# Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions. Classification of Matter

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1 Chapter 13 Properties of Solutions Learning goals and key skills: Describe how enthalpy and entropy changes affect solution formation Describe the relationship between intermolecular forces and solubility, like dissolves like Describe the role of equilibrium in the solution process and relationship to the solubility of a solute Describe the effect of temperature on solubility of solids and gases Describe the relationship between partial pressure of a gas and solubility Calculate the concentration of a solution in terms of molarity, molality, mole fraction, percent composition, and ppm and be able to interconvert between them. Describe what a colligative property is and explain the difference between the effects of nonelectrolytes and electrolytes on colligative properties. Calculate the vapor pressure of a solvent over a solution Be able to calculate the boiling point elevation and freezing point depression of a solution Calculate the osmotic pressure of a solution Explain the difference between a solution and a colloid Classification of Matter Mixtures Mixture Have variable composition and can be separated into component parts by physical methods. Mixtures contain more than one kind of molecule, and their properties depend on the relative amount of each component present in the mixture. Homogeneous Mixture (solution) Uniform composition. Gaseous solution Liquid solution Solid solution air (N 2, O 2, CO 2, etc) seawater (H 2 O, salts, etc) brass (Cu and Zn) 1

2 Solutions Solutions are homogeneous mixtures consisting of a solvent and one or more solutes. In a solution, the solute is dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent. Solutions As a solution forms, the solvent pulls solute particles apart and surrounds, or solvates, them. The solute-solvent interactions compete with the solute-solute and solvent-solvent interactions. Aqueous solutions Aqueous solutions made from ionic salts have ion-dipole interactions that are strong enough to overcome the lattice energy of the salt crystal. For aqueous solutions, solute (H 2 O)-solvent interactions are referred to as hydration. 2

3 Energetics of solutions Energetics of solutions H soln for a solid dissolving in a liquid is usually slightly endothermic H soln = H solute + H solvent + H mix Entropy The reason is that increasing the entropy (i.e., disorder or randomness) of a system tends to lower the energy (not enthalpy) of the system. 3

4 Physical dissolution vs chemical reaction Here is a single displacement/redox reaction: Ni (s) + 2 HCl (aq) NiCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) We can t get back the original Ni (or HCl) by physical methods, so this is NOT physical dissolution it is a chemical reaction. Saturated vs unsaturated solutions Saturated Solvent holds as much solute as is possible at that temperature. Dissolved solute is in dynamic equilibrium with solid solute particles. Unsaturated Less than the maximum amount of solute is dissolved in the solvent at that temperature. Supersaturated solutions Solvent holds more solute than is normally possible at that temperature. These solutions are unstable; crystallization can usually be stimulated by adding a seed crystal or scratching the side of the flask. 4

5 Like dissolves like Polar substances tend to dissolve in polar solvents. Nonpolar substances tend to dissolve in nonpolar solvents. The more similar the intermolecular attractions, the more likely one substance is to be soluble in another. Structure and Solubility Gases in solution In general, the solubility of gases in water increases with increasing mass. Larger molecules have stronger London dispersion forces. 5

6 Gases in solution The solubility of liquids and solids does not change appreciably with pressure. The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to its pressure. Pressure and solubility: Henry s Law S g = kp g S g is the solubility of the gas k is the Henry s law constant for that gas in that solvent P g is the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid. Temperature and solubility Generally, the solubility of solid solutes in liquid solvents increases with increasing temperature. 6

7 Temperature and solubility The opposite is true of gases: Carbonated soft drinks are more bubbly if stored in the refrigerator. Warm lakes have less O 2 dissolved in them than cool lakes. Colligative properties colligative properties depend only on the number of solute particles present, not on the identity of the solute particles. Four important colligative properties are Vapor pressure lowering Boiling point elevation Melting point depression Osmotic pressure forms/increases Expressing concentrations Mass % of A = mass of A in solution total mass of solution 100 Parts per Million (ppm) ppm = Parts per Billion (ppb) ppb = mass of A in solution total mass of solution 106 mass of A in solution total mass of solution 109 7

