Is autism different for girls?

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Is autism different for girls?"

Transcription

1 Is autism different for girls? Are parents and professionals missing the signs of autism in girls? Kate Reynolds looks at why female autism is often diagnosed late and misunderstood The most common autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) seen by health and education services are autistic disorder, also called childhood or classic autism, and Asperger s syndrome*. Autistic disorder is characterised by speech delay and signs of impaired social interaction, communication and imagination. Lorna Wing s research found a ratio of two to one male to female prevalence of autistic disorder and fifteen to one for Asperger s syndrome, suggesting that girls were less prone to the more subtle forms of ASD (Wing, 1981). Certainly, males are more susceptible to organic conditions (where there is measurable disease) such as autism which is a neurological developmental condition. In addition, girls appear to have some protection from the genetic variants that are thought to cause autism. However, it is becoming clear that girls simply may be under-represented in Asperger figures because the history of research into ASD, from its inception with Kanner s and Asperger s work in the mid 1940s onwards, is based on males. Diagnostic tools using interviews, specific tasks and categorisation of behaviours resulting in quantitative scores for analysis were developed according to male phenotypes (Gould and Ashton-Smith, 2011). The ways in which Asperger s syndrome manifests in girls have not been adequately investigated and only in the last five to ten years has attention been focused on females. Signs of autism in girls Diagnosis of ASD is based on the triad of impairments, identified by Wing and Gould in With Asperger's syndrome, girls can present differently to boys in each of these areas of impairment. Social interaction: (Holtman et al., 2007)

2 boys with ASD tend not to appear motivated to be socially interactive, but girls on the spectrum do. However, girls have a history of failure in achieving and maintaining friendships girls gravitate towards older girls, who tend to mother them and act as a form of social protection girls may be socially immature and make a preference to play with much younger children who are not challenging and would allow the child with ASD to dominate play, giving them the predictability and control children with autism crave girls with Asperger s may adopt a less able peer, perhaps someone with a learning difficulty, who may themselves be marginalised so they are open to being dominated by the child with ASD girls with Asperger s may be unnecessarily dependent on their mother (or other primary carer) whom they regard as their best friend and confidante in a social world which they find challenging and frightening. Social communication: boys engage in disruptive behaviours, whereas girls may be persistently ill to gain what they want or control their situation girls with ASD tend to act passively and ignore daily demands, while boys become disruptive in response girls appear more able to concentrate than boys, who become distracted more easily and can be disruptive girls tend to learn social behaviours by observation and copying, which can disguise their social deficits girls may find the idea of social hierarchy difficult, so they can respond inappropriately to people in authority, such as teachers children with ASD of both sexes need to learn the rules of small talk which they often find incomprehensible as a pastime. Girls difficulties tend to be masked by their passive behaviours and ability to mimic without understanding.

3 Social imagination: parents may perceive their daughter as being non-specifically odd, but without being able to pinpoint the cause imaginative play does exist, but it is intense in nature, often focused on stereotypical female interests, such as dolls, make-up, animals and celebrities which is why girls with ASD may not seem that different to females not on the Special interests of girls with ASD can focus on stereotypical "female" subjects spectrum. The key is the intensity and quality of these special interests, which are exclusive, all-consuming and experienced in detail children with ASD can engage in repetitive questioning well beyond the age that those who are not on the spectrum would normally do. They can exhibit poor empathic skills and a lack of social interest. They can also seem disinterested in the classroom and exhibit immature, impulsive and unusual behaviours. An inability to move on, even with basic matters, can be common for example, not being happy to throw away old toys or clothes which the child has long since grown out of. This cluttering behaviour can outline their difficulties with change. While such types of behaviour may be common to both sexes, the ways in which they present can be different for boys and girls. It seems that girls on the autistic spectrum may be less noticeable than boys because they are less disruptive and have an ability to mimic behaviours (Attwood, 2012.) However, they lack social understanding and any deep knowledge of language. This becomes increasingly obvious at secondary school level, when there are no younger children to associate with, when peer groups are more mixed and any protection may have dissolved. Additionally, multiple stimuli (such as crowds in corridors or screams in playgrounds) and changes to routines which occur at secondary education can increase individual anxiety greatly. Adolescence, involving unstoppable changes, such as menstruation and the growth of breasts and body hair, can profoundly affect girls with ASD, heightening anxieties due to lack of control over what is happening.

4 Mental health issues for girls Anorexia nervosa has been called female Asperger s because around one fifth of girls who present with anorexia have traits which are peculiar to the autistic spectrum; around 20 to 30 per cent of anorexic patients are perfectionists and demonstrate rigid modes of thinking and behaviour, which are common autistic traits. Anorexia offers girls with ASD what they perceive to be a positive outcome because lack of nutrition prevents menstruation and physical development. It is not until puberty that girls social difficulties become more obvious, particularly as they enter secondary school when they can become the subject of bullying or can be generally marginalised and perceived as strange. Unlike boys, they become withdrawn, depressed and quiet, rather than aggressive. Profound anxieties may be demonstrated in altered behaviours, lower grades at school, poor sleep patterns, low mood/depression and obsessive behaviour. Research from 2011 found that many women who were later diagnosed as being on the autistic spectrum initially were thought to have learning difficulties, personality disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder or eating disorders (Rivet and Matson, 2011). This differential diagnosis could be related to lack of awareness of how ASD present in females. The need for change More research is essential to identify features of ASD, particularly Asperger's syndrome, in girls and to train health and teaching staff about presentations in females. Diagnostic tools must be adapted to incorporate gender differences and ensure that scores attributed to behaviours include the range of symptoms in girls. Observation of girls in the social setting of school, paying close attention to friendships, is vital for diagnosis. Seeing how girls manage during unstructured time is also telling, since those with Asperger's have difficulty identifying how to fill the time and do not enjoy the freedom but are lost and anxious.

