Pharmacy Research and Evaluation Resource Series Three: Research Methods in Pharmacy Practice Research. Article One - Qualitative Interviews.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Pharmacy Research and Evaluation Resource Series Three: Research Methods in Pharmacy Practice Research. Article One - Qualitative Interviews."

Transcription

1 Article One - Qualitative Interviews Contents Pharmacy Research and Evaluation Resource - Introduction - Qualitative Research - Qualitative Interviews - Sampling - Conducting Qualitative Interviews - Quality in Qualitative Research - Analysing Qualitative Data - Further Resources - Appendix A: Example Interview Topic Guide Introduction This Third Series of Pharmacy Research & Evaluation Resources aims to provide an introduction to the use of different research methods within Pharmacy Practice Research (PPR). Broadly speaking, research methods tend to be either quantitative or qualitative in nature. Quantitative research involves measuring or counting things and generates numerical data or data that can be converted into numbers. Quantitative methods can be used to provide information about a population, for example, what percentage of the population is female, how many pharmacists work in industry, hospital and so on. Quantitative methods can also be used to establish whether relationships are statistically significant, for example, the relationship between smoking and illness patterns. This type of research aims to generate unbiased, context-free data which can be statistically generalised to the wider population. Quantitative research uses a deductive process which means that a theory (based on existing evidence) and specific hypothesis is tested and the data generated either supports or contradicts this theory. Qualitative research involves collecting data which are detailed, rich and complex, and aims to generate in-depth understanding and explanation of processes and situations. Unlike quantitative research, which by definition quantifies and thereby produces numerical data, qualitative data is mainly in the form of words, ideas, themes, patterns and processes, and this data is highly context specific. Qualitative research employs an inductive rather than deductive process, i.e. it allows new ideas, themes and theories to emerge during the process rather than testing only pre-established theories. Qualitative studies can also be based on existing theory, which provides a framework for the question schedule and analysis. A key feature of this type of research is that it is committed to retaining diversity and complexity in analysis and, in addition to comparative themes and patterns, individual cases are also discussed. This article focuses on the use of qualitative research and more specifically, the use of qualitative interviews, within PPR. Qualitative Research Qualitative research has its roots in a diverse field of methodological and philosophical backgrounds. Qualitative methods have been used and developed in a variety of disciplines including sociology, anthropology, education, psychology and health service research. Because of this diversity in background and use, terminology is often loosely defined and its meaning can vary. It is therefore crucial, when conducting or evaluating qualitative research, to provide clear definitions of what is meant when using terms such as semi-structured interview, purposive sampling, thematic analysis and so on. Clarity of the research process is essential to ensure findings are fully supported and can be adequately interpreted. Despite this variety, the following statement is widely applicable to all qualitative research methods: Qualitative research aims to provide an in-depth understanding of people s experiences, perspectives and Royal Pharmaceutical Society 2010 Page 1 of 9

2 histories in the context of their personal circumstances or settings. Among many distinctive features, it is characterised by: a concern with exploring phenomena from the perspective of those being studied; the use of methods which are sensitive to the social context of the study; the capture of data which are detailed, rich and complex; a mainly inductive rather than deductive analytic process; developing explanations at the level of meaning or social processes rather than context-free laws; answering what is, how and why questions 1. Because of its focus on understanding the social nature of a phenomenon, including the perspectives of others, qualitative research can be used in identifying the factors that contribute to successful or unsuccessful [service] delivery; identifying outcomes (intended or unintended) and how they occur; examining the nature of requirements of different groups within the target population; exploring the contexts in which policies operate; and exploring organisational aspects of delivery 2. Qualitative research methodologies are also used to gain insight into how patients experience their medical conditions, their treatments, their treatment outcomes (both clinical and social), and the professionals who are providing their care. By using robust research designs and methodologies, qualitative research can inform the evidence base needed by pharmacists and pharmacy to optimise resources and improve care. There are a variety of research methods which fall under the umbrella term of qualitative research including interviews, focus groups and participant observation. These research methods can either be used alone or in combination with other qualitative methods or quantitative methods such as surveys. When combined with the use of quantitative methods, qualitative methods can be used in the exploratory phases of a study, i.e. using analysis of focus group data to inform survey design. Alternatively, they can be used following collection and analysis of quantitative data in order to explore these findings in their social context. Qualitative Interviews Qualitative interviews normally consist of one-to-one, face-to-face conversations between the researcher and the research participant although they can also be conducted by phone or via the internet. A number of different terms are used to describe interviewees including: participants, patient, client, and user. In this article, the term participant, respondent and interviewee are used. Qualitative interviews can be understood as lying on a continuum ranging from structured through semistructured to unstructured. Again, these terms are often loosely defined and so the researcher needs to be explicit about the nature of the interview. This is usually achieved, when reporting findings, by including a clear rationale explaining sample selection, participant recruitment, and interview guide design. The interview schedule or topic guide is normally attached as an appendix to qualitative research reports. An example of an interview topic guide is provided in Appendix A. Structured Interviews are somewhat similar to survey questionnaires. As with surveys, all interviewees are asked the same questions in the same order. With a postal or online survey, the participants response is often restricted to pre-defined categories such as: agree; disagree; between 1 and 20: between 21 and 40; community: hospital and so on. With a structured interview, although the same questions are asked of all participants, their responses are not pre-set but are left open. Semi-structured Interviews can again vary in nature, with some being almost structured and some almost unstructured. As a general guide, semi-structured interviews can be used if the researcher knows 1 2 Spencer, L et al (2003), Quality in Qualitative Evaluation: a framework for assessing research evidence, National Centre for Social Research Spencer, L et al (2003), Quality in Qualitative Evaluation: a framework for assessing research evidence, National Centre for Social Research Royal Pharmaceutical Society 2010 Page 2 of 9