8 Mole Fraction X A = moles of A total moles in solution Molarity M = mol of solute L of solution Molality m = mol of solute kg of solvent Changing Molarity to Molality If we know the density of the solution, we can calculate the molality from the molarity, and vice versa. Example 1 Dissolve 62.1 g (1.00 mol) of ethylene glycol, C 2 H 6 O 2, in 250. g H 2 O. Calculate the mass percentage of ethylene glycol, mole fraction of ethylene glycol, and molality. 8

9 Example 2 A saturated solution of manganese (II) chloride (FW = g/mol) in H 2 O (MW = g/mol) is 43.6% MnCl 2 by weight. Calculate the molality of the saturated solution. Example 3 A solution is made from dissolving lithium bromide (FW = g/mol) in acetonitrile (CH 3 CN, g/mol). Calculate the molality if the 1.80 molar solution has a density of g/ml. Vapor Pressure Because of solutesolvent intermolecular attraction, higher concentrations of nonvolatile solutes make it harder for solvent to escape to the vapor phase. Therefore, the vapor pressure of a solution is lower than that of the pure solvent. 9

10 Vapor pressure: Raoult s Law The extent to which a nonvolatile solute lowers the vapor pressure is proportional to its concentration. P solution = X solvent P solvent X is the mole fraction of the SOLVENT P is the normal vapor pressure of SOLVENT at that temperature Example 4 At 20 C the vapor pressure of water is 17.5 torr. If we add enough glucose, C 6 H 12 O 6, to obtain X H2O = X C6H12O6 = What is the vapor pressure? Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression 10

11 Boiling point elevation T b = K b m K b is the molal boiling point elevation constant, a solvent dependent property. T b is added to the normal boiling point of the solvent. Freezing point depression T f = K f m K f is the molal freezing point depression constant of the solvent. T f is subtracted from the normal freezing point of the solvent. Example 5 Antifreeze consists of ethylene glycol, C 2 H 6 O 2, a nonvolatile nonelectrolyte. Calculate the boiling point and freezing point of a 25.0% (weight) aqueous solution. K b,h2o = 0.52 C/m, K f,h2o = 1.86 C/m 11

12 Colligative Properties of Electrolytes Since these properties depend on the number of particles dissolved, solutions of electrolytes (which dissociate in solution) should show greater changes than those of nonelectrolytes. van t Hoff factor T b = K b m i T f = K f m i for dilute solutions, i whole number Note: The van t Hoff factor can also be used in other colligative properties. Example 6 Arrange the following aqueous solutions in order of decreasing freezing point. (a) 0.20 m ethylene glycol (b) 0.12 m potassium sulfate (c) 0.10 m magnesium chloride (d) 0.12 m potassium bromide 12

13 Osmosis Some substances form semipermeable membranes, allowing some smaller particles to pass through, but blocking other larger particles. In biological systems, most semi-permeable membranes allow water to pass through, but solutes are not free to do so. In osmosis, there is net movement of solvent from the area of higher solvent concentration (lower solute concentration) to the area of lower solvent concentration (higher solute concentration). Osmosis Osmotic pressure The pressure required to stop osmosis, known as osmotic pressure, π, is π = ( n )RT = MRT V where M is the molarity of the solution If the osmotic pressure is the same on both sides of a membrane (i.e., the concentrations are the same), the solutions are isotonic. 13

14 Osmosis in cells Osmosis and cells Example mg of a protein is dissolved in water to form a 5.00 ml solution. The osmotic pressure was found to be 1.54 torr at 25 C. Calculate the molar mass of the protein. 14

15 Reverse osmosis water desalination Water desalination plant in Tampa Colloidal dispersions or colloids Suspensions of particles larger than individual ions or molecules, but too small to be settled out by gravity. You can think of them as somewhere in between homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures. Tyndall effect Colloid particles are large enough to scatter light. Most colloids appear cloudy or opaque. 15

16 Colloids in biological systems Some molecules have a polar, hydrophilic (waterloving) end and a nonpolar, hydrophobic (waterhating) end. Colloids in biological systems These molecules can aid in the emulsification of fats and oils in aqueous solutions. 16

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