5 The earlier diagnosis is made, the sooner intervention can be implemented. Within a school, this might mean: use of visual timetables or other visual aids to underpin communication and increase predictability emphasis on visual and sensory play for younger children occupational therapy input to address any sensory issues and enhance coordination and musculo-skeletal abilities programs to improve knowledge of facial expressions and understand the physical signs of feelings and attach names to those emotions social programs, involving exercises and language games, performed by small groups of children with ASD buddying between individual children with ASD and older volunteer children in school, who can offer social support and advice about social interactions structuring breaks and lunchtimes for girls with ASD increasing awareness among teachers so that they do not suddenly present tests to children with ASD (and therefore other children). Lessons should be highly structured and teachers should help those with ASD during unstructured time careful positioning of children with ASD in the class, away from distracting children warning of sensory stimuli that are to be introduced into the class close liaison with parents to understand if school is causing high anxiety which is being acted out at home (for example, with friendships issues) and discuss behaviours in school helping parents to support language skills, using games provided by school or speech and language therapists. All research suggests that an early diagnosis of ASD, followed by appropriate interventions, will optimise the person s life chances by increasing independence, understanding and accumulation of language and social abilities. To date, the ways in which females present with Asperger s have not been thoroughly examined or used as the basis for diagnostic tools, which continue to be male dominated.

6 The All Party Parliamentary Group on Autism is recommending that there is a lead teacher for autism in every school who has relevant expertise and training. This follows a survey which found that 80 per cent of respondents thought that teachers were not given sufficient training to support children with autism. Any such training should, of course, include gender issues. After all, teachers are in a unique position to be able to identify the signs of ASD in girls and implement strategies to help them to develop to their full potential. Further information Kate Reynolds is a registered general nurse, counsellor and trainer of health professionals with 18 years NHS experience. She is the mother of an autistic child and the author of Party Planning for Children and Teens on the Autism Spectrum. Kate blogs at: * The term Asperger s syndrome is used also to refer to higher functioning autism (HFA) for the purposes of this article, since the only difference in presentation is that HFA involves clinical speech delay in childhood. References and further reading Attwood, T. (2012) The Pattern of Abilities and Development of Girls with Asperger s Syndrome. Archived paper at: Gould, J. and Ashton-Smith, J. (May 2011) Missed diagnosis or misdiagnosis? Girls and women on the autism spectrum, Good Autism Practice, Vol. 12 No. 1 p Holtman, M., Bolte, S. and Poustka, F. (2007) Autism Spectrum Disorders: Sex Difference in Autistic Behaviours Domains and Coexisting Psychopathology, Developmental and Child Neurology, 49 p Rivet, T. T. and Matson, J. L. (2011) Review of Gender Differences in Core Symptomatology in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 5 (3) Wing, L. (1981) Sex ratios in early childhood autism and related conditions. Psychiatry Research 5(2):

Missed Diagnosis or Misdiagnosis? Girls and Women in the Autism Spectrum. Dr Judith Gould Director The NAS Lorna Wing Centre for Autism

Missed Diagnosis or Misdiagnosis? Girls and Women in the Autism Spectrum. Dr Judith Gould Director The NAS Lorna Wing Centre for Autism Missed Diagnosis or Misdiagnosis? Girls and Women in the Autism Spectrum Dr Judith Gould Director The NAS Lorna Wing Centre for Autism Why the Interest NAS Lorna Wing Centre increasing number of girls

More information

Girls and women with autism spectrum disorder

Girls and women with autism spectrum disorder Girls and women with autism spectrum disorder What is the issue? One of the most striking features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the fact that it is diagnosed around four times more often in boys

More information

Supporting girls with Asperger s / autism in the mainstream classroom. Victoria

Supporting girls with Asperger s / autism in the mainstream classroom. Victoria Supporting girls with Asperger s / autism in the mainstream classroom Victoria Honeybourne @HoneybeeVic Aims of today: To understand some of the main differences in how Asperger s / autism presents in

More information

DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria

DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria DSM-5 Diagnostic Criteria Autism Speaks is pleased to provide the full-text of the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and the related diagnosis of social communication disorder (SCD),

More information

What are autism spectrum disorders?