3 enough about a particular topic to develop questions in advance of interviewing. The interview is normally based upon a schedule of mainly open questions to enable aspects of a particular topic to be explored in detail. Usually the researcher will ask the same questions of all participants, although not always in the same order, and prompting as necessary 3. Within semi-structured interviews, the schedule of mainly open questions can take a variety of forms depending on the research aims and objectives. It can be very loosely structured with topic headings rather than open questions and these can be approached from a number of angles depending on the individual interview. Unstructured interviews are used when one knows very little about the topic in question and want to approach it as openly as possible, often in order to gain a true appreciation of the participants view. They typically begin with the researcher asking one general open question such as Can you tell me about your experience of using insulin for your diabetes?. The participant s response will enable the researcher to identify what aspects, topics or themes are important to the participant and further questions should mainly seek clarification or probe for more detail. This allows the interview to be respondent led and will elicit his or her views about the research topic. Sampling Sampling procedures, including determining the appropriate sample size differ between qualitative and quantitative studies. In quantitative studies, unbiased probability samples are selected so that statistical analysis can be used to apply the findings to the total population from which that sample was drawn. In contrast, because of the detailed and intensive work that qualitative studies entail, sample sizes are necessarily small and the application of mathematical rules to calculate sample sizes is generally inappropriate 4. Within qualitative research, there are a number of procedures available through which to identify and recruit the research sample. Although there are no rules for determining sample size or sampling procedure, the numbers interviewed and the methods used to identify and recruit interviewees, must be governed by the aim and objectives of the research. The rationale behind these decisions must be made explicit to allow assessment of the study s potential biases and limitations, for example, in terms of representativeness or generalisability. The sampling strategies frequently employed during qualitative research include: purposive, theoretical, convenience and representative. Purposive sampling is a commonly used sampling procedure in qualitative research and it is often used in combination with other sampling procedures such as convenience sampling. This method involves the identification and selection of particular individuals who share characteristics relevant to the study, and whom the researcher therefore believes will be most informative in achieving their objectives 5. One example of purposive sampling is provided by Cooper 6 who investigated OTC medicine addiction in the United Kingdom (UK), In his research, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with three purposively sampled groups; pharmacists and medicines counter assistants (MCAs), key UK stakeholders, and individuals affected by OTC medicine addiction. Firstly, 16 key stakeholders from organisations and employment related to OTC medicine addiction were interviewed including representatives from pharmacy organisations and businesses, industry representation, medical addiction interest groups, addiction and Smith, F. (2002), Research Methods in Pharmacy Practice, Pharmaceutical Press Smith, F. (2002), Research Methods in Pharmacy Practice, Pharmaceutical Press Smith, F. (2002), Research Methods in Pharmacy Practice, Pharmaceutical Press Cooper, R. (2011), Respectable Addiction a qualitative study of over the counter medicine abuse in the UK, Royal Pharmaceutical Society 2010 Page 3 of 9

4 eating disorder charities, clinical perspectives from public, private and voluntary treatment services, and academia; secondly, 10 pharmacists and 7 MCAs were interviewed, representing different locations (England, Scotland and Wales) and pharmacy ownership types (multiple, independent, rural, city); thirdly, 25 individuals were recruited via two UK on-line medicine addiction support groups (Overcount and Codeine Free). Cooper s interview topic guide for stakeholder interviews is attached as Appendix A to illustrate the format a semi-structured interview guide may take. Theoretical sampling is a particular form of purposive sampling. Rather than selecting one s sample on the basis of individual characteristics, such as membership of a relevant organisation or personal experience of an illness or service, one s sample is chosen on the basis of developing theoretical concepts or categories. The aim is to conduct data gathering driven by concepts derived from the evolving theory and based on concept of making comparisons, whose purpose is to go to places, people, or events that will maximise opportunities to discover variations among concepts and to densify categories in terms of their properties and dimensions 7. Theoretical sampling therefore evolves during the process of research rather than being predetermined from the outset. Convenience sampling involves the selection of those individuals most accessible to the researcher or willing to take part 8. This may introduce bias and subsequently effect how robustly the findings of the study are viewed. Representative sampling involves breaking your population down in terms of characteristics for example, age, number of years qualified, ethnicity, community setting, hospital setting and so on. The researcher then interviews a set number of participants from each category, group or setting in an attempt to achieve a degree of representativeness of the total population. The sampling strategy adopted will be informed by the research question, aims and objectives and studies may adopt aspects from more than one of these strategies. It is essential to provide a well-supported rationale for the basis of the sampling procedures and the inclusion and exclusion criteria used. Not only do the characteristics of your sample need to be made explicit, but a discussion of the degree to which findings from your sample can be generalised to, or used as a comparison with, other samples, populations and settings needs to be provided. Conducting Qualitative Interviews Designing an Interview Guide When developing your interview guide it is important to remember that the questions need to relate directly to the research question, aims and objectives. These will have been shaped by the literature you have read and the findings of other studies, and your interview guide needs to be developed in such a way that it seeks to address those gaps in knowledge and understanding that you have identified. With semi or unstructured interviews, a 'loose' interview guide is needed with general questions designed to open up conversation about the topic. The guide should also include a series of probes to ensure all pre-identified topics of interest will be covered in the interview. Using a semi-structured guide enables the interviewee to raise topics or issues which the researcher was not previously aware of. Using emergent probing allows discussion of these new topics. Additionally, the guide can be adapted between interviews as new themes or issues unfold from the interviews. Within qualitative research, an iterative process is often used in which the research design adapts to incorporate findings from initial analysis. With regard to conducting qualitative interviews, initial 7 8 Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1998) (2 nd Ed), Basics of Qualitative Research Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, Sage Smith, F. (2002), Research Methods in Pharmacy Practice, Pharmaceutical Press Royal Pharmaceutical Society 2010 Page 4 of 9

5 analysis of each interview can allow the interview guide to be refined in order to explore emerging themes in subsequent interviews. The interview guide should end by asking, is there anything else I have forgotten to ask you about..., so that new information can be considered for incorporation into the next interview. Further points you need to consider are: How many questions to ask? Which are essential? How to ask them? In what order? Do the questions provide the scope and depth needed? Which interview questions address which research questions? Your initial interview guide will be refined and developed as you consider each point and through testing in pilot interviews. The Role of Researcher When undertaking qualitative, rather than quantitative, research the researcher is much more closely involved in data collection and analysis. For those with a quantitative leaning, this can evoke fears that the research is open to bias and not sufficiently objective. For those at the qualitative end of the continuum, the role of the researcher as research instrument is embraced and data is viewed as being generated during the interaction between researcher and researched, rather than as being collected by the researcher. Analysis of the relationship between researcher and participant can provide insight and explanation to the phenomenon being studied. Regardless of where you stand on this continuum, the interaction between researcher and participant will always impact on the research process and data. Researchers need to adopt a reflexive approach both when conducting interviews and when analysing data. In particular, they need to be aware of, and make explicit, the potential effect they have had on interviews. For example, if the researcher is a pharmacist interviewing patients or other pharmacists, this may influence the participants responses what they have felt able to disclose and what they might feel uncomfortable disclosing. These considerations can be addressed to some extent by providing participants with a clear explanation of the purpose and scope of the study. It is also useful to explain that the interview is about seeking their views and experiences and that there are no right or wrong answers. Although the nature of research should be made clear to the participant prior to the interview, it is good practice to provide printed information about the research and contact details. If the research topic is sensitive researchers may leave details of how the participant can access further information or support if required. Common Pitfalls and Useful Tips The Interview setting: When arranging the interview you need to ensure that the interview setting is convenient for the interviewees; that it will be free from distractions such as telephone calls; that it is private and discussion cannot be overheard and that it is suitable for your recording equipment. The neutrality of the location also needs to be considered; might it impact on responses, for example, if the interview takes place in a clinic setting? Researching sensitive topics: Whatever your research topic, you must consider the ethical implications such as consent and confidentiality. These will need clear explanation to your research participant, particularly if your interview topic is of a sensitive nature (e.g. terminal illness, sexual behaviour). Be explicit with regard to how you will respond if a participant divulges information which raises concern over professional practice or patient well-being. Plan how you will end the interview if the participant becomes distressed. The research ethics committee will look to see you have thought through these points. Royal Pharmaceutical Society 2010 Page 5 of 9

