Albert Einstein s Nightmare before Christmas. The spooky world of quantum light


 Sabrina White
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Albert Einstein s Nightmare before Christmas The spooky world of quantum light Peter J Mosley Christmas Lecture 2012 Department of Physics, University of Bath If all this is true then it means the end of physics Albert Einstein to Niels Bohr
2 Introduction 1905 Earlycareer revolutionary 1935 Midcareer conservative Einstein s transformation  revolutionary to conservative Two quantum paradoxes  thought experiments to refute quantum theory Einstein s legacy  current laboratory tests of quantum mechanics
3 Einstein s transformation  revolutionary to conservative A very brief history of quantum mechanics
4 Particles of light Einstein s revolutionary explanation of photoelectric effect in 1905 Light Electrons E k Metal [Light] consists of a finite number of energy quanta which... can be produced and absorbed only as discrete units Albert Einstein
5 Einstein s annus mirabilis Einstein as revolutionary......all while working as patent clerk!
6 Countdown to Copenhagen Planck E = n~! Einstein E k = ~! Bohr L = p l(l + 1)~ Einstein A 21,B 21,B 12 It is a weakness of the theory that it leaves the time and direction of the elementary process to chance I find the idea quite intolerable that an electron exposed to radiation should choose of its own free will not only its moment to jump off but also its direction. In that case I would rather be a cobbler, or even an employee of a gaming house, than a physicist. Albert Einstein
7 Countdown to Copenhagen Planck E = n~! Einstein E k = ~! Bohr L = p l(l + 1)~ Einstein A 21,B 21,B de Broglie = h p I had a sudden inspiration. Einstein's waveparticle dualism was an absolutely general phenomenon extending to all physical nature Louis de Broglie
8 Countdown to Copenhagen Planck E = n~! Einstein E k = ~! Bohr L = p l(l + 1)~ Einstein A 21,B 21,B de Broglie = h p Schrödinger ~ 2 2m r2 + V When one wishes to calculate `the future' from 'the present' one can only get statistical results since one can never discover every detail of the present. Werner Heisenberg Heisenberg x p ~ 2
9 Countdown to Copenhagen Planck E = n~! Einstein E k = ~! Bohr L = p l(l + 1)~ Einstein A 21,B 21,B de Broglie = h p Schrödinger ~ 2 2m r2 + V Heisenberg has laid a big quantum egg. In Göttingen they believe it. I don't. Einstein Heisenberg x p ~ 2
10 Countdown to Copenhagen Planck E = n~! Einstein E k = ~! Bohr L = p l(l + 1)~ Einstein A 21,B 21,B de Broglie = h p Schrödinger ~ 2 2m r2 + V Heisenberg x p ~ 2 Copenhagen interpretation
11 So what s so spooky? The philosophy bit... Copenhagen interpretation suggests... physical properties only have meaning within context of measurement uncertainty always exists in physical systems individual measurement outcomes are inherently unpredictable no underlying physical reality It is wrong to think that the task of physics is to find out how nature is. Physics concerns what we can say about nature Niels Bohr
12 So what s so spooky? The philosophy bit... Copenhagen interpretation suggests... physical properties only have meaning within context of measurement uncertainty always exists in physical systems individual measurement outcomes are inherently unpredictable no underlying physical reality Einstein believed... objective reality exists independent of measurement physics should be capable of predicting all outcomes existence of a more complete, realistic theory Quantum mechanics is certainly imposing. But an inner voice tells me that it is not yet the real thing. The theory says a lot, but it does not really bring us any closer to the secrets of the Old One. I at any rate am convinced that He does not play dice Albert Einstein
13 So what s so spooky? The philosophy bit... Copenhagen interpretation suggests... physical properties only have meaning within context of measurement uncertainty always exists in physical systems individual measurement outcomes are inherently unpredictable no underlying physical reality Einstein believed... objective reality exists independent of measurement physics should be capable of predicting all outcomes existence of a more complete, realistic theory Spent years in debate with Bohr, constructing thought experiments to refute QM
14 Two quantum paradoxes Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen and Schrödinger s cat
15 The EPR paradox Suggested by Einstein in 1933, published in 1935 Attempt to demonstrate that QM not complete description of reality
