Wed Sep 12, 2007 THE GASEOUS STATE

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Wed Sep 12, 2007 THE GASEOUS STATE"

Transcription

1 Chapter 5: Gases Gas Stoichiometry Partial Pressure Kinetic Theory Effusion and Diffusion Wed Sep 12, 2007 Exam #1 - Friday, Sep 14 Attendance is mandatory! Practice exam today in recitation Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 1 THE GASEOUS STATE Ideal Gas Law PV = nrt Pressure atm Volume liters n moles R L atm mol -1 K -1 Temperature Kelvin Earlier used the Ideal Gas Law to determine mass. Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 2 1

2 PRS Question #1 What mass of argon is contained in an 18.6L container at 20 C if the pressure is 2.35 atm? (1) 21.9 g (2) 72.6 g (3) 322 g PV = mass (MW) x RT (4) 1.82 kg Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 3 PRS Question #1- Solution What mass of argon is contained in an 18.6L container at 20 C if the pressure is 2.35 atm? (1) 21.9 g (2) 72.6 g (3) 322 g (4) 1.82 kg P x V x MW Mass = R x T (2.35 atm) x (18.6L) x ( g/mol) Mass = ( L atm mol -1 K -1 ) x (293.15K) Mass = 72.6 g What else can be determined using the Ideal Gas Law? Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 4 2

3 Gas Density Ideal Gas Law PV = nrt PV = mass (MW) RT mass V = P (MW) RT = density Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 5 PRS Question #2 What is the density of carbon tetrafluoride at 1.00 atm and 50 ºC? PV = nrt 1) g/l 2) g/l 3) 3.32 g/l 4) 21.4 g/l What do we need to do to solve this problem? (1) Know chemical formula (2) Convert Ideal Gas Law into density equation (3) Be mindful of units Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 6 3

4 Gas Density Calculation What is the density of carbon tetrafluoride at 1.00 atm and 50 ºC? Chemical Formula for carbon tetrafluoride CF 4 Density = [P x (MW)]/RT P = 1.00 atm; MW = 88 g/mol; R = L atm mol -1 K -1 ; T = = K Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 7 Gas Density Calculation What is the density of carbon tetrafluoride at 1.00 atm and 50 ºC? PV = nrt 1) g/l 2) g/l 3) 3.32 g/l 4) 21.4 g/l Density = [P x (MW)]/RT (1.00 atm) (88 g/mol) ( L atm mol -1 K -1 ) (323.15K) Density = 3.32 g/l Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 8 4

5 Molar Mass Ideal Gas Law PV = nrt PV = mass (MW) RT MW = mass x RT PV Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 9 Mixtures of Gases Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures The total pressure of a mixture of gases equals the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases. P total = P A + P B P A V = n A RT P B V = n B RT Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 10 5

6 Partial Pressures in Gas Mixtures P total = P A + P B P A = n A RT V P B = n B RT V P total = P A + P B = n total RT V Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 11 Mole Fractions n A X A = X B = n total n B n total n total = n A + n B The mole fraction of a component in a mixture is defined as the # of moles of the components that are in the mixture divided by the total # of moles present. Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 12 6

7 Mole Percents X A = n A n total x 100 X A = 0.5 Mole % = 50% Mole fractions must range from 0 1. Multiply mole fractions by 100 for mole percents. Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 13 P A = n A RT P A P total Therefore V For Ideal Gases n A RTV = = n total RTV P total = P A = X A P total n A n total n total RT V = X A Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 14 7

8 Example Problem Some sulfur is burned in excess oxygen. The gaseous mixture produced contains 23.2 g O g SO 2 only. Its total pressure is 2.13 atm. What is the partial pressure of SO 2 (g)? P SO2 = X SO2 P total Calculate Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 15 Example Problem The gaseous mixture produced contains 23.2 g O g SO 2 only. # mol O 2 = 23.2 g x 1 mol O g O 2 = mol O 2 # mol SO 2 = 53.1 g x 1 mol SO g SO 2 = mol SO 2 Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 16 8

9 Example Problem What is the partial pressure of SO 2 (g)? X SO 2 = mol mol mol = P SO2 = X SO2 P total = x 2.13 atm = 1.14 atm Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 17 Kinetic Theory of Gases Separation by large distances compared to size Constant movement in random directions with a distribution of speeds. No force exerted except during collisions Direction = straight line except between collisions Collisions are elastic; no energy lost during collisions Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 18 9

10 Molecular Collisions in Gases Greater impulse on container walls when the mass of the gas is greater P mass Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 19 Molecular Collisions in Gases Greater impulse on container walls when the density increases P N Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 20 10

11 Molecular Collisions in Gases Greater impulse on container walls when the average speed increases P (speed) 2 Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 21 Molecular Speeds PV = nrt PV = (1/3) Nmū 2 Recall: N = nn 0 and m = M/N 0 nrt = (1/3) (nn 0 ) (M/N 0 ) ū 2 RT = (1/3) Mū 2 ū 2 = (3RT)/M Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 22 11

12 Molecular Speeds 2 u rms = u = 3RT M NOTE: Use SI units here R = J mol -1 K -1, where J = kg m 2 s -2 T = K M = g/mol, where you would convert to kg/mol Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 23 Molecular Speeds uavg = 8RT pm NOTE: Use SI units here R = J mol -1 K -1, where J = kg m 2 s -2 T = K M = g/mol, where you would convert to kg/mol Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 24 12