What are autism spectrum disorders? What are autism spectrum disorders? Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are lifelong developmental disabilities characterised by marked difficulties in social interaction, impaired communication, restricted

More information

INFORMATION PAPER INTRODUCING THE DSM-5 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER

INFORMATION PAPER INTRODUCING THE DSM-5 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER INFORMATION PAPER INTRODUCING THE DSM-5 DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER What is the DSM-5? The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (the DSM) is developed by the American

More information

Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Awareness Level Training for Educators

Autism Spectrum Disorders: An Awareness Level Training for Educators Autism Spectrum s: An Awareness Level Training for Educators Autism is the Fastest-Growing Developmental Disability More common than pediatric cancer, diabetes and AIDS combined Autism increased 172% during

More information

What is Autism? And how it s suddenly all about to change. Robyn Young Associate Professor School of Psychology Flinders University

What is Autism? And how it s suddenly all about to change. Robyn Young Associate Professor School of Psychology Flinders University What is Autism? And how it s suddenly all about to change Robyn Young Associate Professor School of Psychology Flinders University May 14, 2013 Plan Introduce you to changes in Autism Spectrum Disorder

More information

The new Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Diagnostic Criteria as defined by the DSM-V

The new Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Diagnostic Criteria as defined by the DSM-V The new Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Diagnostic Criteria as defined by the DSM-V Written by Dr Rucha Joshi, Aspect Victoria, Positive Behaviour Support Specialist. There have been lots of discussions

More information

Fact Sheet 10 DSM-5 and Autism Spectrum Disorder

Fact Sheet 10 DSM-5 and Autism Spectrum Disorder Fact Sheet 10 DSM-5 and Autism Spectrum Disorder A diagnosis of autism is made on the basis of observed behaviour. There are no blood tests, no single defining symptom and no physical characteristics that

More information

Autism Spectrum Disorder and Girls

Autism Spectrum Disorder and Girls Autism Spectrum Disorder and Girls Research Bulletin Issue No. 4 Supporting the promotion of excellence throughout Northern Ireland and Ireland in the education of children and young people with autism

More information

ASD Module Script. Module 1: Autism Spectrum Disorder Characteristics

ASD Module Script. Module 1: Autism Spectrum Disorder Characteristics ASD Module Script Module 1: Autism Spectrum Disorder Characteristics ASD Characteristics: Welcome to the module on ASD characteristics. The goal of this module is to give you, the listener, a full understanding

More information

NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR HEALTH AND CLINICAL EXCELLENCE SCOPE

NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR HEALTH AND CLINICAL EXCELLENCE SCOPE NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR HEALTH AND CLINICAL EXCELLENCE SCOPE 1 Guideline title Autistic spectrum conditions: diagnosis and management of autistic spectrum conditions in adults 1.1 Short title Autistic spectrum

More information

Pervasive developmental disorders. workshop

Pervasive developmental disorders. workshop Pervasive developmental disorders workshop Historical perspective Leo Kanner 1943:extreme autistic aloneness, preservation of sameness, excellent memory, delayed echolalia, oversensitivity to stimuli,

More information

ASD. DSM-IV TR to DSM-V

ASD. DSM-IV TR to DSM-V ASD DSM-IV TR to DSM-V DSM IS A GUIDE. It is supposed to reflect a consensus of current formulations or hypothesis of mental health disorders based on the evolving knowledge in the field of psychiatry.

More information

icommuni cate SPEECH & COMMUNICATION THERAPY Autism Spectrum Disorders Autism is a developmental disorder of the brain and can affect anyone, regardless of social status or intelligence. Autism is sometimes

More information

Psychiatrists should be aware of the signs of Asperger s Syndrome as they appear in adolescents and adults if diagnostic errors are to be avoided.

Psychiatrists should be aware of the signs of Asperger s Syndrome as they appear in adolescents and adults if diagnostic errors are to be avoided. INFORMATION SHEET Age Group: Sheet Title: Adults Depression or Mental Health Problems People with Asperger s Syndrome are particularly vulnerable to mental health problems such as anxiety and depression,

More information

Autism Spectrum Disorders

Autism Spectrum Disorders Autism Spectrum Disorders Ryan s Story Ryan is a healthy, active two-year-old, but his parents are concerned because he doesn t seem to be doing the same things that his older sister did at this age. He

More information

Fact Sheet: Asperger s Disorder

Fact Sheet: Asperger s Disorder Asperger Syndrome or (Asperger's Disorder) is a neurobiological disorder named for a Viennese physician, Hans Asperger, who in 1944 published a paper which described a pattern of behaviors in several young

More information

ADOLESCENT GIRLS WITH AN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER:

ADOLESCENT GIRLS WITH AN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: ADOLESCENT GIRLS WITH AN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER: Presentation, challenges and support needs in the mainstream education system Summary of research findings for the Honours degree of Bachelor of Health

More information

ASD and ID in DSM-5: Implications For Assessment Practices

ASD and ID in DSM-5: Implications For Assessment Practices ASD and ID in DSM-5: Implications For Assessment Practices Fiona Martin PhD MAPS CEDP Educational and Developmental Psychologist 4 Principles Guided the Revisions: 1) DSM-5 is primarily intended to be

More information

Elesia N. Hines, PsyD, HSPP Riley Child Development Center (RCDC) Indiana LEND

Elesia N. Hines, PsyD, HSPP Riley Child Development Center (RCDC) Indiana LEND Rates of Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis by Age and Gender Elesia N. Hines, PsyD, HSPP Riley Child Development Center (RCDC) Indiana LEND Disclosures I have no relevant financial or nonfinancial relationships

More information

Children / Adolescents and Young Adults

Children / Adolescents and Young Adults INFORMATION SHEET Age Group: Sheet Title: Children / Adolescents and Young Adults Tony Attwood's Paper on Girls The Pattern of Abilities and Development of Girls with Asperger s Syndrome Dr. Tony Attwood

