENCES Environmental licences The Icelandic Environmental Agency is the state authority for the environmental licensing of aquaculture. The Agency issues licences to large stations and the local Health Inspection Authorities issue licenses to small farms. A number of other state and communal authorities are involved in the process of licensing and have control responsibilities. The environmental licence contains specific criteria regarding pollution, harmful chemicals, distribution of suspended solids and other local environmental issues.

15 LICENCE IN ICELANDIC AQUACULTURE Operating licences OPERATING LICENCES An operation licence issued by the Directorate of Fisheries is required for all fish farming. The directorate collects data and evaluates on ecological factors and disease connected factors that could possibly be related to the farming. The operating licence pertains to ecological, parasitological and genetic interactions. The operating licence also contains specifications regarding the species being reared, total production allowed, monitoring and research and any precautionary conditions related to the escape of fish from cages and their recovery.

16 LICENCE IN ICELANDIC AQUACULTURE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Environmental impact assessment For all intensive fish farming, where the annual production is 200 tonnes or more and waste water empties into the ocean, or where annual production is 20 tonnes or more and waste water empties into freshwater the developer shall notify the Icelandic Planning Agency. The Minister for the Environment can decide that an environmental impact assessment is required before a licence is issued. Those who apply for licences, or the authorities implicated in the process, can suggest that the Minister should require an environmental impact assessment if they fear there is a danger of significant effects on the environment.

17 LICENCE IN ICELANDIC AQUACULTURE COMPLICATED PROCESS Simplified; now only Directorate of Fisheries

18 LICENCE IN ICELANDIC AQUACULTURE SIMPLIFIED PROCESS Directorate of Fisheries Application for enviromental and operating licence Aquaculture licence An environmental impact assessment

19 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES PROTECTION AREAS To protect sport fishing for Salmon large areas have been zoned as off limits for salmon aquaculture (Announcement 226/2001) on exclusion zones, where aquaculture of viably breeding salmo salar in sea cage is prohibited) Rationale: To prevent possible genetic pollution from aquaculture fish Prevent infestation from parasites/diseases Escapees covered in regulation (R1011/2003) on facilities, equipment, control and monitoring Rules for salmon and related species strict compared to marine fish However, it states that if measures are proven to be inefficient to prevent genetic pollution of local stocks a ban will be put in effect as a precautionary principle measure.

20 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES PROTECTION AREAS - WILD COD SPAWNING AREAS? Wild cod spawning areas (black), and juveniles distribution (grey) G. Marteinsdóttir et al, 2000

21 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IMPORT RESTRICTIONS Genetically modified fish not accepted Law (L18/1996) stipulates that nature, environment, plants, animals and humans are to be protected from harmful detrimental effects from genetically modified organisms Import restrictions Strict import requirements for genetic material (eggs / roes, juvenile fish etc.) Import of alien specie are under constant scrutiny This is often merged with disease prevention import measures (R509/2004) Permission to import alien species: Rainbow trout, Abalone, Tilapia, Bass, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

22 Thank you for your attention More information on 7 September 2009 Valdimar Ingi Gunnarsson M.Sci.Fisheries

23 LEGISLATION FOR AQUACULTURE COSTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT Icelandic legislation in many areas takes account of the Basic EU Legislation Responsibilities in Iceland Ministry of fisheries and agriculture Consumer protection, and food safety, and production and industry matters (licensing) Environmental Ministry Impact assessments / licensing

24 LEGISLATION FOR AQUACULTURE COSTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT List of legislation & regulations Aquaculture general L 71/2008 on Aquaculture L 50/1986 on research unit for fish diseases L 60/2006 on protection against fish diseases R 105/2000 on transport, release salmonides and preventive measures against disease and blending of salmon/trout stocks R 527/2003 on sampling plans and analytical methods to detect and confirm fish diseases R 1011/2003 on equipment and internal control and monitoring at fish farms Announcement (A 226/2001) on exclusion zones, where aquaculture of viably breeding salmo salar in sea cage is prohibited Etc.

25 LEGISLATION FOR AQUACULTURE COSTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT List of legislation & regulations Environmental protection L 7/1998 on sanitary measures and pollution control L 786/1999 on pollution monitoring bodies L 106/2000 on assessment of environmental impacts R 990/2005 on free participation of enterprises and institutes in environmental schemes, EMAS R 851/2002 on Green bookkeeping Licensing of operations R 785/1999 on operating permits for industries that may cause pollution L 106/2000 on assessment of environmental impacts

26 LEGISLATION FOR AQUACULTURE COSTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT List of legislation & regulations Waste management R 224/2005 on implementation of EEA (EC) directives on management, control of waste transported inside and outside of the European Union / European Economic Area R 737/2003 on handling of waste R 820/2007 handling and use of animal- and slaughter wastes [relates to: EC Directive 90/667] Water protection R 804/1999 on protection against nitrogen pollution of water from agriculture and other industry

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