16 The EPR paradox 2 particles interact, then fly apart Individual variables unknown, but perfectly correlated to each other x 1 (x 1 + x 2 ) x 2 p 1 (p 1 p 2 ) p 2 Measure Measure x 1 know p 1 x 2 know p 2 Assume locality x 2, p 2 must be welldefined in advance! Hidden variables Suggests QM not complete! Physics should represent a reality in time and space, free from spooky action at a distance Albert Einstein
17 The EPR paradox 2 particles interact, then fly apart Individual variables unknown, but perfectly correlated to each other x 1 (x 1 + x 2 ) x 2 p 1 (p 1 p 2 ) p 2 Measure Measure x 1 know p 1 x 2 know p 2 Assume locality x 2, p 2 must be welldefined in advance! Hidden variables Suggests QM not complete! Bohr s response... Two particles behave as one system! Measurement of one particle instantaneously affects other! Particles are entangled
18 Entanglement Entanglement arises from the fact that the two bodies at some earlier time formed in a true sense one system, that is were interacting, and have left behind traces on one another Erwin Schrödinger I do not believe in it. This epistemologysoaked orgy ought to burn itself out. No doubt, however, you smile at me and think that, after all, many a young whore turns into an old praying sister, and many a young revolutionary becomes an old reactionary. Albert Einstein
19 Entanglement Example  polarisation of photons i = 1 p 2 ( H 1 V 2 i + V 1 H 2 i) Individually have 50% chance of being H or V But joint measurements correlated Nonlocal action at a distance (spooky!) Change measurement basis V i %i Hi &i Hi = 1 p 2 %i + &i) V i = 1 p 2 %i &i) i = 1 p 2 ( % 1 % 2 i & 1 & 2 i) Correlation preserved! Hallmark of entanglement
20 Schrödinger s cat Schrödinger s paradox was endorsed by Einstein Showed absurdity of quantum effects on everyday level
21 Schrödinger s cat Schrödinger s paradox was endorsed by Einstein Showed absurdity of quantum effects on everyday level
22 Schrödinger s cat Schrödinger s paradox was endorsed by Einstein Showed absurdity of quantum effects on everyday level Your cat shows we are in complete agreement concerning our assessment of the character of the current theory. A psifunction that contains the living as well as the dead cat just cannot be taken as a description of a real state of affairs.' Albert Einstein
23 Schrödinger s cat Schrödinger s paradox was endorsed by Einstein Showed absurdity of quantum effects on everyday level Debate continues over how to resolve this paradox Interaction of cat with environment is enough to collapse wavefunction! Measurement problem remains in Copenhagen interpretation
24 Einstein s legacy Laboratory tests of quantum theory
25 Young s double slit interference Experiment from nevertheless encapsulates quantum mechanics! Measure at slits  particlelike Measure at screen  wavelike OpenStax College, Measurement affects system  photons, electrons, or even molecules! Single photons Single electrons How does wavefunction collapse occur? Do particles have advance (hidden) knowledge of measurement?
26 Wheeler s delayed choice When does photon choose which behaviour to display? Does it have advance (hidden) information about measurement? Jacques et al, Science 315, 966 (2007) Photon makes choice after entering interferometer! Suggests QM is complete
27 How to test EPR  Bell s inequality x 1 (x 1 + x 2 ) x 2 p 1 (p 1 p 2 ) p 2 Set of measurements on individual particles Find correlation between them, S Hidden variables and locality QM complete, entanglement
28 We need some entanglement! Photon pair production in nonlinear crystal V i Select overlapped regions Hi i = 1 p 2 ( H 1 V 2 i + V 1 H 2 i)
29 Experimental Bell tests Ursin et al, Nature Physics 3, 481 (2007) S = 2.508(37) QM is nonlocal* *Subject to terms and conditions Detector loophole Fair sampling
30 Schrödinger cat states with light Mix quantum and classical light Interfere photon pairs with laser Produces optical Schrödinger cats! How big can they get? Decoherence limits size Ourjoumtsev et al, Nature 448, 784 (2007)
31 Optomechanical cats Quantum behaviour of macroscopic object? Requires object in ground state (very cold!) Cool micromirror coupled to EM field Like laser cooling atoms (but tougher!) Fiore et al, PRL 107, (2011) Aspelmeyer group University of Vienna Current stateoftheart is n = (a few) Quantum effects should be observable soon! Wiederhecker et al, Nature 462, 633 (2009)
32 What would Einstein think? Huge progress in experimental tests of QM since Einstein s death in 1955 Hidden variables seem unlikely All tests have confirmed validity of QM Nevertheless, measurement problem still exists I hope Einstein would still be fighting!
33 Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!