13 Molecular Speed Distribution Temp is a measure of the average kinetic energy of molecules when their speeds exhibit the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 25 Molecular Motion A gas molecule at ordinary conditions follows a straight path only for a short time before colliding with another molecule. The overall path is a zig-zag. Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 26 13

14 Diffusion and Effusion DIFFUSION the spontaneous molecular mixing of materials (usually liquids or gases) without chemical combination EFFUSION the spontaneous movement of the molecules of a gas through a hole whose size is small compared to their mean free path Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 27 Effusion Which gas will effuse faster? How to determine this? Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 28 14

15 Comparing Effusion Rates Molecular weight of He = g/mol ū Helium is proportional to (1/4) = 0.5 Molecular weight of O 2 = 32 g/mol ū Oxygen is proportional to (1/32) = Helium gas has a faster avg speed than O 2 gas, therefore He will effuse faster than O 2. Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 29 He Effuses Faster Than O 2 Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 30 15

16 Final Reminders Exam Study Notes online Practice Exams Recitation today Online via WebAssign Homework 5-7% students forget to submit their WebAssign homework! 40% students have NOT entered their 9-digit GT ID # into Eduspace profile Week 3 CHEM Sections L and M 31 16

Kinetic Molecular Theory

Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetic Molecular Theory Particle volume - The volume of an individual gas particle is small compaired to that of its container. Therefore, gas particles are considered to have mass, but no volume. There

More information

Type: Double Date: Kinetic Energy of an Ideal Gas II. Homework: Read 14.3, Do Concept Q. # (15), Do Problems # (28, 29, 31, 37)

Type: Double Date: Kinetic Energy of an Ideal Gas II. Homework: Read 14.3, Do Concept Q. # (15), Do Problems # (28, 29, 31, 37) Type: Double Date: Objective: Kinetic Energy of an Ideal Gas I Kinetic Energy of an Ideal Gas II Homework: Read 14.3, Do Concept Q. # (15), Do Problems # (8, 9, 31, 37) AP Physics Mr. Mirro Kinetic Energy

More information

Gases. Gas: fluid, occupies all available volume Liquid: fluid, fixed volume Solid: fixed volume, fixed shape Others?

Gases. Gas: fluid, occupies all available volume Liquid: fluid, fixed volume Solid: fixed volume, fixed shape Others? CHAPTER 5: Gases Chemistry of Gases Pressure and Boyle s Law Temperature and Charles Law The Ideal Gas Law Chemical Calculations of Gases Mixtures of Gases Kinetic Theory of Gases Real Gases Gases The

More information

Gas particles move in straight line paths. As they collide, they create a force, pressure.

Gas particles move in straight line paths. As they collide, they create a force, pressure. #28 notes Unit 4: Gases Ch. Gases I. Pressure and Manometers Gas particles move in straight line paths. As they collide, they create a force, pressure. Pressure = Force / Area Standard Atmospheric Pressure

More information

Boyles Law. At constant temperature the volume occupied by a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure on the gas 1 P = P

Boyles Law. At constant temperature the volume occupied by a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure on the gas 1 P = P Boyles Law At constant temperature the volume occupied by a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure on the gas 1 or k 1 Boyles Law Example ressure olume Initial 2.00 atm 100 cm 3

More information

Gases. States of Matter. Molecular Arrangement Solid Small Small Ordered Liquid Unity Unity Local Order Gas High Large Chaotic (random)

Gases. States of Matter. Molecular Arrangement Solid Small Small Ordered Liquid Unity Unity Local Order Gas High Large Chaotic (random) Gases States of Matter States of Matter Kinetic E (motion) Potential E(interaction) Distance Between (size) Molecular Arrangement Solid Small Small Ordered Liquid Unity Unity Local Order Gas High Large

More information

Chapter 5 The Gaseous State

Chapter 5 The Gaseous State Chapter 5 The Gaseous State I) Pressure Pressure is the force exerted per unit area. A) Devices used to measure pressure 1) barometer used to measure the atmospheric pressure at seal level and 0 o C, P

More information

CHAPTER 12. Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory

CHAPTER 12. Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory CHAPTER 12 Gases and the Kinetic-Molecular Theory 1 Gases vs. Liquids & Solids Gases Weak interactions between molecules Molecules move rapidly Fast diffusion rates Low densities Easy to compress Liquids

More information

Gas Laws. The kinetic theory of matter states that particles which make up all types of matter are in constant motion.

Gas Laws. The kinetic theory of matter states that particles which make up all types of matter are in constant motion. Name Period Gas Laws Kinetic energy is the energy of motion of molecules. Gas state of matter made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules). Each atom or molecule is very far from other atoms or molecules.

More information

Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten. Chapter 10 Gases

Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten. Chapter 10 Gases Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 10 Gases A Gas Has neither a definite volume nor shape. Uniformly fills any container.

More information

The Gas Laws. The effect of adding gas. 4 things. Pressure and the number of molecules are directly related. Page 1

The Gas Laws. The effect of adding gas. 4 things. Pressure and the number of molecules are directly related. Page 1 The Gas Laws Describe HOW gases behave. Can be predicted by the theory. The Kinetic Theory Amount of change can be calculated with mathematical equations. The effect of adding gas. When we blow up a balloon

More information

How many moles are in a breath of air whose volume is 2.32L at body temperature (37 C) and a pressure of 745 torr?