More information

UNDERSTANDING AUTISM

UNDERSTANDING AUTISM UNDERSTANDING AUTISM INTRODUCTION Autism is a chronic neurological disorder that severely affects an individual s ability to understand, communicate, and interact with other people. Autism begins to develop

More information

Upcoming changes to autism spectrum disorder: evaluating DSM-5

Upcoming changes to autism spectrum disorder: evaluating DSM-5 Upcoming changes to autism spectrum disorder: evaluating DSM-5 ASD disease entity What is ASD? Aims of the talk What changes will be made to the definition of ASD with the publication of DSM-5? Are these

More information

3/7/2012. Educational Eligibility vs. Medical Diagnosis in Autism Spectrum Disorders

3/7/2012. Educational Eligibility vs. Medical Diagnosis in Autism Spectrum Disorders Educational Eligibility vs. Medical Diagnosis in Autism Spectrum Disorders Courtney Burnette, PhD Assistant Professor of Pediatrics CDD Autism Programs March 9, 2012 Pervasive Developmental Disorders (also

More information

Autistic conditions in girls: clinical perspectives on diagnosis, assessment and intervention

Autistic conditions in girls: clinical perspectives on diagnosis, assessment and intervention Autistic conditions in girls: clinical perspectives on diagnosis, assessment and intervention Svenny Kopp M.D., Ph.D. Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Sweden Background information Almost all

More information

Diagnosis of Asperger syndrome. Professor Tony Attwood Clinical Psychologist

Diagnosis of Asperger syndrome. Professor Tony Attwood Clinical Psychologist Diagnosis of Asperger syndrome Professor Tony Attwood Clinical Psychologist Summary of the Presentation Problems associated with the current diagnostic criteria The diagnostic assessment for children and

More information

Autism Among Ontario Adults

Autism Among Ontario Adults Adults with Autism How Many Adults Have Autism Spectrum Disorders Why Don t We Hear About Adults? What About the Needs and Abilities of Adults with Autism? What Factors and Strategies Lead to Best Outcomes

More information

Autism. Spectrum Conditions. Autism and Asperger Syndrome. Introduction. Clues to Autism. What can I do to reduce anxiety. Why is diagnosis important?

Autism. Spectrum Conditions. Autism and Asperger Syndrome. Introduction. Clues to Autism. What can I do to reduce anxiety. Why is diagnosis important? Autism Adult Community Services Spectrum Conditions Autism and Asperger Syndrome Introduction Clues to Autism What can I do to reduce anxiety Why is diagnosis important? Getting a Diagnosis Social Services

More information

Autism Spectrum Disorder in DSM-5. Brian Reichow reichow@uchc.edu

Autism Spectrum Disorder in DSM-5. Brian Reichow reichow@uchc.edu Autism Spectrum Disorder in DSM-5 Brian Reichow reichow@uchc.edu Disclosure / Conflict of Interest Have no conflict of interest with any portion of today s talk. -Do receive royalties from lectures and

More information

How common is autism?

How common is autism? What is Autism? Autism, part of a group of disorders known as Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), is a complex neurobiological disorder that typically lasts throughout a person s lifetime. The disorder is

More information

Understanding Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Page 1 of 10 MC5155-09 Pervasive Developmental Disorders

Understanding Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Page 1 of 10 MC5155-09 Pervasive Developmental Disorders Understanding Pervasive Developmental Disorders Page 1 of 10 MC5155-09 Pervasive Developmental Disorders Page 2 of 10 MC5155-09 Pervasive Developmental Disorders This information is intended to help you

More information

Phenotypic conundrums in the diagnostic appraisal of autism spectrum disorders

Phenotypic conundrums in the diagnostic appraisal of autism spectrum disorders Phenotypic conundrums in the diagnostic appraisal of autism spectrum disorders 2 Tom Insel Director, NIMH 29 th April 2013 The weakness is its lack of validity. Unlike our definitions of ischemic heart

More information

AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS

AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS JAGWINDER SANDHU, MD CHILD, ADOLESCENT AND ADULT PSYCHIATRIST 194 N HARRISON STREET PRINCETON, NJ 08540 PH: 609 751 6607 Staff Psychiatrist Carrier clinic Belle Mead NJ What is

More information

Tackling Common Issues for Adults with Moderate or Severe Autism. National Autistic Society Surrey Branch Conference Autism: What Really Helps

Tackling Common Issues for Adults with Moderate or Severe Autism. National Autistic Society Surrey Branch Conference Autism: What Really Helps Tackling Common Issues for Adults with Moderate or Severe Autism National Autistic Society Surrey Branch Conference Autism: What Really Helps Introductions My name is Tessa Phillips. I have worked for

More information

The Diagnosis of Autism in Women and Girls

The Diagnosis of Autism in Women and Girls The Diagnosis of Autism in Women and Girls Dr Angela Livingstone, Dual Disability Psychiatrist, Melbourne, Australia Dr Teresa Flower Child and Forensic Psychiatrist Melbourne, Australia DSM-V - Autism

More information

So as we all know and love DSM-IV-TR, the reason I highlight it and David Kupfer mentioned it

So as we all know and love DSM-IV-TR, the reason I highlight it and David Kupfer mentioned it AND MORE, MARTIN L. LUBETSKY, MD 1 So I ll be covering neurodevelopmental disorders and I m going to focus on autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability and briefly a few comments about communication