6 Time & Money: The researcher needs to consider the amount of time the interviewee has available and whether this is sufficient to address the aims of the research. Typically, each qualitative interview lasts about an hour although there are no hard and fast rules. The interviewer also needs to reflect on whether or not to offer incentives to participants such as locum cover, accredited training opportunity, financial reimbursements and so on. Offering incentives may well affect the results of the research, particularly in terms of introducing bias into the study. On the other hand, offering pharmacists locum cover to ensure they have time to participate in the study may be necessary in order to recruit your sample. Interviewee Skills: Remember to pace the interview carefully; don t rush in during uncomfortable silences as your participant needs time to think and formulate questions. Using pauses and silence is a useful technique in encouraging interviewees to expand and explain. React as well as listen. During a semi-structured or unstructured interview a participant may offer several ideas around a topic; if not prompted on all of these then you may miss valuable information 9. Be clear in your role as interviewer and do not be tempted to counsel or provide advice. This might be difficult if the interview is between pharmacist and patient but it is part of adopting a reflexive role and recognising your active involvement in the research. Few researchers would consider embarking on a new research technique without some form of training, and training in research interviewing skills is available from universities and specialist research organisations. Some of these training opportunities are listed as Further Resources. Pilot Interviews Pilot interviews are needed in order to test the interview guide and develop the skills of the interviewer. Piloting the interview guide will enable the researcher to identify flaws and weaknesses within the interview design and to make the appropriate revisions. Recording and transcribing interviews All qualitative data needs to be recorded and transcribed. This not only enables analysis of data but also demonstrates transparency in the research process. Interviews can be audio or video recorded, each with their advantages and disadvantages. Transcription is an immensely time consuming process, as each hour's worth of interview takes at least 3 hours to transcribe, sometimes up to six or seven hours, depending on the quality of the tape. If transcription is to be done externally, the study costing should account for this. If you have not transcribed before it is important to gain experience of doing so. Transcription allows one to remain close to the data to begin data analysis at an early stage. It will also enable a more accurate estimation of how long the transcription stage will take. If you are going to use computer software to assist with data coding and analysis, then different programmes require slight differences in the way data is transcribed. You need to be familiar with the software packages before transcription begins. Quality in Qualitative Research There is much debate about whether the measures of quality used to evaluate qualitative research should be identical to those used to assess quantitative research or whether they should be quite different. Because of the epistemological differences between the two methodologies, it is widely accepted that qualitative research should be evaluated using concepts of quality that resonate with the purpose and methods of qualitative research. In order for qualitative research to be judged as high quality it must be: 9 Smith, F. (2002), Research Methods in Pharmacy Practice, Pharmaceutical Press. Royal Pharmaceutical Society 2010 Page 6 of 9

7 Clear about the ways in which it can inform practice or policy. Have a rigorous research strategy and design that can appropriately address the questions posed by the study. Display a systematic and transparent collection, analysis and interpretation of the data. Provide well-founded, plausible arguments which relate clearly to the data collected and to existing findings and theory. Validity: There are a number of approaches that can be used in order to increase a study s validity. These include: combining data collection techniques, for example, using both interviews and focus groups; confirming your results with participants; using two independent researchers to perform data analysis; checking interpretations of data during analysis by constantly comparing the findings against one another and exploring cases or themes which do not seem to fit. As well as adapting one s techniques of analysis to increase validity, findings should be interpreted and explained with reference to existing studies to illustrate support for your results. If contradictory results are presented in the literature, these need to be acknowledged and adequate explanation of the differences your research shows needs to be provided. Reliability refers to the reproducibility of research findings. In quantitative research, the reproducibility of response findings is of central importance and, if quantitative research does not achieve this reliability its findings will be discredited and disregarded. In contrast, the findings of qualitative research are expected to be context specific and will therefore not be reproducible in the same way. In qualitative research, the central question rests on whether or not an alternative researcher would reach the same conclusions. In order to asses this, the researcher needs to be clear about their method of data analysis and show what attempts have been made to increase validity. The lines between analysis of data and presentation of findings need to be clear with interpretations firmly supported and well argued. In essence, it needs to be clear that your conclusions are solid and that another researcher would reach the same conclusions. Generalisation refers to the degree to which your findings are applicable to a wider population or alternative setting. The generalisability of a study can be judged with regard to the extent to which the sample reflects or represents the population from which it was drawn. In order to asses this, detailed description of the contexts in which the study was conducted needs to be provided. This also needs to include detail of the characteristics of the sample. By providing this contextual information, by acknowledging and discussing deviant cases within your data, and by illustrating how your conclusions relate to wider findings and theory, the reader is able to judge the degree to which your findings are applicable to wider populations. Achieving generalisation is not a specific goal of qualitative research as it is normally used to explore and explain phenomenon rather than to test the extent to which characteristics apply to a large population. However, if adequate contextual information is provided, small-scale qualitative studies can often provide useful insights leading to the development of hypotheses that may have relevance and applicability beyond the sample involved in the research. Qualitative Data Analysis Qualitative data analysis can range in scope from a minimalist analysis / interpretation which involves the organisation of data into themes to reflect respondent views though to the development of theory. Undertaking this more in-depth analysis involves categorising data, organising these categories and developing conceptual labels which can be applied to these categories. Analysis and interpretation then involves using existing literature and theory to investigate the relationships between these analytical concepts. Detailed analysis of this type involves a systematic sifting of data and the process of repeated comparison between and within categories in order to clarify relationships and structures. The first, rather limited, method of data analysis would provide little more than, for example, a description of patients expressed views about a particular topic. It may also provide limited explanation of why these Royal Pharmaceutical Society 2010 Page 7 of 9

8 views are held if this was raised during the interview. In contrast, detailed qualitative analysis will seek to examine the evidence - interview data, contextual information, findings and theory from the literature - to provide explanation for interviewee views and behaviour in relation to the social context in which they arise. When providing healthcare, these subtle complexities are often crucial to the success of treatment and service delivery. Qualitative research, including qualitative interviews, can usefully address many of the central issues and questions raised in pharmacy practice. Undertaking qualitative research though, requires specific skills and training and it is essential, when planning research, to ensure that you have the skills needed. Many research organisations and universities provide workshops and training in qualitative research methods and some of these are listed below. Further Resources The Social Research Association provides a comprehensive programme of training to support the professional development of social researchers. These include introductory and advanced courses in both quantitative and qualitative research techniques through the UK: provides a number of resources & training events for both quantitative and qualitative researchers: The National Centre for Research Methods provides research methods training and workshops: The National Centre for Social Research provides research methods training and workshops: Further Reading Bryman, R. (2001) Social Research Methods, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Mason, J. (2002) Qualitative Researching, London: Sage. Patton, M.Q. (2002) Qualitative Research and Evaluation Methods, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Ltd. Silverman, D. (2000) Doing Qualitative Research: A Practical Handbook, London: Sage. Greenhalgh, T. & Taylor, R. How to read a paper: Papers that go beyond numbers (qualitative research). British Medical Journal 1997; 315: Pope, C., Mays, N. editors. Qualitative research in health care. 2 nd ed. London: BMJ; (The chapters in this book are on the BMJ website for free): Royal Pharmaceutical Society 2010 Page 8 of 9