Quantum Mechanics: mysteries and solutions
Quantum Mechanics: mysteries and solutions ANGELO BASSI Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Trieste, Italy and INFN  Trieste Angelo Bassi 1 Quantization of light: Planck s hypothesis (1900)
More informationWhat does Quantum Mechanics tell us about the universe?
Fedora GNU/Linux; L A TEX 2ǫ; xfig What does Quantum Mechanics tell us about the universe? Mark Alford Washington University Saint Louis, USA More properly: What do experiments tell us about the universe?
More informationCHAPTER 16: Quantum Mechanics and the Hydrogen Atom
CHAPTER 16: Quantum Mechanics and the Hydrogen Atom Waves and Light Paradoxes in Classical Physics Planck, Einstein, and Bohr Waves, Particles, and the Schrödinger equation The Hydrogen Atom Questions
More informationQuantum Phenomena and the Theory of Quantum Mechanics
Quantum Phenomena and the Theory of The Mechanics of the Very Small Waseda University, SILS, Introduction to History and Philosophy of Science . Two Dark Clouds In 1900 at a Friday Evening lecture at the
More informationChapter 7: The QuantumMechanical Model of the Atom
C h e m i s t r y 1 A : C h a p t e r 7 P a g e 1 Chapter 7: The QuantumMechanical Model of the Atom Homework: Read Chapter 7. Work out sample/practice exercises Suggested Chapter 7 Problems: 37, 39,
More informationAtoms. Is Nature Discrete or Continuous? The Discrete Viewpoint. The discrete unit and the uncertain viewpoint
Atoms The discrete unit and the uncertain viewpoint SC/NATS 1730, XXVII Atoms 1 Is Nature Discrete or Continuous? Is the ultimate reality of nature granular made up of distinct little bits of matter, like
More informationUnamended Quantum Mechanics Rigorously Implies Awareness Is Not Based in the Physical Brain
Unamended Quantum Mechanics Rigorously Implies Awareness Is Not Based in the Physical Brain Casey Blood, PhD Professor Emeritus of Physics, Rutgers University www.quantummechanicsandreality.com CaseyBlood@gmail.com
More informationIntroduction to quantum mechanics
Introduction to quantum mechanics Lecture 3 MTX9100 Nanomaterjalid OUTLINE What is electron particle or wave?  How large is a potential well? What happens at nanoscale? What is inside? Matter Molecule
More informationAdvanced Waves and Quantum Mechanics
Advanced Waves and Quantum Mechanics Ulisse Di Corpo 1 and Antonella Vannini 2 Abstract Advanced waves are predicted by the negative solution of KleinGordon s equation. This equation is compatible with
More informationChapter 1: Introduction to Quantum Physics
Chapter 1: Introduction to Quantum Physics Luis M. Molina Departamento de Física Teórica, Atómica y Óptica Quantum Physics Luis M. Molina (FTAO) Chapter 1: Introduction to Quantum Physics Quantum Physics
More informationThe Early History of Quantum Mechanics
Chapter 2 The Early History of Quantum Mechanics In the early years of the twentieth century, Max Planck, Albert Einstein, Louis de Broglie, Neils Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, Max Born,
More informationSuperposition & the paradoxes of quantum mechanics
Superposition & the paradoxes of quantum mechanics phil 20229 Jeff Speaks February 5, 2008 1 Some examples of quantum weirdness........................... 1 1.1 Color and hardness..................................
More informationQUANTUM SPOOKINESS EPR PARADOX AND BEYOND. Justyna P. Zwolak. February 1, 2013. Oregon State University. 1of18
QUANTUM SPOOKINESS EPR PARADOX AND BEYOND Justyna P. Zwolak Oregon State University February 1, 013 1of18 ALBERT EINSTEIN AND SPOOKY ACTION AT DISTANCE Did not like the probabilistic nature of quantum
More informationName Honors Chemistry / /
Name Honors Chemistry / / History of the Atom Democritus 470380 B.C. Democritus was known as the "Laughing Philosopher" because of his joyous spirit. First to suggest the idea of atoms (atomos  Greek
More informationDiffraction. Interference 4/29/15
Chapter 29: Light Waves Interference Light waves interfere with each other They can be said to be in phase or out of phase with each other In phase: amplitudes reinforce each other Our of phase: amplitudes
More information39 EPR and Bell s theorem. EPR Bohm s version. S x S y S z V H 45
1 39 EPR and Bell s theorem EPR Bohm s version S x S y S z n P(n) n n P(0) 0 0 V H 45 P(45) D S D P(0) H V 2 ( ) Neumann EPR n P(n) EPR PP(n) n EPR ( ) 2 5 2 3 But even at this stage there is essentially
More informationQuantum Cryptography
Quantum Cryptography David Thorne November 14, 2002 1 The History of Cryptography Classical digital cryptography is concerned with the problem of providing secure and secret communication over a medium
More informationIntermediate Quantum Mechanics Notes for Lecture 1
The Structure of Physics Intermediate Quantum Mechanics Notes for Lecture 1 Structure of Physics, Classical Physics and Quantum Mechanics vs. Classical Physics The two pillars of physics are the Special
More informationDoes Quantum Mechanics Make Sense? Size
Does Quantum Mechanics Make Sense? Some relatively simple concepts show why the answer is yes. Size Classical Mechanics Quantum Mechanics Relative Absolute What does relative vs. absolute size mean? Why
More information"in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta". h is the Planck constant he called it
1 2 "in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta". h is the Planck constant he called it the quantum of action 3 Newton believed in the corpuscular
More informationλν = c λ ν Electromagnetic spectrum classification of light based on the values of λ and ν
Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure Nuclear atom small, heavy, positive nucleus surrounded by a negative electron cloud Electronic structure arrangement of the electrons around the nucleus Classical mechanics
More informationDO WE REALLY UNDERSTAND QUANTUM MECHANICS?