How many moles are in a breath of air whose volume is 2.32L at body temperature (37 C) and a pressure of 745 torr? Lecture 9 State of gas described by (n,p,v,t) n # moles P pressure V volume T (absolute) temperature (K) Sample Problem A balloon filled with helium has a volume of 1.60 L at 1.00 atm and 25oC. What will

More information

The Gas Laws. Our Atmosphere. Pressure = Units of Pressure. Barometer. Chapter 10

The Gas Laws. Our Atmosphere. Pressure = Units of Pressure. Barometer. Chapter 10 Our Atmosphere The Gas Laws 99% N 2 and O 2 78% N 2 80 70 Nitrogen Chapter 10 21% O 2 1% CO 2 and the Noble Gases 60 50 40 Oxygen 30 20 10 0 Gas Carbon dioxide and Noble Gases Pressure Pressure = Force

More information

Lecture Notes: Gas Laws and Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT).

Lecture Notes: Gas Laws and Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT). CHEM110 Week 9 Notes (Gas Laws) Page 1 of 7 Lecture Notes: Gas Laws and Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT). Gases Are mostly empty space Occupy containers uniformly and completely Expand infinitely Diffuse

More information

Overview of Physical Properties of Gases. Gas Pressure

Overview of Physical Properties of Gases. Gas Pressure Overview of Physical Properties of Gases! volume changes with pressure! volume changes with temperature! completely miscible! low density gases: < 2 g/l liquids and solids: 1000 g/l Gas Pressure force

More information

Thermodynamics: The Kinetic Theory of Gases

Thermodynamics: The Kinetic Theory of Gases Thermodynamics: The Kinetic Theory of Gases Resources: Serway The Kinetic Theory of Gases: 10.6 AP Physics B Videos Physics B Lesson 5: Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Physics B Lesson 6: Specific and Latent

More information

Gases and Kinetic-Molecular Theory: Chapter 12. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline

Gases and Kinetic-Molecular Theory: Chapter 12. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline Gases and Kinetic-Molecular heory: Chapter Chapter Outline Comparison of Solids, Liquids, and Gases Composition of the Atmosphere and Some Common Properties of Gases Pressure Boyle s Law: he Volume-Pressure

More information

Gas - a substance that is characterized by widely separated molecules in rapid motion.

Gas - a substance that is characterized by widely separated molecules in rapid motion. Chapter 10 - Gases Gas - a substance that is characterized by widely separated molecules in rapid motion. Mixtures of gases are uniform. Gases will expand to fill containers (compare with solids and liquids

More information

(1) The size of a gas particle is negligible as compared to the volume of the container in which the gas is placed.

(1) The size of a gas particle is negligible as compared to the volume of the container in which the gas is placed. Gas Laws and Kinetic Molecular Theory The Gas Laws are based on experiments, and they describe how a gas behaves under certain conditions. However, Gas Laws do not attempt to explain the behavior of gases.

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. What are standard temperature and pressure conditions for gases?

MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. What are standard temperature and pressure conditions for gases? Gas Laws MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. What are standard temperature and pressure conditions for gases? a. 0 C and 0 torr b. 0 K and 760 torr c. -273 C and 1 atm d. 0 C and 760 torr e. 0 C and 1 torr 2. If the volume

More information

Assignment 6 Solutions. Chapter 6, #6.4, 6.12, 6.32, 6.36, 6.43, 6.60, 6.70, 6.80, 6.88, 6.90, 6.100, 6.104,

Assignment 6 Solutions. Chapter 6, #6.4, 6.12, 6.32, 6.36, 6.43, 6.60, 6.70, 6.80, 6.88, 6.90, 6.100, 6.104, Assignment 6 Solutions Chapter 6, #6.4, 6.12, 6.32, 6.36, 6.43, 6.60, 6.70, 6.80, 6.88, 6.90, 6.100, 6.104, 6.108. 6.4. Collect and Organize When the temperature of the balloon Figure P6.3 increases, does

More information

CHEMISTRY. Matter and Change. Section 13.1 Section 13.2 Section 13.3. The Gas Laws The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry

CHEMISTRY. Matter and Change. Section 13.1 Section 13.2 Section 13.3. The Gas Laws The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry CHEMISTRY Matter and Change 13 Table Of Contents Chapter 13: Gases Section 13.1 Section 13.2 Section 13.3 The Gas Laws The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry State the relationships among pressure, temperature,

More information

2. If pressure is constant, the relationship between temperature and volume is a. direct b. Inverse

2. If pressure is constant, the relationship between temperature and volume is a. direct b. Inverse Name Unit 11 Review: Gas Laws and Intermolecular Forces Date Block 1. If temperature is constant, the relationship between pressure and volume is a. direct b. inverse 2. If pressure is constant, the relationship

More information

Force. Pressure = ; Area. Force = Mass times Acceleration;

Force. Pressure = ; Area. Force = Mass times Acceleration; Force Pressure = ; Area Force = Mass times Acceleration; If mass = kg, and acceleration = m/s 2, Force = kg.m/s 2 = Newton (N) If Area = m 2, Pressure = (kg.m/s 2 )/m 2 = N/m 2 = Pascal; (1 Pa = 1 N/m