More information

DSM-5 and Effect On Diagnosis and Intervention Dr Ranjini S. Sivanesom Consultant Developmental Paediatrician Institute of Paediatrics, Hospital

DSM-5 and Effect On Diagnosis and Intervention Dr Ranjini S. Sivanesom Consultant Developmental Paediatrician Institute of Paediatrics, Hospital DSM-5 and Effect On Diagnosis and Intervention Dr Ranjini S. Sivanesom Consultant Developmental Paediatrician Institute of Paediatrics, Hospital Kuala Lumpur 22.04.14 History and Autism 1943: First described

More information

Register of Students with Severe Disabilities

Register of Students with Severe Disabilities Department of Education Learners first, connected and inspired Register of Students with Severe Disabilities Department of Education Register of Students with Severe Disabilities 1. Eligibility Criteria

More information

Canadian youth and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Towards an inclusive approach to service

Canadian youth and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Towards an inclusive approach to service Canadian youth and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Towards an inclusive approach to service Kevin P. Stoddart, PhD Clinical Director The Redpath Centre for Social and Emotional Development Adjunct

More information

Very early signs of autism: Recent research

Very early signs of autism: Recent research ACT-NOW Fact Sheet 43 p. 1 Very early signs of autism: Recent research Dr Avril Brereton Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders begin to manifest during the first two years of life; however, there has been

More information

Information sheets and leaflets available from the Autism Helpline

Information sheets and leaflets available from the Autism Helpline Information sheets and leaflets available from the Autism Helpline SYMBOLS + = Leaflet available from the Autism Helpline (for bulk orders contact NAS Publications) * = Available as a free information

More information

DSM-5. Presented by CCESC School Psychologist Interns: Kayla Dodson, M.Ed. Ellen Doll, M.S. Rich Marsicano, Ph.D. Elaine Wahl, Ph.D.

DSM-5. Presented by CCESC School Psychologist Interns: Kayla Dodson, M.Ed. Ellen Doll, M.S. Rich Marsicano, Ph.D. Elaine Wahl, Ph.D. DSM-5 Presented by CCESC School Psychologist Interns: Kayla Dodson, M.Ed. Ellen Doll, M.S. Rich Marsicano, Ph.D. Elaine Wahl, Ph.D. Introduction Lifespan approach to diagnosis Diagnoses occurring in children

More information

This information explains the advice about diagnosing autism in children and young people that is set out in NICE clinical guideline 128.

This information explains the advice about diagnosing autism in children and young people that is set out in NICE clinical guideline 128. Information for the public Published: 1 September 2011 nice.org.uk About this information NICEclinicalguidelinesadvisetheNHSoncaringforpeoplewithspecificcconditionsordiseasesandthetreatmentstreatments

More information

APPENDICES. Appendix C: Behavioural Support for Students with ASD 21. Appendix D: Autism Spectrum Disorder Inventory 85

APPENDICES. Appendix C: Behavioural Support for Students with ASD 21. Appendix D: Autism Spectrum Disorder Inventory 85 APPENDICES Appendix A: DSM-IV-TR Diagnostic Criteria 3 Appendix B: Asperger s Syndrome 7 Appendix C: Behavioural Support for Students with ASD 21 Appendix D: Autism Spectrum Disorder Inventory 85 Appendix

More information

Review of educational provision in Hertfordshire for children and young people on the autism spectrum

Review of educational provision in Hertfordshire for children and young people on the autism spectrum Review of educational provision in Hertfordshire for children and young people on the autism spectrum Dr Glenys Jones, June 2015 Acknowledgements Very many people have contributed to this review and there

More information

DEVELOPMENTAL DISABITIES INFORMATION

DEVELOPMENTAL DISABITIES INFORMATION DEVELOPMENTAL DISABITIES INFORMATION Developmental Disability according to the federal Developmental Disabilities Act, the term means a severe, chronic disability of an individual 5 years or older that:

More information

Autism Spectrum Disorder: Latest in Prevalence, Diagnosis and Interventions

Autism Spectrum Disorder: Latest in Prevalence, Diagnosis and Interventions Autism Spectrum Disorder: Latest in Prevalence, Diagnosis and Interventions Muhammad Waqar Azeem, MD, DFAACAP, DFAPA Chair, Department of Psychiatry Sidra Medical & Research Center DISCLOSURES: NONE n

More information

Women and Girls on the Autism Spectrum

Women and Girls on the Autism Spectrum w: www.asperger-training.com t: 01903 231571 Women and Girls on the Autism Spectrum Sarah Hendrickx Applying the criteria to girls Social interaction Girls talk more than boys Mimicry and copying Feel

More information

Is There a Difference Between Asperger's Syndrome and High Functioning Autism? Dr Tony Attwood

Is There a Difference Between Asperger's Syndrome and High Functioning Autism? Dr Tony Attwood Is There a Difference Between Asperger's Syndrome and High Functioning Autism? Dr Tony Attwood We have been exploring the nature of autism, as described by Leo Kanner, for nearly 60 years. He described

More information

Autism. parent handbook. Answers to common questions. Artwork: Hey Diddle Diddle, by Eytan Nisinzweig, an artist with autism.