DO WE REALLY UNDERSTAND QUANTUM MECHANICS? COMPRENONSNOUS VRAIMENT LA MECANIQUE QUANTIQUE? VARIOUS INTERPRETATIONS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS IHES, 29 janvier 2015 Franck Laloë, LKB, ENS Paris 1 INTRODUCTION
More informationResearch Project Quantum Physics
2010 Research Project Quantum Physics Josha Box Hermann Wesselink College Tutor: Mr. Hidden 2112010 Table of Contents Introduction p. 4 Main question p. 4 Plan of approach p. 5 Research on quantum physics:
More informationA GameTheoretic Approach to Metaphysical Reconciliation of Quantum Superposition
370 Original Article A GameTheoretic Approach to Metaphysical Reconciliation of Quantum Superposition Sukanto Bhattacharya and 1 Kuldeep Kumar Abstract The wellknown quantum physical paradox of waveparticle
More informationLecture 18: Quantum Mechanics. Reading: Zumdahl 12.5, 12.6 Outline. Problems (Chapter 12 Zumdahl 5 th Ed.)
Lecture 18: Quantum Mechanics Reading: Zumdahl 1.5, 1.6 Outline Basic concepts of quantum mechanics and molecular structure A model system: particle in a box. Demos how Q.M. actually obtains a wave function.
More informationA Modest View of Bell s Theorem. Steve Boughn, Princeton University and Haverford College
A Modest View of Bell s Theorem Steve Boughn, Princeton University and Haverford College Talk given at the 2016 PrincetonTAMU Symposium on Quantum Noise Effects in Thermodynamics, Biology and Information
More informationAn Introduction to Quantum Cryptography
An Introduction to Quantum Cryptography J Robert Buchanan Millersville University of Pennsylvania email: Bob.Buchanan@millersville.edu An Introduction to Quantum Cryptography p.1 Acknowledgments Quantum
More informationThere is a physics joke about the stages of learning quantum mechanics:
Preface The only way to learn physics is to do physics. However, almost all physics textbooks leave a huge gap between the level of the problems that they solve as examples, and the level of the problems
More informationThe Electronic Structures of Atoms Electromagnetic Radiation
The Electronic Structures of Atoms Electromagnetic Radiation The wavelength of electromagnetic radiation has the symbol λ. Wavelength is the distance from the top (crest) of one wave to the top of the
More informationChapter 5. Mendeleev s Periodic Table
Chapter 5 Perodicity and Atomic Structure Mendeleev s Periodic Table In the 1869, Dmitri Mendeleev proposed that the properties of the chemical elements repeat at regular intervals when arranged in order
More informationDO PHYSICS ONLINE FROM QUANTA TO QUARKS QUANTUM (WAVE) MECHANICS
DO PHYSICS ONLINE FROM QUANTA TO QUARKS QUANTUM (WAVE) MECHANICS Quantum Mechanics or wave mechanics is the best mathematical theory used today to describe and predict the behaviour of particles and waves.