More information

Tutorial 6 GASES. PRESSURE: atmospheres or mm Hg; 1 atm = 760 mm Hg. STP: Standard Temperature and Pressure: 273 K and 1 atm (or 760 mm Hg)

Tutorial 6 GASES. PRESSURE: atmospheres or mm Hg; 1 atm = 760 mm Hg. STP: Standard Temperature and Pressure: 273 K and 1 atm (or 760 mm Hg) T-41 Tutorial 6 GASES Before working with gases some definitions are needed: PRESSURE: atmospheres or mm Hg; 1 atm = 760 mm Hg TEMPERATURE: Kelvin, K, which is o C + 273 STP: Standard Temperature and Pressure:

More information

Gas Density. Lift GOODYEAR. Goodyear blimp filled with He gas BADYEAR. Weight. Badyear blimp filled with Cl 2 gas

Gas Density. Lift GOODYEAR. Goodyear blimp filled with He gas BADYEAR. Weight. Badyear blimp filled with Cl 2 gas Gas Density Lift GOODYEAR Goodyear blimp filled with He gas BADYEAR Weight Badyear blimp filled with Cl 2 gas At STP( 1.00 atm, 273 K) 1.00 mole gas = 22.4 L Gas density: d = mass/volume = molar mass/molar

More information

Chemistry 13: States of Matter

Chemistry 13: States of Matter Chemistry 13: States of Matter Name: Period: Date: Chemistry Content Standard: Gases and Their Properties The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and molecules and explains the properties

More information

CHE141 Chapter 10. Chapter 10 Gases

CHE141 Chapter 10. Chapter 10 Gases Chapter 0 Gases. A sample of gas (4.g) initially at 4.00 atm was compressed from 8.00 L to.00 L at constant temperature. After the compression, the gas pressure was atm. (a). 4.00 (b)..00 (c)..00 (d).

More information

CHEM 35 General Chemistry EXAM #2 October 18, 2000

CHEM 35 General Chemistry EXAM #2 October 18, 2000 CHEM 35 General Chemistry EXAM #2 October 18, 2000 Name: Anne Serkey SSN: Lab T.A.: INSTRUCTIONS: Read through the entire exam before you begin. Answer all of the questions. For questions involving calculations,

More information

= 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm

= 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm Chapter 13 Gases 1. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. Gases have volumes that depend on their conditions, and can be compressed or expanded by

More information

CHEM 1411 Chapter 12 Homework Answers

CHEM 1411 Chapter 12 Homework Answers 1 CHEM 1411 Chapter 12 Homework Answers 1. A gas sample contained in a cylinder equipped with a moveable piston occupied 300. ml at a pressure of 2.00 atm. What would be the final pressure if the volume

More information

Chapter 13 Gases. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop

Chapter 13 Gases. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter 13 Gases An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter Map Gas Gas Model Gases are composed of tiny, widely-spaced particles. For a typical gas, the average distance between particles is

More information

THE IDEAL GAS LAW AND KINETIC THEORY

THE IDEAL GAS LAW AND KINETIC THEORY Chapter 14 he Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic heory Chapter 14 HE IDEAL GAS LAW AND KINEIC HEORY REIEW Kinetic molecular theory involves the study of matter, particularly gases, as very small particles in constant

More information

KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. Boyle s Law: At constant temperature volume of given mass of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure.

KINETIC THEORY OF GASES. Boyle s Law: At constant temperature volume of given mass of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure. KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Boyle s Law: At constant temperature volume of given mass of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure. Charle s Law: At constant pressure volume of a given mass of gas is directly

More information

Kinetic Theory of Gases A2 level notes LOJ

Kinetic Theory of Gases A2 level notes LOJ Data Sheet Extract The theory for ideal gases makes the following assumptions: The gas consists of very small atoms or molecules (spoken of as particles), each of which has an identical mass and are perfectly

More information

Chapter 4 The Properties of Gases

Chapter 4 The Properties of Gases Chapter 4 The Properties of Gases Significant Figure Convention At least one extra significant figure is displayed in all intermediate calculations. The final answer is expressed with the correct number

More information

The concept of concentration exists to answer the question: How much of the stuff is there?

The concept of concentration exists to answer the question: How much of the stuff is there? Concentrations and Other Units of Measure (Nazaroff & Alvarez-Cohen, Section 1.C.1) The concept of concentration exists to answer the question: How much of the stuff is there? Definition: The concentration

More information

Major chemistry laws. Mole and Avogadro s number. Calculating concentrations.

Major chemistry laws. Mole and Avogadro s number. Calculating concentrations. Major chemistry laws. Mole and Avogadro s number. Calculating concentrations. Major chemistry laws Avogadro's Law Equal volumes of gases under identical temperature and pressure conditions will contain

More information

Physics Courseware Physics I Ideal Gases

Physics Courseware Physics I Ideal Gases Physics Courseware Physics I Ideal Gases Problem 1.- How much mass of helium is contained in a 0.0 L cylinder at a pressure of.0 atm and a temperature of.0 C? [The atomic mass of helium is 4 amu] PV (

More information

CHEMISTRY GAS LAW S WORKSHEET

CHEMISTRY GAS LAW S WORKSHEET Boyle s Law Charles Law Guy-Lassac's Law Combined Gas Law For a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure PV = k The volume of a fixed mass of gas is

More information

Figure 10.3 A mercury manometer. This device is sometimes employed in the laboratory to measure gas pressures near atmospheric pressure.