9 Appendix A: Example Interview Topic Guide Pharmacy Research and Evaluation Resource This interview guide was used by Cooper 10 when interviewing key stakeholders to investigate their views and experiences of OTC medicines addiction in the UK. 1. In what capacity are you or your organisation involved in this area of medicine use? 2. What is your understanding of the extent of the problem of OTC medicine abuse/misuse? 3. What current strategies are being used to deal with this issue? 4. In your view, what more could be done? 5. Are there particular areas of concern about OTC medicine abuse/misuse that you have? 6. What impact do you think the internet supply of medicines is having or will have on possible medicine abuse/misuse? 7. What role do pharmacists and pharmacy staff have in dealing with this issue? a. In your view, do you think they have the skills and understanding to identify and appropriately deal with possible OTC medicine abuse/misuse? b. What additional training could be given? c. Would co-ordination between pharmacies be of value? How achievable would this be? d. Could electronic health records have a role in reducing medicine misuse? 8. Will developments within pharmacy in the UK such as remote supervision and the responsible pharmacist have an impact on possible abuse/misuse? 9. Do you feel that legislative change could have a role (prompt: restricting codeine-based medicine pack sizes, P to POM move). 10. Are you aware of on-line self-help groups? Do you feel they have a role to play? 11. Could you comment on the recommendations from the recent APPDMG a. Training for nurses and doctors (NB pharmacists not mentioned) b. Combating fraudulent on-line sites and use of RPSGB logo c. MHRA to reduce codeine product pack sizes from 32 to 18. d. More support for local and on-line support groups. 12. Do you feel that customers should still have access to, and be given a choice about using, medicines of potential abuse? Overall, do you feel that the emphasis on tackling the problem of OTC medicine abuse and misuse should be upon high level (macro) policy change, local (micro) strategies within pharmacies, other approaches or combinations? 10 Cooper, R. (2011), Respectable Addiction a qualitative study of over the counter medicine abuse in the UK, Royal Pharmaceutical Society 2010 Page 9 of 9

Critical appraisal of qualitative research. Slides by Sarah Lawson

Critical appraisal of qualitative research. Slides by Sarah Lawson Critical appraisal of qualitative research Slides by Sarah Lawson 1 Learning objectives Understand the principles of critical appraisal and its role in evidence based practice Be aware of the key elements

More information

Interview studies. 1 Introduction... 1. 2 Applications of interview study designs... 2. 3 Outline of the design... 3

Interview studies. 1 Introduction... 1. 2 Applications of interview study designs... 2. 3 Outline of the design... 3 Interview studies Contents 1 Introduction... 1 2 Applications of interview study designs... 2 3 Outline of the design... 3 4 Strengths and weaknesses of interview study designs... 6 5 References... 7 1

More information

Semi-structured interviews

Semi-structured interviews Semi-structured interviews 3 rd December 2014 Prof. Edwin van Teijlingen BU Graduate School Aim of this session: introduce various ways of conducting interviews with qualitative methods; outline strength

More information

Grounded Theory. 1 Introduction... 1. 2 Applications of grounded theory... 1. 3 Outline of the design... 2

Grounded Theory. 1 Introduction... 1. 2 Applications of grounded theory... 1. 3 Outline of the design... 2 Grounded Theory Contents 1 Introduction... 1 2 Applications of grounded theory... 1 3 Outline of the design... 2 4 Strengths and weaknesses of grounded theory... 6 5 References... 6 1 Introduction This

More information

Supervision in Community Pharmacy Executive Summary to Pharmacy Research UK

Supervision in Community Pharmacy Executive Summary to Pharmacy Research UK Supervision in Community Pharmacy Executive Summary to Pharmacy Research UK submitted February 2013 revised July 2013 Dr Fay Bradley Research Associate Dr Ellen I Schafheutle Senior Lecturer in Law & Professionalism

More information

CHAPTER 2. Research design and methodology

CHAPTER 2. Research design and methodology 12 CHAPTER 2 Research design and methodology 2.1 INTRODUCTION Chapter 1 discussed the background to the study and briefly outlined the research design and methodology. The study was carried out in two

More information

The Research Design Service Yorkshire and the Humber CONTENTS TOP TIPS FOR QUALITATIVE RESEARCH TOP TIPS FOR QUANTITATIVE PROPOSALS

The Research Design Service Yorkshire and the Humber CONTENTS TOP TIPS FOR QUALITATIVE RESEARCH TOP TIPS FOR QUANTITATIVE PROPOSALS The Research Design Service Yorkshire and the Humber CONTENTS TOP TIPS FOR QUALITATIVE RESEARCH TOP TIPS FOR QUANTITATIVE PROPOSALS TOP TIPS FOR SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS TOP TIPS FOR ECONOMIC EVALUATION TOP

More information

Writing a Qualitative Research Proposal. When to use qualitative methods Qualitative methods should be used when the aim is to:

Writing a Qualitative Research Proposal. When to use qualitative methods Qualitative methods should be used when the aim is to: Research Design Service London Writing a Qualitative Research Proposal When to use qualitative methods Qualitative methods should be used when the aim is to: Investigate complex phenomena that are hard

More information

A competency framework for all prescribers updated draft for consultation

A competency framework for all prescribers updated draft for consultation A competency framework for all prescribers updated draft for consultation Consultation closes 15 April 2016 Contents 1 Introduction... 3 2 Uses of the framework... 4 3 Scope of the competency framework...