More informationAtomic Emission Spectra (Teacher Demonstration)
SKILL FOCUS Analyzing and interpreting Communicating results Atomic Emission Spectra (Teacher Demonstration) When a high voltage current is passed through a glass tube that contains hydrogen gas at low
More informationExperiment 1 Wave Phenomena: Interference
Experiment 1 Wave Phenomena: Interference 1. Objectives Observe the wavecharacteristic of light using diffraction and interference. Apply the law of diffraction to find the wavelength of the light and
More informationSpooky action at a distance: 02/07/12 The puzzle of entanglement in quantum theory
Spooky action at a distance: 02/07/12 he puzzle of entanglement in quantum Alan Macdonald Professor Emeritus of Mathematics Luther College Decorah, IA 52101 macdonal@luther.edu I. Action at a Distance.
More informationNuclear Fusion and Radiation
Nuclear Fusion and Radiation Lecture 2 (Meetings 3 & 4) Eugenio Schuster schuster@lehigh.edu Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics Lehigh University Nuclear Fusion and Radiation p. 1/40 Modern Physics Concepts
More informationarxiv:quantph/0404128v1 22 Apr 2004
How to teach Quantum Mechanics arxiv:quantph/0404128v1 22 Apr 2004 Oliver Passon Fachbereich Physik, University of Wuppertal Postfach 100 127, 42097 Wuppertal, Germany Email: Oliver.Passon@cern.ch In
More informationChapter 7. Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure
Chapter 7. Quantum Theory and Atomic Structure A problem arose in Rutherford s nuclear model. A nucleus and electron attract each other; to remain apart the electron must move. The energy of the electron
More informationPhysics  programme subject in programmes for specialization in general studies
Physics  programme subject in programmes for specialization in Dette er en oversettelse av den fastsatte læreplanteksten. Læreplanen er fastsatt på Bokmål Laid down as a regulation by the Norwegian Directorate
More informationChapter 42: Quantum Atom
Chapter 42: Quantum Atom Quantum H Atom 1s Wave Function: Radial Probability Density: Most Probable value: 1 ψ1s () r = e π a 3 0 r/ a P(r) = 4πr 2 ψ 2 dp solve dr = 0 0 Average value: rave = r = rp()
More informationNotes on wavefunctions
Notes on wavefunctions The double slit experiment In the double slit experiment, a beam of light is send through a pair of slits, and then observed on a screen behind the slits. At first, we might expect
More information3.04 EMR and the Hatom
What are the component of light? How are the electrons arranged in the atom?! What is the relationship between light and the atom? How does light give clues about the structure of the atom? 1 The Electro
More informationPHY1020 BASIC CONCEPTS IN PHYSICS I
PHY1020 BASIC CONCEPTS IN PHYSICS I Jackson Levi Said 14 lectures/tutorials/past paper session Project on one of the interesting fields in physics (30%) Exam in January/February (70%) 1 The Course RECOMMENDED
More informationThe quantum understanding of preuniversity physics students
The quantum understanding of preuniversity physics students Gren Ireson Department of Education, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK Students in England and Wales wishing
More informationElectromagnetic Radiation Wave and Particle Models of Light
Electromagnetic Radiation 2007 26 minutes Teacher Notes: Victoria Millar BSc (Hons), Dip. Ed, MSc Program Synopsis For hundreds of years, scientists have hypothesised about the structure of light. Two
More informationAtomic Theory and the Periodic Table
Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table Petrucci, Harwood and Herring: Chapters 9 and 10 Aims: To examine the Quantum Theory, to understand the electronic structure of elements, To explain the periodic table
More informationQuantum H Atom. solve. P(r) = 4πr 2 ψ 2. 1s Wave Function: Radial Probability Density: Most Probable value: Average value: Probability in (0r): 1 s
Quantum H Atom 1s Wave Function: Radial Probability Density: 1 1 s () r e a 3 0 r/ a P(r) = 4πr 2 ψ 2 0 Most Probable value: solve dp 0 dr Average value: rave r rp() r dr 0 Probability in (0r): P r P()
More informationCOLLEGE PHYSICS. Chapter 29 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM PHYSICS
COLLEGE PHYSICS Chapter 29 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTUM PHYSICS Quantization: Planck s Hypothesis An ideal blackbody absorbs all incoming radiation and reemits it in a spectrum that depends only on temperature.