Figure 10.3 A mercury manometer. This device is sometimes employed in the laboratory to measure gas pressures near atmospheric pressure. Characteristics of Gases Practice Problems A. Section 10.2 Pressure Pressure Conversions: 1 ATM = 101.3 kpa = 760 mm Hg (torr) SAMPLE EXERCISE 10.1 Converting Units of Pressure (a) Convert 0.357 atm to

More information

CHEMISTRY. Stoichiometry

CHEMISTRY. Stoichiometry Stoichiometry 1gram molecular mass 6.022 x 10 23 molecules Avagadro No of particles 6.022 x 10 23 particles MOLE 1 gram atomic mass 6.022 x 10 23 atoms Molar volume 22.4dm 3 at STP Equivalent mass of an

More information

An increase in temperature causes an increase in pressure due to more collisions.

An increase in temperature causes an increase in pressure due to more collisions. SESSION 7: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Key Concepts In this session we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: Kinetic molecular theory Pressure, volume and temperature relationships Properties

More information

Gases. Macroscopic Properties. Petrucci, Harwood and Herring: Chapter 6

Gases. Macroscopic Properties. Petrucci, Harwood and Herring: Chapter 6 Gases Petrucci, Harwood and Herring: Chapter 6 CHEM 1000A 3.0 Gases 1 We will be looking at Macroscopic and Microscopic properties: Macroscopic Properties of bulk gases Observable Pressure, volume, mass,

More information

AP Chemistry ( MCSEMENICK2015 ) My Courses Course Settings Chemistry: The Central Science, 12e Brown/LeMay/Bursten/Murphy/Woodward

AP Chemistry ( MCSEMENICK2015 ) My Courses Course Settings Chemistry: The Central Science, 12e Brown/LeMay/Bursten/Murphy/Woodward Signed in as Daniel Semenick, Instructor Help Sign Out AP Chemistry ( MCSEMENICK2015 ) My Courses Course Settings Chemistry: The Central Science, 12e Brown/LeMay/Bursten/Murphy/Woodward Instructor Resources

More information

1. Which graph shows the pressure-temperature relationship expected for an ideal gas? 1) 3)

1. Which graph shows the pressure-temperature relationship expected for an ideal gas? 1) 3) 1. Which graph shows the pressure-temperature relationship expected for an ideal gas? 2. Under which conditions does a real gas behave most like an ideal gas? 1) at low temperatures and high pressures

More information

Ideal Gas Behavior. NC State University

Ideal Gas Behavior. NC State University Chemistry 431 Lecture 1 Ideal Gas Behavior NC State University Macroscopic variables P, T Pressure is a force per unit area (P= F/A) The force arises from the change in momentum as particles hit an object

More information

The Gas, Liquid, and Solid Phase

The Gas, Liquid, and Solid Phase The Gas, Liquid, and Solid Phase When are interparticle forces important? Ron Robertson Kinetic Theory A. Principles Matter is composed of particles in constant, random, motion Particles collide elastically

More information

EXPERIMENT 15: Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor

EXPERIMENT 15: Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor EXPERIMENT 15: Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor Purpose: In this experiment you will use the ideal gas law to calculate the molecular weight of a volatile liquid compound by measuring the mass,

More information

F321 MOLES. Example If 1 atom has a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g 1 mole of atoms will have a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g x 6.02 x 10 23 = 7.

F321 MOLES. Example If 1 atom has a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g 1 mole of atoms will have a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g x 6.02 x 10 23 = 7. Moles 1 MOLES The mole the standard unit of amount of a substance (mol) the number of particles in a mole is known as Avogadro s constant (N A ) Avogadro s constant has a value of 6.02 x 10 23 mol -1.

More information

Chapter 5. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 5. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Class: Date: Chapter 5 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the pressure of the sample of gas trapped in the open-tube mercury manometer

More information

Version 001 HW04-Ideal Gas Laws, Gas Mixtures and KMT sparks (52100) 1

Version 001 HW04-Ideal Gas Laws, Gas Mixtures and KMT sparks (52100) 1 Version 001 HW04-Ideal Gas Laws, Gas Mixtures and KMT sparks (52100) 1 This print-out should have 15 questions. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page find all choices before

More information

1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws. Heat and Temperature

1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws. Heat and Temperature 1.4.6-1.4.8 Gas Laws Heat and Temperature Often the concepts of heat and temperature are thought to be the same, but they are not. Perhaps the reason the two are incorrectly thought to be the same is because

More information

The Mole. Chapter 10. Dimensional Analysis. The Mole. How much mass is in one atom of carbon-12? Molar Mass of Atoms 3/1/2015

The Mole. Chapter 10. Dimensional Analysis. The Mole. How much mass is in one atom of carbon-12? Molar Mass of Atoms 3/1/2015 The Mole Chapter 10 1 Objectives Use the mole and molar mass to make conversions among moles, mass, and number of particles Determine the percent composition of the components of a compound Calculate empirical

More information

Boltzmann Distribution Law

Boltzmann Distribution Law Boltzmann Distribution Law The motion of molecules is extremely chaotic Any individual molecule is colliding with others at an enormous rate Typically at a rate of a billion times per second We introduce

More information

momentum change per impact The average rate of change of momentum = Time interval between successive impacts 2m x 2l / x m x m x 2 / l P = l 2 P = l 3

momentum change per impact The average rate of change of momentum = Time interval between successive impacts 2m x 2l / x m x m x 2 / l P = l 2 P = l 3 Kinetic Molecular Theory This explains the Ideal Gas Pressure olume and Temperature behavior It s based on following ideas:. Any ordinary sized or macroscopic sample of gas contains large number of molecules.