More information

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 Introduction When conducting research, there are many possible ways of gathering information from participants. In this chapter, the research methodology for the collecting

More information

What is Grounded Theory? Dr Lynn Calman Research Fellow School of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work

What is Grounded Theory? Dr Lynn Calman Research Fellow School of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work What is Grounded Theory? Dr Lynn Calman Research Fellow School of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work Grounded theory The aim of grounded theory is: to generate or discover a theory (Glaser and Strauss,

More information

Assessment: Getting Started with Interviewing Dave Baca, PhD University of Arizona ALA Annual 2006 Why Interview? When interpersonal contact is important When you need more in-depth data When you need

More information

Analyzing Research Articles: A Guide for Readers and Writers 1. Sam Mathews, Ph.D. Department of Psychology The University of West Florida

Analyzing Research Articles: A Guide for Readers and Writers 1. Sam Mathews, Ph.D. Department of Psychology The University of West Florida Analyzing Research Articles: A Guide for Readers and Writers 1 Sam Mathews, Ph.D. Department of Psychology The University of West Florida The critical reader of a research report expects the writer to

More information

PEER REVIEW HISTORY ARTICLE DETAILS TITLE (PROVISIONAL)

PEER REVIEW HISTORY ARTICLE DETAILS TITLE (PROVISIONAL) PEER REVIEW HISTORY BMJ Open publishes all reviews undertaken for accepted manuscripts. Reviewers are asked to complete a checklist review form (http://bmjopen.bmj.com/site/about/resources/checklist.pdf)

More information

Critical Appraisal and Interpretation of Qualitative Evidence. School of Health Sciences and Social Work

Critical Appraisal and Interpretation of Qualitative Evidence. School of Health Sciences and Social Work Critical Appraisal and Interpretation of Qualitative Evidence Focus of this presentation Critically appraising a qualitative paper using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) worksheet for qualitative

More information

A framework of operating principles for managing invited reviews within healthcare

A framework of operating principles for managing invited reviews within healthcare A framework of operating principles for managing invited reviews within healthcare January 2016 Background 03 Introduction 04 01 Purpose 05 02 Responsibility 06 03 Scope 07 04 Indemnity 08 05 Advisory

More information

How To: Involve Patients, Service Users & Carers in Clinical Audit

How To: Involve Patients, Service Users & Carers in Clinical Audit INTRODUCTION The aim of this How To guide is to provide advice on how to involve patients, service users and carers in the clinical audit process. The Healthcare Quality Improvement Partnership (HQIP)

More information

NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING TECHNIQUES

NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING TECHNIQUES NON-PROBABILITY SAMPLING TECHNIQUES PRESENTED BY Name: WINNIE MUGERA Reg No: L50/62004/2013 RESEARCH METHODS LDP 603 UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI Date: APRIL 2013 SAMPLING Sampling is the use of a subset of the

More information

CLIST critical appraisal workshop 18 November 2010

CLIST critical appraisal workshop 18 November 2010 CLIST critical appraisal workshop 18 November 2010 Lewis PJ, & Tully MP (2009) Uncomfortable prescribing decisions in hospitals: the impact of teamwork. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 102,

More information

The art of partnering Methodology

The art of partnering Methodology 2 This is a detailed discussion of the research methods used in completing this report. Factors to be considered include: the various methods using in undertaking the research that has informed this report;

More information

Using qualitative research to explore women s responses

Using qualitative research to explore women s responses Using qualitative research to explore women s responses Towards meaningful assistance - how evidence from qualitative studies can help to meet survivors needs Possible questions Why do survivors of SV

More information

NAVIGATING ETHICAL APPROVAL AND ACCESS IN SOCIAL CARE RESEARCH

NAVIGATING ETHICAL APPROVAL AND ACCESS IN SOCIAL CARE RESEARCH NAVIGATING ETHICAL APPROVAL AND ACCESS IN SOCIAL CARE RESEARCH January 2014 Preamble This document has been produced by the Scottish Government, the Association of Directors of Social Work (ADSW) and the

More information

Qualitative research: An overview and general issues by Stephanie Tierney (stephanie.tierney@manchester.ac.uk)

Qualitative research: An overview and general issues by Stephanie Tierney (stephanie.tierney@manchester.ac.uk) Qualitative research: An overview and general issues by Stephanie Tierney (stephanie.tierney@manchester.ac.uk) Enquiry into service users opinions has been denoted as an important area to examine because

More information

Appraising qualitative research articles in medicine and medical education

Appraising qualitative research articles in medicine and medical education Medical Teacher, Vol. 27, No. 1, 2005, pp. 71 75 Appraising qualitative research articles in medicine and medical education LUC CÔTÉ & JEAN TURGEON Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Laval

More information

On the attributes of a critical literature review. Saunders, Mark N. K. 1 & Rojon, Céline 2. United Kingdom.

On the attributes of a critical literature review. Saunders, Mark N. K. 1 & Rojon, Céline 2. United Kingdom. On the attributes of a critical literature review Saunders, Mark N. K. 1 & Rojon, Céline 2 1 School of Management, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH, United Kingdom; 2 Department of Psychology &

More information

Justifying the adequacy of samples in qualitative interview-based studies: Differences between and within journals

Justifying the adequacy of samples in qualitative interview-based studies: Differences between and within journals Justifying the adequacy of samples in qualitative interview-based studies: Differences between and within journals Prof Julie Barnett a, Konstantina Vasileiou a, Dr Susan Thorpe b, Prof Terry Young c a

More information

MSc Applied Child Psychology

MSc Applied Child Psychology MSc Applied Child Psychology Module list Modules may include: The Child in Context: Understanding Disability This module aims to challenge understandings of child development that have emerged within the

More information

Section 4: Key Informant Interviews

Section 4: Key Informant Interviews UCLA CENTER FOR HEALTH POLICY RESEARCH Section 4: Key Informant Interviews Purpose Key informant interviews are qualitative in-depth interviews with people who know what is going on in the community. The

More information

Guidelines for Preparation of Review Protocols

Guidelines for Preparation of Review Protocols Guidelines for Preparation of Review Protocols Type of document: Policy _x_ Guideline Procedure Version: 1.0, January 1 2001 Decision: Steering Group, Date? A Campbell Systematic Review is meant to review

More information

Article Four Different Types of Evidence / Literature Reviews

Article Four Different Types of Evidence / Literature Reviews Article Four Different Types of Evidence / Literature Reviews The rapid growth in the number of reviews undertaken can partly be explained by the current emphasis on evidence-based practice. Healthcare

More information

Sampling, questionnaire and interview design

Sampling, questionnaire and interview design Capacity building for research: promoting inclusive development of agricultural value-chains, 1-3 September 2014 Sampling, questionnaire and interview design adelaide.edu.au Risti Permani, Global Food

More information

What are research, evaluation and audit?

What are research, evaluation and audit? 1 What are research, evaluation and audit? Barbara Sen, Maria J. Grant and Hannah Spring I don t do research. I don t have the time. I am too busy with the day to day running of the library. I do evaluations

More information

Focus Groups Procedural Guide

Focus Groups Procedural Guide Focus Groups Overview The Focus Group is an exploratory research method used to help researchers gather indepth, qualitative information of their participants' attitudes and perceptions relating to concepts,

More information

Criminal Justice Evaluation Framework (CJEF): Evaluating process and implementation

Criminal Justice Evaluation Framework (CJEF): Evaluating process and implementation Criminal Justice Research Department of Premier and Cabinet Criminal Justice Evaluation Framework (CJEF): Evaluating process and implementation THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE EVALUATION FRAMEWORK (CJEF) The Criminal

More information

Qualitative Research.