More informationQuantum Information Anton Zeilinger
Quantum Information Anton Zeilinger Anton Zeilinger is Professor of Physics at the Institute of Experimental Physics of the University of Vienna and at the IQOQI  Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum
More informationTHE DOUBLE SLIT INTERFERENCE OF THE PHOTONSOLITONS
Bulg. J. Phys. 29 (2002 97 108 THE DOUBLE SLIT INTERFERENCE OF THE PHOTONSOLITONS P. KAMENOV, B. SLAVOV Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, 1126 Sofia, Bulgaria Abstract. It is shown that a solitary
More informationAP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 7 Notes  Atomic Structure and Periodicity
AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 7 Notes  Atomic Structure and Periodicity 7.1 Electromagnetic Radiation A. Types of EM Radiation (wavelengths in meters) 101 1010 108 4 to 7x107 104 101 10 10 4 gamma
More informationWave Function, ψ. Chapter 28 Atomic Physics. The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. Line Spectrum
Wave Function, ψ Chapter 28 Atomic Physics The Hydrogen Atom The Bohr Model Electron Waves in the Atom The value of Ψ 2 for a particular object at a certain place and time is proportional to the probability
More informationNanoelectronics. Chapter 2 Classical Particles, Classical Waves, and Quantum Particles. Q.Li@Physics.WHU@2015.3
Nanoelectronics Chapter 2 Classical Particles, Classical Waves, and Quantum Particles Q.Li@Physics.WHU@2015.3 1 Electron DoubleSlit Experiment Q.Li@Physics.WHU@2015.3 2 2.1 Comparison of Classical and
More informationThe History of the Atom
The History of the Atom Timeline: 400 BC Scientist: Democritus (Greek Philosopher) Democritus was a Greek philosopher who was the first person to use the term atom (atomos: meaning indivisible). atom.
More informationComprehending Quantum Theory from Quantum Fields
Comprehending Quantum Theory from Quantum Fields Mani Bhaumik 1 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, USA.90095 Abstract At the primary level of reality as described
More informationAtomic Spectra and Energy Levels. Atomic Spectra
Atomic Spectra and Energy Levels Atomic Spectra Excited atoms emit light (neon signs, etc.) Emission from different elements is different colors. Emission of only certain wavelengths Spectral lines Existence
More informationReligion and Science: The Emerging Relationship The Quantum Enigma X
Religion and Science: The Emerging Relationship The Quantum Enigma X The atoms or elementary particles themselves are not real; they form a world of potentialities or possibilities rather than one of things
More informationPhase Manipulation and Young s Double Slit R. M. Kiehn and Lowell T. Wood Department of Physics University of Houston Houston, Texas
Phase Manipulation and Young s Double Slit R. M. Kiehn and Lowell T. Wood Department of Physics University of Houston Houston, Texas 772045506 First published on the web 11/17/97, updated 02/16/2000,
More informationThe Bohr model for the electrons
The Bohr model for the electrons Electronic structure how the electrons are arranged inside the atom Applying the quantum principle of energy Two parameters: Energy Position Learning objectives Describe
More informationLevel 3 Achievement Scale
Unit 1: Atoms Level 3 Achievement Scale Can state the key results of the experiments associated with Dalton, Rutherford, Thomson, Chadwick, and Bohr and what this lead each to conclude. Can explain that
More informationQuantum Alchemy? Prof. David Kaiser
Quantum Alchemy? Prof. David Kaiser Matter unit Overarching question: Is the stuff of the world indivisible and unchanging or transmutable? I. Particles, Waves, and Cats II. Nuclear Transmutation III.
More informationThis experiment is said to illustrate the essential mystery of quantum mechanics 1. This mystery
Chapter 4 The Two Slit Experiment This experiment is said to illustrate the essential mystery of quantum mechanics. This mystery is embodied in the apparent ability of a system to exhibit properties which,
More informationTerms H February 12, Atomic Theory H Online.notebook
Match the Theorist to His Idea Discovered the neutron Said the positive charges were in nucleus Discovered the electron First proposed the idea of the atom Proposed that electrons were in energy levels
More informationTIME, SYMMETRY OF. Although everyday experience leads us to believe that time "flows" in one direction, the
TIME, SYMMETRY OF Although everyday experience leads us to believe that time "flows" in one direction, the equations of both classical and modern physics work equally well in either time direction. Since
More informationThe Phenomenon of Photoelectric Emission:
The Photoelectric Effect. The Wave particle duality of light Light, like any other E.M.R (electromagnetic radiation) has got a dual nature. That is there are experiments that prove that it is made up of
More informationThe Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics (II) 1. The TwoSlit Experiment The central problem which the physical theory of quantum mechanics is designed to
The Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics (II) 1. The TwoSlit Experiment The central problem which the physical theory of quantum mechanics is designed to explain is the extraordinary fact that t h e elementary
More informationPhysics 121: Optics, Electricity & Magnetism
Physics 121: Optics, Electricity & Magnetism Neil Alberding SFU Physics Spring 2010 Neil Alberding (SFU Physics) Physics 121: Optics, Electricity & Magnetism Spring 2010 1 / 1 Outline I Neil Alberding
More informationChapter 6 Electromagnetic Radiation and the Electronic Structure of the Atom
Chapter 6 In This Chapter Physical and chemical properties of compounds are influenced by the structure of the molecules that they consist of. Chemical structure depends, in turn, on how electrons are
More informationProposed experiment to test the nonlocality hypothesis in transient lightinterference phenomena
Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, Volume 33, no 34, 2008 307 Proposed experiment to test the nonlocality hypothesis in transient lightinterference phenomena MASANORI SATO Honda Electronics Co.,
More informationAtomic Structure Ron Robertson
Atomic Structure Ron Robertson r2 n:\files\courses\111020\2010 possible slides for web\atomicstructuretrans.doc I. What is Light? Debate in 1600's: Since waves or particles can transfer energy, what is
More informationUnit 5 The Quantum World
Introduction Unit 5 The Quantum World All these fifty years of conscious brooding have brought me no nearer to the answer to the question, What are light quanta? Nowadays every Tom, Dick, and Harry thinks
More informationNow we know about the energy levels in atoms. But how can we calculate/predict them?