More information

AP CHEMISTRY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP CHEMISTRY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES AP CHEMISTRY 2006 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 3 3. Answer the following questions that relate to the analysis of chemical compounds. (a) A compound containing the elements C, H, N, and O is analyzed. When

More information

Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature

Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature OpenStax-CNX module: m42217 1 Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons

More information

Kinetic Theory of Gases

Kinetic Theory of Gases Kinetic Theory of Gases Important Points:. Assumptions: a) Every gas consists of extremely small particles called molecules. b) The molecules of a gas are identical, spherical, rigid and perfectly elastic

More information

1a. Mole fraction How many moles of X per mole of air? 1b. Volume mixing ratio how many liters of X per liter of air? 2. Partial pressure what is the

1a. Mole fraction How many moles of X per mole of air? 1b. Volume mixing ratio how many liters of X per liter of air? 2. Partial pressure what is the 1a. Mole fraction How many moles of X per mole of air? 1b. Volume mixing ratio how many liters of X per liter of air? 2. Partial pressure what is the pressure exerted by X in the air? Remember that for

More information

Sample Exercise 10.1 Converting Pressure Units

Sample Exercise 10.1 Converting Pressure Units Sample Exercise 10.1 Converting Pressure Units (a) Convert 0.357 atm to torr. (b) Convert 6.6 10 2 torr to atmospheres. (c) Convert 147.2 kpa to torr. Solution Analyze In each case we are given the pressure

More information

Gas Laws. E k = ½ (mass)(speed) 2. v101613_10am

Gas Laws. E k = ½ (mass)(speed) 2. v101613_10am Gas Laws v101613_10am Objective: In this lab you will become familiar with the Ideal Gas Law and Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures. You will be able to use the information collected along with stoichiometry

More information

Exploring Gas Laws. Chapter 12. Solutions for Practice Problems. Student Textbook page 477

Exploring Gas Laws. Chapter 12. Solutions for Practice Problems. Student Textbook page 477 Chapter 12 Exploring Gas Laws Solutions for Practice Problems Student Textbook page 477 1. Problem At 19 C and 100 kpa, 0.021 mol of oxygen gas, O 2(g), occupy a volume of 0.50 L. What is the molar volume

More information

Exam 4 Practice Problems false false

Exam 4 Practice Problems false false Exam 4 Practice Problems 1 1. Which of the following statements is false? a. Condensed states have much higher densities than gases. b. Molecules are very far apart in gases and closer together in liquids

More information

CHE 105 Summer 2016 EX2

CHE 105 Summer 2016 EX2 CHE 105 Summer 2016 EX2 Your Name: Your ID: Question #: 1 How many grams of H2SO4 (molar mass = 98.08 g/mol) are in 0.23 moles of H2SO4? Do not include units in your answer. 1 grams 1. Question #: 2 When

More information

Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten. Chapter 10 Gases.

Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten. Chapter 10 Gases. Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 10 The things we will cover in this chapter: How differ from solids and liquids Pressure,

More information

CHEMISTRY 101 Hour Exam I. Adams/Le Section

CHEMISTRY 101 Hour Exam I. Adams/Le Section CHEMISTRY 101 Hour Exam I September 25, 2006 Adams/Le Name KEY Signature Section Iron rusts from disuse; stagnant water loses its purity and in cold weather becomes frozen; even so does inaction sap the

More information

4. Aluminum chloride is 20.2% aluminum by mass. Calculate the mass of aluminum in a 35.0 gram sample of aluminum chloride.

4. Aluminum chloride is 20.2% aluminum by mass. Calculate the mass of aluminum in a 35.0 gram sample of aluminum chloride. 1. Calculate the molecular mass of table sugar sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ). A. 342.30 amu C. 320.05 amu B. 160.03 amu D. 171.15 amu 2. How many oxygen atoms are in 34.5 g of NaNO 3? A. 2.34 10 23 atoms C.

More information

Mole Relationships in Chemistry

Mole Relationships in Chemistry Mole Relationships in Chemistry The Mole Concept and Atomic Masses The mole concept and molar mass is historically based on two laws from Joseph-Louis Proust in 1797 The Law of Definite Proportions This

More information

CHEM 1411, chapter 5 exercises

CHEM 1411, chapter 5 exercises CHEM 1411, chapter 5 exercises 1. A gas-filled balloon with a volume of 12.5 L at 0.90 atm and 21 C is allowed to rise to the stratosphere where the temperature is 5 C and the pressure is 1.0 millibar.

More information

AS1 MOLES. oxygen molecules have the formula O 2 the relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 so the molar mass will be 32g mol -1

AS1 MOLES. oxygen molecules have the formula O 2 the relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 so the molar mass will be 32g mol -1 Moles 1 MOLES The mole the standard unit of amount of a substance the number of particles in a mole is known as Avogadro s constant (L) Avogadro s constant has a value of 6.023 x 10 23 mol -1. Example

More information

7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790.