Autism. parent handbook. Answers to common questions. Artwork: Hey Diddle Diddle, by Eytan Nisinzweig, an artist with autism. Autism parent handbook Answers to common questions Artwork: Hey Diddle Diddle, by Eytan Nisinzweig, an artist with autism. 2nd Edition This handbook is brought to you by a collaborative effort between:

More information

Autism Spectrum Disorders: Transition learning and development statement. Introduction

Autism Spectrum Disorders: Transition learning and development statement. Introduction 5.1 Autism Spectrum Disorders: Transition learning and development statement Introduction Starting school is usually an exciting and much anticipated time for parents and their children. However, this

More information

Mastering the DSM-5: Chapter by Chapter Highlights of Changes Between the DSM-IV-TR and the DSM-5

Mastering the DSM-5: Chapter by Chapter Highlights of Changes Between the DSM-IV-TR and the DSM-5 Mastering the DSM-5: Chapter by Chapter Highlights of Changes Between the DSM-IV-TR and the DSM-5 George B. Haarman, Psy.D., LMFT One significant change between the DSM-IV-TR and the DSM-5 was a restructuring

More information

11/6/2014. Girls Under the Umbrella of Autism Spectrum Disorders Practical Solutions for Addressing Everyday Challenges.

11/6/2014. Girls Under the Umbrella of Autism Spectrum Disorders Practical Solutions for Addressing Everyday Challenges. Girls Under the Umbrella of Autism Spectrum Disorders Practical Solutions for Addressing Everyday Challenges Lori Ernsperger, Ph.D., and Danielle Wendel Amanda Lamunyon Girls and Women with ASD: Part One

More information

Documentation Requirements ADHD

Documentation Requirements ADHD Documentation Requirements ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered a neurobiological disability that interferes with a person s ability to sustain attention, focus on a task

More information

Parenting a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: What is the Latest Research? Lydia Gill and Kimberly Kopko

Parenting a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: What is the Latest Research? Lydia Gill and Kimberly Kopko Parenting a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder: What is the Latest Research? Lydia Gill and Kimberly Kopko What is Autism? Autism is the common name used to describe autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The

More information

USING SOCIAL STORIES TO TEACH SOCIAL SKILLS: A Professional s Guide

USING SOCIAL STORIES TO TEACH SOCIAL SKILLS: A Professional s Guide USING SOCIAL STORIES TO TEACH SOCIAL SKILLS: A Professional s Guide By Marguerite O Hara University of Pittsburgh Table of Contents: What are Social Stories?... 2 Glossary... 3 Notes... 3 Case Study...

More information

Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder State Definition A developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely

More information

Perspectives on autism as a spectrum

Perspectives on autism as a spectrum Perspectives on autism as a spectrum Sue Leekam Keynote presentation for Australian Society for Autism Research Conference Dec 2014 NB.see http://sites.cardiff.ac.uk/warc/research/dsm-5-asd-summary/ for

More information

Girls Under the Umbrella of ASD. Lori Ernsperger, Ph.D., BCBA-D

Girls Under the Umbrella of ASD. Lori Ernsperger, Ph.D., BCBA-D Girls Under the Umbrella of ASD Lori Ernsperger, Ph.D., BCBA-D drlori@cox.net www.loriernsperger.com Session Objectives Identify First Signs Review gender differences Social Communication Skills Strategies

More information

Autism. Belinda W. Crisman

Autism. Belinda W. Crisman Special Education Inclusive Programming for Students With Autism Belinda W. Crisman Although autism varies from one child to another, this inclusion program works for all. When our district s director

More information

Autism Basics. What does autism look like?

Autism Basics. What does autism look like? Autism Basics What does autism look like? Autism is a term commonly used for a group of neuro-developmental disorders also known as Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) or Autism Spectrum Disorders

More information

INFORMATION PAPER: THE PROPOSED CHANGES TO THE DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS (DSM-5)

INFORMATION PAPER: THE PROPOSED CHANGES TO THE DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS (DSM-5) INFORMATION PAPER: THE PROPOSED CHANGES TO THE DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS (DSM-5) What is the DSM-5? The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (the DSM) is developed

More information

Why do children & young people get referred to CAMHS? What is CAMHS? CAMHS stands for Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services.

Why do children & young people get referred to CAMHS? What is CAMHS? CAMHS stands for Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services. WHAT IS CAMHS? This leaflet is for parents or carers whose child has been referred to CAMHS (Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services). It is also for parents or carers who want to know how to get

More information

Goals of this presentation Outline DSM-5 changes to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) classification Opportunity to discuss implications for clinicians

Goals of this presentation Outline DSM-5 changes to Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) classification Opportunity to discuss implications for clinicians Autism Spectrum Disorder in DSM-5: Overview of Updates to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and to the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS-2) Katherine Gotham, Ph.D. Webinar hosted by the

More information

Assessment and diagnosis of Autism. The autistic triad (Lorna Wing) Why do it? BUT? Pervasive developmental disorders. Andrew Lloyd Evans MD

Assessment and diagnosis of Autism. The autistic triad (Lorna Wing) Why do it? BUT? Pervasive developmental disorders. Andrew Lloyd Evans MD Assessment and diagnosis of Autism Pervasive developmental disorders Communication Socialisation Restriction of interest Andrew Lloyd Evans MD The autistic triad (Lorna Wing) PREVALENCE OF AUTISTIC SPECTRUM