PH3 Modern Physics SP11 Last time: Photons, atomic spectra & lasers Today: Balmer formula and ideas about atoms Bohr model of hydrogen de Broglie waves Some people say, "How can you live without knowing?"
More informationLETTERS TO THE EDITOR
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR Letters are selected for their expected interest for our readers. Some letters are sent to reviewers for advice; some are accepted or declined by the editor without review. Letters
More informationOn the Linkage between Planck s Quantum and Maxwell s Equations
The Finnish Society for Natural Philosophy 25 Years K.V. Laurikainen Honorary Symposium 2013 On the Linkage between Planck s Quantum and Maxwell s Equations Tuomo Suntola Physics Foundations Society Email:
More informationLight is a type of electromagnetic (EM) radiation, and light has energy. Many kinds of light exist. Ultraviolet (UV) light causes skin to tan or burn.
Light and radiation Light is a type of electromagnetic (EM) radiation, and light has energy. Many kinds of light exist. Ultraviolet (UV) light causes skin to tan or burn. Infrared (IR) light is used in
More informationLIGHT AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION
LIGHT AND ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION Light is a Wave Light is a wave motion of radiation energy in space. We can characterize a wave by three numbers:  wavelength  frequency  speed Shown here is precisely
More informationPeople s Physics book
The Big Idea Quantum Mechanics, discovered early in the 20th century, completely shook the way physicists think. Quantum Mechanics is the description of how the universe works on the very small scale.
More informationCommentary on SubQuantum Physics
David L. Bergman 1 SubQuantum Physics Commentary on SubQuantum Physics David L. Bergman Common Sense Science P.O. Box 1013 Kennesaw, GA 30144 USA INTRODUCTION According to Alan McCone, Jr., the objectives
More informationUnit 6 Macroscopic Quantum Mechanics
Unit 6 Macroscopic Quantum Mechanics Introduction A physicist is just an atom s way of looking at itself.  Neils Bohr We typically view quantum mechanics as applying to the fundamental particles or fields
More informationQuantum Physics. When we consider the motion of objects on the atomic level, we find that our classical approach does not work very well.
Quantum Physics When we consider the motion of objects on the atomic level, we find that our classical approach does not work very well. For example, quantum physics describes how electrons surround the
More informationWhat Einstein meant when he said God does not play dice...
What Einstein meant when he said God does not play dice... Vasant Natarajan We analyze Einstein s views on God and religion, and his views on Quantum Mechanics. One of Albert Einstein s most famous statements
More informationemission of light from atoms discrete line spectra  energy levels, FranckHertz experiment
Introduction Until the early 20 th century physicists used to explain the phenomena in the physical world around them using theories such a mechanics, electromagnetism, thermodynamics and statistical physics
More informationTHE STORY OF THE CAT THAT WAS BOTH DEAD AND ALIVE VALIA ALLORI
THE STORY OF THE CAT THAT WAS BOTH DEAD AND ALIVE VALIA ALLORI Department of Philosophy Northern Illinois University Wednesday January 30th @ noon, Illinois Room (Holmes Student Center) This is the tale,
More informationIntroduction to Quantum Computing
Introduction to Quantum Computing Javier Enciso encisomo@in.tum.de Joint Advanced Student School 009 Technische Universität München April, 009 Abstract In this paper, a gentle introduction to Quantum Computing
More informationOur goals in studying this chapter are to:
Electronic Structure of Atoms (Quantum Theory) Classical Theory: By the early 1900 s, classical theory viewed light as behaving like a wave, as demonstrated in 1801 by Thomas Young in his double slit experiment.