7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790. CHATER 3. The atmosphere is a homogeneous mixture (a solution) of gases.. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. have volumes that depend on their conditions,

More information

CLASSICAL CONCEPT REVIEW 8

CLASSICAL CONCEPT REVIEW 8 CLASSICAL CONCEPT REVIEW 8 Kinetic Theory Information concerning the initial motions of each of the atoms of macroscopic systems is not accessible, nor do we have the computational capability even with

More information

Use each of the terms below to complete the passage. Each term may be used more than once.

Use each of the terms below to complete the passage. Each term may be used more than once. Gases Section 13.1 The Gas Laws In your textbook, read about the basic concepts of the three gas laws. Use each of the terms below to complete the passage. Each term may be used more than once. pressure

More information

Guide to Chapter 9. Gases Answers in green and red.

Guide to Chapter 9. Gases Answers in green and red. Guide to Chapter 9. Gases Answers in green and red. We will spend three lecture days on this chapter. Day 1. Pressure, barometers, STP, manometers, Charles Law, Boyles Law, Aogadro's Law, Combined Gas

More information

10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory. 10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory

10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory. 10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory The first scheduled quiz will be given next Tuesday during Lecture. It will last 5 minutes. Bring pencil, calculator, and your book. The coverage will be pp 364-44, i.e. Sections 0.0 through.4. 0.7 Theory

More information

Abbreviations Conversions Standard Conditions Boyle s Law

Abbreviations Conversions Standard Conditions Boyle s Law Gas Law Problems Abbreviations Conversions atm - atmosphere K = C + 273 mmhg - millimeters of mercury 1 cm 3 (cubic centimeter) = 1 ml (milliliter) torr - another name for mmhg 1 dm 3 (cubic decimeter)

More information

Kinetic Theory of Gases. Chapter 33. Kinetic Theory of Gases

Kinetic Theory of Gases. Chapter 33. Kinetic Theory of Gases Kinetic Theory of Gases Kinetic Theory of Gases Chapter 33 Kinetic theory of gases envisions gases as a collection of atoms or molecules. Atoms or molecules are considered as particles. This is based on

More information

Temperature. Number of moles. Constant Terms. Pressure. Answers Additional Questions 12.1

Temperature. Number of moles. Constant Terms. Pressure. Answers Additional Questions 12.1 Answers Additional Questions 12.1 1. A gas collected over water has a total pressure equal to the pressure of the dry gas plus the pressure of the water vapor. If the partial pressure of water at 25.0

More information

Bloom s Taxonomy. Study Habits and Study Resources: Pause. Expectations: Develop a working knowledge of the topics.

Bloom s Taxonomy. Study Habits and Study Resources: Pause. Expectations: Develop a working knowledge of the topics. Dr. C. Weldon Mathews Chem 1 Office: 004 Evans Lab Telephone: 9-1574 email: mathews.6@osu.edu web: www.chemistry.ohio-state.edu/~mathews/ Office hours: TR 1:30 - :00 pm TR 4:00-5:00 pm or by appointment

More information

KINETIC THEORY. 1.Name any one scientist who explained the behavior of gases considering it to be made up of tiny particles.

KINETIC THEORY. 1.Name any one scientist who explained the behavior of gases considering it to be made up of tiny particles. KINETIC THEORY ONE MARK OUESTION: 1.Name any one scientist who explained the behavior of gases considering it to be made up of tiny particles. 2.Based on which idea kinetic theory of gases explain the

More information

b. As you draw a vacuum in your mouth, atmospheric pressure pushing on the surface of the liquid forces the liquid up the straw.

b. As you draw a vacuum in your mouth, atmospheric pressure pushing on the surface of the liquid forces the liquid up the straw. CHAPTER FIVE Questions 16. a. Heating the can will increase the pressure of the gas inside the can, P T, V and n constant. As the pressure increases, it may be enough to rupture the can. b. As you draw

More information

10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory. 10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory

10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory. 10.7 Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory. Kinetic Molecular Theory Week lectures--tentative 0.7 Kinetic-Molecular Theory 40 Application to the Gas Laws 0.8 Molecular Effusion and Diffusion 43 Graham's Law of Effusion Diffusion and Mean Free Path 0.9 Real Gases: Deviations

More information

CHM1045 Practice Test 3 v.1 - Answers Name Fall 2013 & 2011 (Ch. 5, 6, 7, & part 11) Revised April 10, 2014

CHM1045 Practice Test 3 v.1 - Answers Name Fall 2013 & 2011 (Ch. 5, 6, 7, & part 11) Revised April 10, 2014 CHM1045 Practice Test 3 v.1 - Answers Name Fall 013 & 011 (Ch. 5, 6, 7, & part 11) Revised April 10, 014 Given: Speed of light in a vacuum = 3.00 x 10 8 m/s Planck s constant = 6.66 x 10 34 J s E (-.18x10

More information

Gas Laws. vacuum. 760 mm. air pressure. mercury

Gas Laws. vacuum. 760 mm. air pressure. mercury Gas Laws Some chemical reactions take place in the gas phase and others produce products that are gases. We need a way to measure the quantity of compounds in a given volume of gas and relate that to moles.