More information

Autism Spectrum Disorders and Comorbid Conditions. Judith Miller, PhD January 2012

Autism Spectrum Disorders and Comorbid Conditions. Judith Miller, PhD January 2012 Autism Spectrum Disorders and Comorbid Conditions Judith Miller, PhD millerj3@email.chop.edu January 2012 Educational Objectives Discuss the most frequent comorbid psychiatric conditions Describe the process

More information

Child and adolescent psychotherapy with children and young people with disabilities and their families

Child and adolescent psychotherapy with children and young people with disabilities and their families Association of Child Psychotherapists BRIEFING PAPER SERIES www.childpsychotherapy.org.uk Child and adolescent psychotherapy with children and young people with disabilities and their families 36% of children

More information

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Cheat Sheet

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Cheat Sheet Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Cheat Sheet What is autism? Autism (sometimes called classical autism ) is the most common condition in a group of developmental disorders known as the autism spectrum disorders

More information

Autism is one of the pervasive developmental

Autism is one of the pervasive developmental Original Article Symptoms of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, a clinical sample Ahmad Ghanizadeh, MD 1 Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, MD 2 Shahin Akhondzadeh, PhD 2 Ali Alavi Shooshtari, MD 1 1 Department

More information

PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTION GUIDANCE SCOPE

PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTION GUIDANCE SCOPE NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR HEALTH AND CLINICAL EXCELLENCE PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTION GUIDANCE 1 Guidance title SCOPE Guidance on promoting the mental wellbeing of children in primary education using targeted

More information

Autism and Intellectual Disabilities

Autism and Intellectual Disabilities Autism and Intellectual Disabilities (DSM IV & V) Accessibility Politecnico di Milano Autism (I) A total of six (or more) items from (A), (B), and (C), with at least two from (A), and one each from (B)

More information

IDENTIFYING AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER IN YOUNG CHILDREN

IDENTIFYING AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER IN YOUNG CHILDREN IDENTIFYING AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER IN YOUNG CHILDREN Carolyn T. Bruey, Psy.D., BCBA Program Supervisor, Autism Solutions Supervisor, IU 13 School Psychologists GOALS OF TODAY S WORKSHOP Typical versus

More information

Advocating For Autistic Parents IT S A HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUE.

Advocating For Autistic Parents IT S A HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUE. Advocating For Autistic Parents IT S A HUMAN RIGHTS ISSUE. A Human Rights Advocate Human Rights Advocate for autistic women and girls working through Autism Women Matter Autism Asperger Advocacy Australia

More information

Billy. Austin 8/27/2013. ADHD & Bipolar Disorder: Differentiating the Behavioral Presentation in Children

Billy. Austin 8/27/2013. ADHD & Bipolar Disorder: Differentiating the Behavioral Presentation in Children ADHD & Bipolar Disorder: Differentiating the Behavioral Presentation in Children Judy Goodwin, MSN, CNS Meadows Psychiatric Associates Billy Austin 1 Introduction Distinguishing between ADHD and Bipolar

More information

BRIEF NOTES ON THE MENTAL HEALTH OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

BRIEF NOTES ON THE MENTAL HEALTH OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS BRIEF NOTES ON THE MENTAL HEALTH OF CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS The future of our country depends on the mental health and strength of our young people. However, many children have mental health problems

More information

How good is your diagnosis

How good is your diagnosis How good is your diagnosis Tom Berney Peter Carpenter Outline NICE Quality Standards how do we apply What is reasonable diagnosis The ADOS Population survey - Brugha Nice CG142 Said relatively little on

More information

Bullying and Students with ASD

Bullying and Students with ASD Bullying and Students with ASD Webinar with Susan M. Swearer, Ph.D. Empowerment Initiative http://empowerment.unl.edu Thanks Sara Gonzalez and Allen Garcia Empowerment Initiative Bullying Research Network

More information

Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Disruptive, Impulse Control and Conduct Disorder (DSM 5)

Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Disruptive, Impulse Control and Conduct Disorder (DSM 5) Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Disruptive, Impulse Control and Conduct Disorder (DSM 5) Matthew Soulier, MD Paula Wadell, MD Scott Summers, MD, PhD UC Davis Department of Psychiatry CONCENTRATION IRRITABILITY

More information

The Community Learning Disability Service for Adults who have a Learning Disability

The Community Learning Disability Service for Adults who have a Learning Disability The Community Learning Disability Service for Adults who have a Learning Disability Suzanne Wilson, Consultant Clinical Psychologist, Community Learning Disability Service Tower Hamlets AIMS: To increase

More information

ADULT ASPERGER ASSESSMENT (AAA)

ADULT ASPERGER ASSESSMENT (AAA) [ ADULT ASPERGER ASSESSMENT (AAA) PATIENT DETAILS Name: Sex: Date of birth: Appointment: Age (in years): John Airey male 20/09/1965 01/04/2010 44.5 SCREENING INSTRUMENT SCORES Autism-Spectrum Quotient

More information

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Pervasive Developmental Disorders Key Differences

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Pervasive Developmental Disorders Key Differences Comparison of the Diagnostic Criteria for Autism Spectrum Disorder Across DSM-5, 1 DSM-IV-TR, 2 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 3 Definition of Autism Colleen M. Harker, M.S.

