# Deree College Department of Economics Andreas Kontoleon EC 1100 Fall Semester ANSWERS TO HOMEWORK QUESTIONS FOR CHAPTER 11

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2 each other in order to increase their production. Thus, costs and prices start to rise in the economy, pushing up the price level as full employment is reached. In the vertical range of the AS curve, absolute full capacity has been reached; the economy, by definition, cannot produce any more (not until, through economic growth, the potential output of the economy has increased). Since the economy has attained its potential, any further increase in AD cannot be met by an increase in output. Therefore, the increase in AD results only in pure demand-pull inflation Explain: A change in the price level shifts the aggregate expenditures curve but not the aggregate demand curve. A change in the price level does not shift the aggregate demand curve. It simply represents a movement along the curve, because there is an inverse relationship between the price level and aggregate quantity demanded. However, a change in the price level will shift the aggregate expenditures curve, which responds to the wealth, interest-rate, and foreign purchases effects occurring with a change in price level. When the price level declines, aggregate expenditures will rise, and when the price level rises, aggregate expenditures will fall. The aggregate expenditures model assumes a constant price level, so it is expressed in real terms. Figure 11-2 graphically illustrates the relationship between the two models Suppose that aggregate demand and supply for a hypothetical economy are as shown: Amount of real domestic output demanded, billions \$ Price level (price index) Amount of real domestic output supplied, billions \$ a. Use these sets of data to graph the aggregate demand and supply curves. What will be the equilibrium price level and level of real domestic output in this hypothetical economy? Is the equilibrium real output also the absolute full-capacity real output? Explain. b. Why will a price level of 150 not be an equilibrium price level in this economy? Why not 250? c. Suppose that buyers desire to purchase \$ billion of extra real domestic output at each price level. What factors might cause this change in aggregate demand? What is the new equilibrium price level and level of real output? Over which range of the aggregate supply curve horizontal, intermediate, or vertical has equilibrium changed? (a) See graph below. Equilibrium price level =. Equilibrium real output = \$ billion. No, the full-capacity level of GDP is \$400 billion, where the AS curve becomes vertical (b) At a price level of 150, real GDP supplied is a maximum of \$ billion, less than the real GDP demanded of \$400 billion. The shortage of real output will drive the price level up. At a price level of 250, real GDP supplied is \$400 billion, which is more than the real GDP demanded of \$ billion. The surplus 2

3 of real output will drive down the price level. Equilibrium occurs at the price level at which AS and AD intersect. See the graph. Increases in consumer, investment, government, or net export spending might shift the AD curve rightward. New equilibrium price level = 250. New equilibrium GDP = \$400 billion. The intermediate range Suppose that the hypothetical economy in question 4 had the following relationship between its real domestic output and the input quantities necessary for producing that level of output: a. What is productivity in this economy? b. What is the per unit cost of production if the price of each input is \$2? c. Assume that the input price increases from \$2 to \$3 with no accompanying change in productivity. What is the new per unit cost of production? In what direction did the \$1 increase in input price push the aggregate supply curve? What effect would this shift in aggregate supply have upon the price level and the level of real output? d. Suppose that the increase in input price does not occur but instead that productivity increases by 100 percent. What would be the new per unit cost of production? What effect would this change in per unit production cost have on the aggregate supply curve? What effect would this shift in aggregate supply have on the price level and the level of real output? Input quantity Real domestic output 400 (a) Productivi ty? 2.67? / 112.5?. (b) Pre - unit cost of production? \$.75? \$2? /?. (c) New per unit production cost? \$1.13. The AS curve would shift leftward. The price level would rise and real output would decrease. (d) New per unit cost of production? \$0.375? \$2? / 600?. AS curve shifts to the right; price level declines and real output increases. 3

5 c. Equal increases in aggregate demand and aggregate supply. d. A reduction in aggregate demand in the horizontal range of aggregate supply. e. An increase in aggregate demand and a decrease in aggregate supply. f. A decrease in aggregate demand in the intermediate range of aggregate supply (a) Price level rises and no change in real output (b) Price level drops and real output increases (c) Price level does not change, but real output rises (d) Price level does not change, but real output declines (e) Price level increases, but the cha nge in real output is indeterminate (f) Price level may not change, but real output declines (if prices are flexible downward, then output will decline but not as much as if prices stay high) 11-9 Suppose that the price level is constant and investment spending increases sharply. How would you show this increase in the aggregate expenditures model? What would be the outcome? How would you show this rise in investment in the aggregate demand-aggregate supply model? What range of the aggregate supply curve is involved? An increase in investment spending represents an increase in aggregate expenditures and an upward shift in the aggregate expenditures curve. The outcome would be a new, greater equilibrium output level. This rise in output would be equal to a multiple of the initial change in investment spending based on the multiplier effect. The multiplier is 1/MPS in this model. Because we are assuming the price level is constant with increased aggregate demand, the shift in aggregate demand occurs in the horizontal range of the aggregate supply curve. It would be a rightward shift of aggregate demand, and the new equilibrium output would fall to the right of the original equilibrium by the full extent of the shift in aggregate demand Explain how an upsloping aggregate supply curve might weaken the multiplier. An upward sloping aggregate supply curve weakens the effect of the multiplier because any increase in aggregate demand will have both a price and an output effect. For example, if aggregate demand grows by \$110 million, this could represent an increase of \$100 million in real output and \$10 million in higher prices if the inflation rate averages 10 percent. The multiplier is weakened because some of the increase in aggregate demand is absorbed by the higher prices and real output does not change by the full extent of the change in aggregate demand Why does a reduction in aggregate demand reduce real output, rather than the price level? A reduction in aggregate demand causes a decline in real output rather than the price level because prices are sticky or inflexible downward. If we assume prices are completely inflexible downward, then a reduction in demand is essentially moving leftward in the horizontal range of aggregate supply, whic h means reduced output at a constant price. To say prices are completely inflexible downward may exaggerate but prices don t fall easily for several reasons: wage contracts, minimum wage laws, employee morale, fear of price wars and the menu cost notion Unemployment can be caused by a decrease in aggregate demand or a decrease in aggregate supply. Do you agree? Explain. In each case specify price-level effects. Assuming the economy was not operating in the vertical range of the AS curve, the statement is true. In either case, the new point of intersection is to the left of the previous position, denoting a decrease in real domestic output and, therefore, assuming no change in productivity, necessarily an increase in unemployment. 5

6 However, assuming complete flexibility of prices and wages, the decrease in AD will result in a lower price level, whereas the decrease in AS will result in a higher price level. From the point of view of price stability, therefore, the decrease in AD is preferable. If the economy were in the horizontal range initially, there would be no price changes in either case. 6

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