More information

THE BEHAVIOR OF GASES

THE BEHAVIOR OF GASES 12 THE BEHAVIOR OF GASES Conceptual Curriculum Concrete concepts More abstract concepts or math/problem-solving Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics Honors Curriculum Core honors content Options

More information

Version 001 HW03-Non Ideal, Gas Mixtures & KMT vandenbout (52130) 1. = torr

Version 001 HW03-Non Ideal, Gas Mixtures & KMT vandenbout (52130) 1. = torr Version 001 HW03-Non Ideal, Gas Mixtures & KMT vandenbout (52130) 1 This print-out should have 20 questions. Multiple-choice questions may continue on the next column or page find all choices before answering.

More information

Page 1. Set of values that describe the current condition of a system, usually in equilibrium. What is a state?

Page 1. Set of values that describe the current condition of a system, usually in equilibrium. What is a state? What is a state? Set of values that describe the current condition of a system, usually in equilibrium Is this physics different than what we have learned? Why do we learn it? How do we make the connection

More information

REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 5. 1. Determine the pressure of the gas (in mmhg) in the diagram below, given atmospheric pressure= 0.975 atm.

REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 5. 1. Determine the pressure of the gas (in mmhg) in the diagram below, given atmospheric pressure= 0.975 atm. Chemistry 101 ANSWER KEY REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 5 1. Determine the pressure of the gas (in mmhg) in the diagram below, given atmospheric pressure= 0.975 atm. atm = 0.975 atm h = 5 cmhg gas atm 760 mmhg

More information

CHM Kinetic Theory of Gases (r14) Charles Taylor 1/6

CHM Kinetic Theory of Gases (r14) Charles Taylor 1/6 CHM 110 - Kinetic Theory of Gases (r14) - 2014 Charles Taylor 1/6 Introduction We've talked about the gas laws and how they were derived from experiment. As scientists, we would like to figure out why

More information

Chapter 6: Properties of Gases: The Air We Breathe

Chapter 6: Properties of Gases: The Air We Breathe Chapter 6: Properties of Gases: The Air We Breathe Problems: 6.1-6.5, 6.13-6.18, 6.21-6.22, 6.6.25, 6.27-6.32, 6.35-6.38, 6.41-6.50, 6.55-6.122, 6.133-6.138,6.145-6.158, 6.161-6.167, 6.169-6.170, 6.184-6.186

More information

Calculations involving concentrations, stoichiometry

Calculations involving concentrations, stoichiometry Calculations involving concentrations, stoichiometry MUDr. Jan Pláteník, PhD Mole Unit of amount of substance the amount of substance containing as many particles (atoms, ions, molecules, etc.) as present

More information

Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question.

Name Class Date. In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. Assessment Chapter Test A Chapter: States of Matter In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 1. The kinetic-molecular

More information

Chapter 14. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

Chapter 14. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM Chapter 14. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM 14.1 THE CONCEPT OF EQUILIBRIUM AND THE EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT Many chemical reactions do not go to completion but instead attain a state of chemical equilibrium. Chemical

More information

Absorption of Heat. Internal energy is the appropriate energy variable to use at constant volume

Absorption of Heat. Internal energy is the appropriate energy variable to use at constant volume 6 Absorption of Heat According to the First Law, E = q + w = q - P V, assuming P-V work is the only kind that can occur. Therefore, E = q V. The subscript means that the process occurs at constant volume.

More information

CHEM 10123/10125, Exam 1 February 8, 2012 (50 minutes)

CHEM 10123/10125, Exam 1 February 8, 2012 (50 minutes) CHEM 10123/10125, Exam 1 February 8, 2012 (50 minutes) Name (please print) 1. SHOW ALL WORK. A saturated, aqueous NaCl solution is 5.40 M NaCl (58.44 g/mol) and is 26.0% NaCl by weight. a.) (10 points)

More information

General Properties of Gases. Properties of Gases. K is for Kelvin. C is for degrees Celsius. F is for degrees Fahrenheit PROPERTIES OF GASES GAS LAWS

General Properties of Gases. Properties of Gases. K is for Kelvin. C is for degrees Celsius. F is for degrees Fahrenheit PROPERTIES OF GASES GAS LAWS PROPERTIES OF GASES or GAS LAWS 1 General Properties of Gases There is a lot of empty space in a gas. Gases can be expanded infinitely. Gases fill containers uniformly and completely. Gases diffuse and

More information

Chemistry 110 Lecture Unit 5 Chapter 11-GASES

Chemistry 110 Lecture Unit 5 Chapter 11-GASES Chemistry 110 Lecture Unit 5 Chapter 11-GASES I. PROPERITIES OF GASES A. Gases have an indefinite shape. B. Gases have a low density C. Gases are very compressible D. Gases exert pressure equally in all

More information

Substances that are liquids or solids under ordinary conditions may also exist as gases. These are often referred to as vapors. Properties of Gases

Substances that are liquids or solids under ordinary conditions may also exist as gases. These are often referred to as vapors. Properties of Gases Common Student Misconceptions Students need to be told to always use Kelvin temperatures in gas problems. Students should always use units (and unit factor analysis) in gas-law problems to keep track of

More information

INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking

INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking Sixth Edition by Charles H. Corwin Chapter 9 The Mole Concept by Christopher Hamaker 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 9 1 Avogadro s Number Avogadro

More information