Qualitative Research. Qualitative Research. What is qualitative research? The goal of qualitative research is the development of concepts which help us to understand social phenomena in natural (rather than experimental) settings,

More information

patient AND PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT A resource for researchers

patient AND PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT A resource for researchers patient AND PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT A resource for researchers Contents What is Patient and Public Involvement (PPI)? Methods of involvement PPI in clinical research PPI in basic research How Parkinson s UK

More information

Framework Analysis: A Qualitative Methodology for Applied Policy Research. Aashish Srivastava 1. S. Bruce Thomson 2

Framework Analysis: A Qualitative Methodology for Applied Policy Research. Aashish Srivastava 1. S. Bruce Thomson 2 Framework Analysis: A Qualitative Methodology for Applied Policy Research Aashish Srivastava 1 S. Bruce Thomson 2 Abstract Policies and procedures govern organizations whether they are private or public,

More information

Formulating a convincing rationale for a research study. Rojon, Céline 1 & Saunders, Mark N. K. 2. GU2 7XH United Kingdom;

Formulating a convincing rationale for a research study. Rojon, Céline 1 & Saunders, Mark N. K. 2. GU2 7XH United Kingdom; Formulating a convincing rationale for a research study Rojon, Céline 1 & Saunders, Mark N. K. 2 1 Department of Psychology & The Surrey Business School, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH United

More information

Using interviews as research instruments

Using interviews as research instruments Using interviews as research instruments Annabel Bhamani Kajornboon Language Institute Chulalongkorn University Abstract Research differs in a number of aspects but they do have some commonalities. Many

More information

Data Collection Instruments (Questionnaire & Interview) Dr. Karim Abawi Training in Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Geneva 2013

Data Collection Instruments (Questionnaire & Interview) Dr. Karim Abawi Training in Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Geneva 2013 Data Collection Instruments (Questionnaire & Interview) Dr. Karim Abawi Training in Sexual and Reproductive Health Research Geneva 2013 Geneva Workshop 2013 Data Collection Instruments Accurate and systematic

More information

This guide is a condensed version of the definitive The Data Protection Act 1998 and Market Research which all members are urged to read.

This guide is a condensed version of the definitive The Data Protection Act 1998 and Market Research which all members are urged to read. A basic guide to the Data Protection Act 1998 October 2002 INTRODUCTION This guide is a condensed version of the definitive The Data Protection Act 1998 and Market Research which all members are urged

More information

BOOKS ON RESEARCH INTERVIEWS AVAILABLE IN THE UFS LIBRARY. Compiled by R du Plessis

BOOKS ON RESEARCH INTERVIEWS AVAILABLE IN THE UFS LIBRARY. Compiled by R du Plessis Postgraduate School BOOKS ON RESEARCH INTERVIEWS AVAILABLE IN THE UFS LIBRARY Compiled by R du Plessis Alvesson, M. 2011. Interpreting interviews. Los Angeles, Calif. : SAGE. (300.723 ALV). Researchers

More information

FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING OUTSOURCING AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF SERVICE PROVIDERS AND THEIR CLIENTS IN AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND.

FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING OUTSOURCING AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF SERVICE PROVIDERS AND THEIR CLIENTS IN AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND. FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING OUTSOURCING AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF SERVICE PROVIDERS AND THEIR CLIENTS IN AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND. Graham Ray, Accounting Lecturer, School of Commerce and Management, Southern

More information

How can qualitative research help? MICHAEL SHANAHAN BMBS MPH PHD FAFOEM FRACP

How can qualitative research help? MICHAEL SHANAHAN BMBS MPH PHD FAFOEM FRACP How can qualitative research help? MICHAEL SHANAHAN BMBS MPH PHD FAFOEM FRACP The research methods we are generally taught in our training Randomised trials Epidemiological research Cohort studies Case

More information

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH. [Adapted from a presentation by Jan Anderson, University of Teesside, UK]

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH. [Adapted from a presentation by Jan Anderson, University of Teesside, UK] QUALITATIVE RESEARCH [Adapted from a presentation by Jan Anderson, University of Teesside, UK] QUALITATIVE RESEARCH There have been many debates around what actually constitutes qualitative research whether

More information

Qualitative Data Analysis

Qualitative Data Analysis Qualitative Data Analysis Module No POLS 305 Level 5 Credits 5 Pre-requisite Social Science Research Methods Student study hours Module leader Email Phone Number Office 60 hrs approx. 20 hrs lecture and

More information

Interview methods for what purpose? Interviewing for research and analysing qualitative data: An overview (revised May, 2011) The interview method

Interview methods for what purpose? Interviewing for research and analysing qualitative data: An overview (revised May, 2011) The interview method Interviewing for research and analysing qualitative data: An overview (revised May, 2011) The interview method is a conversation with a purpose Martin Woods School of Health & Social Services Massey University

More information

Research & Consultation Guidelines

Research & Consultation Guidelines Questionnaires Research & Consultation Guidelines Introduction A questionnaire is simply a tool for collecting and recording information about a particular issue of interest. It is mainly made up of a

More information

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

QUALITATIVE RESEARCH QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Qualitative is a diverse field. Not a unified set of methods/philosophy like surveys and experiments. Grew out of many disciplines: sociology, anthropology, education, linguistics,

More information

How to gather and evaluate information

How to gather and evaluate information 09 May 2016 How to gather and evaluate information Chartered Institute of Internal Auditors Information is central to the role of an internal auditor. Gathering and evaluating information is the basic

More information

Introduction to Research Methods and Applied Data Analysis Online module

Introduction to Research Methods and Applied Data Analysis Online module MODULE SPECIFICATION KEY FACTS Module name Introduction to Methods and Applied Data Analysis Online module Module code HRM011 School School of Health Sciences Department or equivalent Health Services and

More information

Today s Agenda. Workshop context. Focus Group, Interview, or Survey? Which is right for your co curricular program?