More informationTHE CURRENTVOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN LED AND A MEASUREMENT OF PLANCK S CONSTANT Physics 258/259
DSH 2004 THE CURRENTVOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN LED AND A MEASUREMENT OF PLANCK S CONSTANT Physics 258/259 I. INTRODUCTION Max Planck (18581947) was an early pioneer in the field of quantum physics.
More informationhypothesis of Louis de Broglie (1924): particles may have wavelike properties
Wave properties of particles hypothesis of Louis de Broglie (1924): particles may have wavelike properties note: it took almost 20 years after noting that waves have particle like properties that particles
More information2. Atomic Structure. 2.1 Historical Development of Atomic Theory. Remember!? Dmitri I. Mendeleev s Periodic Table (17 Feb. 1869 )
2. Atomic Structure 2.1 Historical Development of Atomic Theory Remember!? Dmitri I. Mendeleev s Periodic Table (17 Feb. 1869 ) 1 2.1.1 The Periodic Table of the Elements 2.1.2 Discovery of Subatomic Particles
More informationEmission of Light & Atomic Models 1
Emission of Light & Atomic Models 1 Objective At the end of this activity you should be able to: o Explain what photons are, and be able to calculate their energies given either their frequency or wavelength.
More informationChapter 10. Modern Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table
Chapter 10 Modern Atomic Theory and the Periodic Table 1 10.1 A brief history 10.1 A brief history atoms proposed by Greek philosopher Dalton s model of atom Thomson s model Rutherford s model there remain
More informationGenerally Covariant Quantum Mechanics
Chapter 15 Generally Covariant Quantum Mechanics by Myron W. Evans, Alpha Foundation s Institutute for Advance Study (AIAS). (emyrone@oal.com, www.aias.us, www.atomicprecision.com) Dedicated to the Late
More informationProject description a) What is quantum information theory with continuous variables?
Project description a) What is quantum information theory with continuous variables? According to prequantum physics, any theory should display the property of locality defined in three almost equivalent
More informationAtomic Structure: Chapter Problems
Atomic Structure: Chapter Problems Bohr Model Class Work 1. Describe the nuclear model of the atom. 2. Explain the problems with the nuclear model of the atom. 3. According to Niels Bohr, what does n stand
More informationTHE HISTORY OF QUANTUM MECHANICS
THE HISTORY OF QUANTUM MECHANICS Solvay Conference 197 If quantum mechanics hasn't profoundly shocked you, you haven't understood it yet Niels Bohr The more success quantum theory has, the sillier it looks.
More informationQuantum Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
Quantum Theory of the Hydrogen Atom Chemistry 35 Fall 2000 Balmer and the Hydrogen Spectrum 1885: Johann Balmer, a Swiss schoolteacher, empirically deduced a formula which predicted the wavelengths of
More information3.1 Photoelectricity AS13. 3.1 Photoelectricity 2
Photoelectricity Einstein s quantum explanation of the photoelectric effect  Einstein used Planck s quantum theory of radiation, (see Revision Card AS1), to explain photoelectric emission. He assumed
More informationChapter 18: The Structure of the Atom
Chapter 18: The Structure of the Atom 1. For most elements, an atom has A. no neutrons in the nucleus. B. more protons than electrons. C. less neutrons than electrons. D. just as many electrons as protons.
More informationBOOK REVIEW. Reviewed by ALICE WARE DAVIDSON University of Colorado (United States)
BOOK REVIEW A review of Science and Ultimate Reality: Quantum Theory, Cosmology, and Complexity, by John D. Barrow, Paul C. W. Davies, and Charles L. Harper, Jr. (Eds.), 2004. New York: Cambridge University
More informationThe Double Slit Experiment and Quantum Mechanics
The Double Slit Experiment and Quantum Mechanics Richard Rolleigh 2010 1 Introduction When we first studied quantum mechanics in the 1960 s, my colleagues and I were astounded by strange and weird concepts
More informationAtomic Model Timeline.
Atomic Model Timeline http://www.cs.utah.edu/~draperg/cartoons/jb/bohring.gif 400BC Democritus Democritus found that atoms are not all the same, they are eternal, and always moving. He made a theory on
More information