More information

Accommodating Autism in the Classroom

Accommodating Autism in the Classroom Accommodating Autism in the Classroom Thank you for joining us. We have a great many participants in today s call. Your phone is currently muted so that the noise level can be kept to a minimum. If you

More information

[KQ 804] FEBRUARY 2007 Sub. Code: 9105

[KQ 804] FEBRUARY 2007 Sub. Code: 9105 [KQ 804] FEBRUARY 2007 Sub. Code: 9105 (Revised Regulations) Theory : Two hours and forty minutes Q.P. Code: 419105 Maximum : 100 marks Theory : 80 marks M.C.Q. : Twenty minutes M.C.Q. : 20 marks 1. A

More information

Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorders RSHIP

Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorders RSHIP Phone Link Ups Understanding Autism Spectrum Disorders RSHIP Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental condition that affects the way people communicate and relate to others and their environment.

More information

The Education of Children with autism in Saudi Arabia: A Teaching Guide

The Education of Children with autism in Saudi Arabia: A Teaching Guide The Education of Children with autism in Saudi Arabia: A Teaching Guide Hanan Almasoud (2010) Lecturer, Special Education Department, College of Education King Saud University 1 Introduction Students with

More information

Differentiating between Mental Retardation/ Developmental Disability and Mental Illness

Differentiating between Mental Retardation/ Developmental Disability and Mental Illness Differentiating between Mental Retardation/ Developmental Disability and Mental Illness 1 Medicaid RSPMI service codes do not cover services addressing Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities.

More information

Spreading the Spectrum. Most people dread being in so-called socially awkward situations, but have been in

Spreading the Spectrum. Most people dread being in so-called socially awkward situations, but have been in Spreading the Spectrum Most people dread being in so-called socially awkward situations, but have been in them at least once in their lives. These moments are those in which it is hard to tell what another

More information

Common Learning Disabilities in the Classroom. 1/20/2011 Lea Howell School Psychologist LCUSD and Foothill SELPA

Common Learning Disabilities in the Classroom. 1/20/2011 Lea Howell School Psychologist LCUSD and Foothill SELPA Common Learning Disabilities in the Classroom 1/20/2011 Lea Howell School Psychologist LCUSD and Foothill SELPA Why might a child be having educational difficulties? Needs Special Education Services -Has

More information

SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES. Category Checklists March 2009

SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES. Category Checklists March 2009 SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES Category Checklists March 2009 Mild Intellectual Disabilities Student base funding allocation (Revised September, 2004) 1701 Code K assessment documentation shows the student

More information

AUTISTIC SPECTRUM DISORDERS

AUTISTIC SPECTRUM DISORDERS Diagnosis and Identification of AUTISTIC SPECTRUM DISORDERS A Guide for Parents and Carers Autism Outreach Service Room 600, Rutland Building County Hall Glenfield Leics LE3 8RA Diagnosis and Identification

More information

FUNCTIONAL EEG ANALYZE IN AUTISM. Dr. Plamen Dimitrov

FUNCTIONAL EEG ANALYZE IN AUTISM. Dr. Plamen Dimitrov FUNCTIONAL EEG ANALYZE IN AUTISM Dr. Plamen Dimitrov Preamble Autism or Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a mental developmental disorder, manifested in the early childhood and is characterized by qualitative

More information

A Consensus Approach for the Paediatrician s Role in the Diagnosis and Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Australia

A Consensus Approach for the Paediatrician s Role in the Diagnosis and Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Australia A Consensus Approach for the Paediatrician s Role in the Diagnosis and Assessment of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Australia This statement has been prepared at the request of the Child Development and

More information

Training brochure for staff working in schools and pre-schools

Training brochure for staff working in schools and pre-schools Medway Community Healthcare Training brochure for staff working in schools and pre-schools September 2016 September 2017 Delivered by the children s therapy team Information Contents Welcome Page 3 Elklan

More information

What is Asperger s Syndrome?

What is Asperger s Syndrome? What is Asperger s Syndrome? Assessment Service What is Asperger s Syndrome? Asperger s Syndrome (AS) is a newly recognised neurological disorder. Although the disorder was identified in 1944 by Hans Asperger

More information

Autism Spectrum Disorders

Autism Spectrum Disorders Autism Spectrum Disorders Ryan s Story Ryan is a healthy, active twoyear-old, but his parents are concerned because he doesn t seem to be doing the same things that his older sister did at this age. He

More information

in socialization and communication, chronic repetitive behaviors, and a narrow range of

in socialization and communication, chronic repetitive behaviors, and a narrow range of 1 Autism Spectrum Disorders are a group of disabilities characterized by impairment in socialization and communication, chronic repetitive behaviors, and a narrow range of interests. ASD typically develops

More information

SEND Policy. Principles of SEN at Charlton School, criteria for identification and processes for action. Aim

SEND Policy. Principles of SEN at Charlton School, criteria for identification and processes for action. Aim SEND Policy Sponsorship & Review 1 Sponsor Curriculum Leader Inclusion D Walker 2 Reviewed January 2015 3 Revised January 2015 References Disability Discrimination Act Introduction Principles of SEN at

More information

Diagnosing autism in children and young people

Diagnosing autism in children and young people Understanding NICE guidance Information for people who use NHS services Diagnosing autism in children and young people NICE clinical guidelines advise the NHS on caring for people with specific conditions

More information