Today s Agenda. Workshop context. Focus Group, Interview, or Survey? Which is right for your co curricular program? Hawai i Hall 107 (808) 956 4283 or (808) 956 6669 Focus Group, Interview, or Survey? Which is right for your co curricular program? Presented by the May 19, 2011 Today s Agenda 1) Introductions 2) Program

More information

Research Method/ Research Note

Research Method/ Research Note Sample Size and Grounded Theory S. B. Thomson 1 Abstract Interviews are one of the most frequently used method of data collection and grounded theory has emerged as one of the most commonly used methodological

More information

Selection of workers. An empirical investigation of the selection process within a Norwegian hotel chain. By: Marie Steenstrup. Supervisor: Anna Holm

Selection of workers. An empirical investigation of the selection process within a Norwegian hotel chain. By: Marie Steenstrup. Supervisor: Anna Holm Selection of workers An empirical investigation of the selection process within a Norwegian hotel chain By: Marie Steenstrup Supervisor: Anna Holm Department of Business Administration March 2012 Abstract

More information

Stage 3: Writing an Evaluation Report

Stage 3: Writing an Evaluation Report Stage 3: Writing an Evaluation Report Table of Contents SECTION 1: Executive Summary SECTION 2: Program Description SECTION 3: Evaluation Methodology SECTION 4: Findings SECTION 5: Interpretation and Reflection

More information

LCD Ethiopia Child Protection Policy

LCD Ethiopia Child Protection Policy LCD Ethiopia Child Protection Policy Version 3: November 2013 Link Community Development Ethiopia (LCD Ethiopia) is committed to safeguarding and protecting the welfare of the children and young people

More information

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY. 3.1 Research design. 3.2 Sampling method

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY. 3.1 Research design. 3.2 Sampling method 38 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the methods that have been used in this study to investigate the process of disclosure among a group of black South African homosexuals. 3.1 Research design

More information

Customer Market Research Primer

Customer Market Research Primer Customer Market Research Primer This factsheet acts as a primer to the basic concepts of Market Research and how a business or individual could do their own research. Market research is an effective way

More information

Focus Groups from A to Z: How to Conduct Focus Groups to Enhance College Health Practice

Focus Groups from A to Z: How to Conduct Focus Groups to Enhance College Health Practice Focus Groups from A to Z: How to Conduct Focus Groups to Enhance College Health Practice < insert names here > Alyssa Lederer Adam Barry Kimberly Chestnut Ashlee Halbritter Julie Zaruba Fountaine Introduction

More information

Nursing Assignment Sample

Nursing Assignment Sample Introduction This essay will critically compare and evaluate two research articles I identified as relevant to my practice. The review will consider the research methods, design and relevance to my practice.

More information

PQASSO and Investors in People. An introductory self-assessment tool

PQASSO and Investors in People. An introductory self-assessment tool PQASSO and Investors in People An introductory self-assessment tool August 2006 02 The LSC exists to make England better skilled and more competitive. We have a single goal: to improve the skills of England's

More information

Topic 7: Data Collection Methods

Topic 7: Data Collection Methods Topic 7: Data Collection Methods Introduction Data collection is a systematic process of collecting information about objects of study (people, objects, phenomena for instance) in order to test the hypothesis

More information

GUIDELINES FOR PROPOSALS: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Human Development and Family Studies

GUIDELINES FOR PROPOSALS: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Human Development and Family Studies Drafted by Lynet Uttal using the Quantitative Research Proposal Guidelines and in consultation with GPC (5/99) GUIDELINES FOR PROPOSALS: QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Human Development and Family Studies Overview:

More information

Research Philosophies Importance and Relevance

Research Philosophies Importance and Relevance Research Philosophies Importance and Relevance 0. INTRODUCTION When undertaking research of this nature, it is important to consider different research paradigms and matters of ontology and epistemology.

More information

User s guide to applying psychometric assessments within your organisation

User s guide to applying psychometric assessments within your organisation User s guide to applying psychometric assessments within your organisation This guide will help line managers and HR professionals to understand how assessments work and to appreciate the important role

More information

Review Protocol Agile Software Development

Review Protocol Agile Software Development Review Protocol Agile Software Development Tore Dybå 1. Background The concept of Agile Software Development has sparked a lot of interest in both industry and academia. Advocates of agile methods consider

More information

There is no universally accepted

There is no universally accepted Research Series Qualitative research: a source of evidence to inform nursing practice? Vivien Coates INTRODUCTION The fifth paper in this series focuses on qualitative approaches to research. Compared

More information

Staff Guide to Qualification and Level Descriptors for Taught Programmes

Staff Guide to Qualification and Level Descriptors for Taught Programmes Staff Guide to Qualification and Level Descriptors for Taught Programmes Issued by the Quality Assurance and Enhancement Unit August 2009 1. Overview This document is designed to assist staff in programme

More information

MRes Psychological Research Methods

MRes Psychological Research Methods MRes Psychological Research Methods Module list Modules may include: Advanced Experimentation and Statistics (One) Advanced Experimentation and Statistics One examines the theoretical and philosophical

More information

What is Clinical Audit?

What is Clinical Audit? INTRODUCTION The aim of this guide is to provide a brief summary of what clinical audit is and what it isn t. Aspects of this guide are covered in more detail in the following How To guides: How To: Choose

More information

National Occupational Standards. National Occupational Standards for Youth Work

National Occupational Standards. National Occupational Standards for Youth Work National Occupational Standards National Occupational Standards for Youth Work Contents Introduction 5 Section 1 S1.1.1 Enable young people to use their learning to enhance their future development 6 S1.1.2

More information

GUIDE TO CONDUCTING AN EDUCATIONAL NEEDS ASSESSMENT: BEYOND THE LITERATURE REVIEW. Table of Contents. Overview. 1

GUIDE TO CONDUCTING AN EDUCATIONAL NEEDS ASSESSMENT: BEYOND THE LITERATURE REVIEW. Table of Contents. Overview. 1 GUIDE TO CONDUCTING AN EDUCATIONAL NEEDS ASSESSMENT: BEYOND THE LITERATURE REVIEW Table of Contents Overview. 1 Definition of educational needs assessment...1 Importance of educational needs assessment

More information

AS Sociology. The theoretical, practical and ethical considerations influencing the choice of topic, choice of method(s) and the conduct of research.

AS Sociology. The theoretical, practical and ethical considerations influencing the choice of topic, choice of method(s) and the conduct of research. AS Sociology Revision Sociological Methods The theoretical, practical and ethical considerations influencing the choice of topic, choice of method(s) and the conduct of research. Chris. Livesey 2006: www.sociology.org.uk

More information

Using Qualitative Methods for Monitoring and Evaluation

Using Qualitative Methods for Monitoring and Evaluation This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike License. Your use of this material constitutes acceptance of that license and the conditions of use of materials on this

More information

Doctor of Clinical Psychology

Doctor of Clinical Psychology Doctor of Clinical Psychology Programme of study for the degree of Doctor of Clinical Psychology 1. The following may be accepted as a candidate for the degree of Doctor of Clinical Psychology: Graduates

More information

Evaluation of the impact of Responsible Pharmacist Regulations

Evaluation of the impact of Responsible Pharmacist Regulations Evaluation of the impact of Responsible Pharmacist Regulations 2011 TNS UK Limited JN226985 September 2011 2011 TNS UK Ltd 1 Page Contents Contents Executive Summary... 2 1. Introduction... 8 2. The working

More information

The NHS Knowledge and Skills Framework (NHS KSF) and the Development Review Process

The NHS Knowledge and Skills Framework (NHS KSF) and the Development Review Process The NHS Knowledge and Skills Framework (NHS KSF) and the Development Review Process [This is the final draft of the NHS KSF Handbook that will be used for national roll-out if implementation of Agenda

More information

Officiating in Sport THE NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL STANDARDS

Officiating in Sport THE NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL STANDARDS Officiating in Sport THE NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL STANDARDS NOS Cover.indd 1 19/04/2011 15:56 Contents Page Introduction 2 Sports Officials UK 2 National standards for officiating in sport 2 Structure of

More information

Early Stage Research Training: Epistemology & Ontology in Social Science Research

Early Stage Research Training: Epistemology & Ontology in Social Science Research Early Stage Research Training: Epistemology & Ontology in Social Science Research Dr Arwen Raddon Centre for Labour Market Studies (arwen.raddon@le.ac.uk) College of Social Science Generic Skills Training

More information

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY. 3.1. Introduction. emerging markets can successfully organize activities related to event marketing.

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY. 3.1. Introduction. emerging markets can successfully organize activities related to event marketing. Event Marketing in IMC 44 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 3.1. Introduction The overall purpose of this project was to demonstrate how companies operating in emerging markets can successfully organize activities

More information

Zainab Zahran The University of Sheffield School of Nursing and Midwifery

Zainab Zahran The University of Sheffield School of Nursing and Midwifery Understanding advanced nursing practice: perspectives from Jordan RCN-The 2010 International Nursing Research Conference Zainab Zahran The University of Sheffield School of Nursing and Midwifery Aims and

More information

The SARH (DFID) Systematic Review (SR) Programme for South Asia About systematic reviews

The SARH (DFID) Systematic Review (SR) Programme for South Asia About systematic reviews The SARH (DFID) Systematic Review (SR) Programme for South Asia About systematic reviews What are systematic reviews? A systematic review is a high-level overview of primary research on a particular research

More information

Assessing Research Protocols: Primary Data Collection By: Maude Laberge, PhD

Assessing Research Protocols: Primary Data Collection By: Maude Laberge, PhD Assessing Research Protocols: Primary Data Collection By: Maude Laberge, PhD Definition Data collection refers to the process in which researchers prepare and collect data required. The data can be gathered

More information

September Research Ethics: Guidance for the Voluntary Sector

September Research Ethics: Guidance for the Voluntary Sector September 2012 Research Ethics: Guidance for the Voluntary Sector Research: The systematic investigation into and study of materials, sources, etc., in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.

More information

Contents. Introduction 4. Measuring Change: Why is it important? 5. Measuring Change: An approach to capturing outcomes 6

Contents. Introduction 4. Measuring Change: Why is it important? 5. Measuring Change: An approach to capturing outcomes 6 Contents Introduction 4 Measuring Change: Why is it important? 5 Measuring Change: An approach to capturing outcomes 6 Measuring Change: how does it work? 8 Defining Change 9 Capturing Change 11 Showing

More information

Conducting Interviews in Qualitative Social Science Research

Conducting Interviews in Qualitative Social Science Research Conducting Interviews in Qualitative Social Science Research Types: individual face-to-face (choose non-shy participants willing to share) telephone (not ideal but used when direct access not possible)

More information

QUALITATIVE METHODS Dr. Linda Mayoux

QUALITATIVE METHODS Dr. Linda Mayoux QUALITATIVE METHODS Dr. Linda Mayoux SUMMARY Qualitative methods are an essential complement to both quantitative and participatory methods in any impact assessment. Although it is possible to do an impact

More information

61 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD

61 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD 61 CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD 3.1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter the researcher explains how the research study was conducted. A quantitative, descriptive study was conducted to determine: how

More information

Standards of conduct, ethics and performance. July 2012

Standards of conduct, ethics and performance. July 2012 Standards of conduct, ethics and performance July 2012 Reprinted July 2012. The content of this booklet remains the same as the previous September 2010 edition. The General Pharmaceutical Council is the

More information

EXECUTIVE MBA BIRMINGHAM THE MBA DISSERTATION

EXECUTIVE MBA BIRMINGHAM THE MBA DISSERTATION EXECUTIVE MBA BIRMINGHAM THE MBA DISSERTATION Introduction The industries and professions which MBA graduates will join and lead are becoming more knowledge intensive. This creates a need for managers

More information

www.doncaster.gov.uk

www.doncaster.gov.uk Market Research It is essential that market research is undertaken to establish there is a need for childcare within a specified area and have knowledge of the local community that a business wishes to

More information

USING INTERNET-BASED SURVEYS FOR ACADEMIC RESEARCH: OPPORTUNITIES AND PROBLEMS

USING INTERNET-BASED SURVEYS FOR ACADEMIC RESEARCH: OPPORTUNITIES AND PROBLEMS USING INTERNET-BASED SURVEYS FOR ACADEMIC RESEARCH: OPPORTUNITIES AND PROBLEMS Narcyz Roztocki, State University of New York at New Paltz Abstract This paper presents a preliminary investigation of the

More information

Qualitative Data Analysis Week 8 Andre S amuel Samuel

Qualitative Data Analysis Week 8 Andre S amuel Samuel Qualitative Data Analysis Week 8 Andre Samuel Introduction Qualitative research generates a large and cumbersome amount of data Data is usually yg generated from field notes, interview transcripts, focus

More information

STUDENT THESIS PROPOSAL GUIDELINES

STUDENT THESIS PROPOSAL GUIDELINES STUDENT THESIS PROPOSAL GUIDELINES Thesis Proposal Students must work closely with their advisor to develop the proposal. Proposal Form The research proposal is expected to be completed during the normal

More information

The Good medical practice framework for appraisal and revalidation

The Good medical practice framework for appraisal and revalidation The Good medical practice framework for appraisal and revalidation The framework sets out the broad areas which should be covered in medical appraisal and on which recommendations to revalidate doctors

More information

Analysing Qualitative Data

Analysing Qualitative Data Analysing Qualitative Data Workshop Professor Debra Myhill Philosophical Assumptions It is important to think about the philosophical assumptions that underpin the interpretation of all data. Your ontological

More information

Qualitative Interview Design: A Practical Guide for Novice Investigators

Qualitative Interview Design: A Practical Guide for Novice Investigators The Qualitative Report Volume 15 Number 3 May 2010 754-760 http://www.nova.edu/ssss/qr/qr15-3/qid.pdf Qualitative Interview Design: A Practical Guide for Novice Investigators Daniel W. Turner, III Nova

More information

Summary of a review of literature on the impact of working context and support on the postgraduate research student learning experience

Summary of a review of literature on the impact of working context and support on the postgraduate research student learning experience Summary of a review of literature on the impact of working context and support on the postgraduate research student learning experience Diana Leonard Institute of Education, University of London Who is

More information

BMJcareers. Informing Choices

BMJcareers. Informing Choices : The Need for Career Advice in Medical Training How should the support provided to doctors and medical students to help them make career decisions during their training be improved? Experience elsewhere

More information

CHILDREN AND ADULTS SERVICE RESEARCH APPROVAL GROUP

CHILDREN AND ADULTS SERVICE RESEARCH APPROVAL GROUP DURHAM COUNTY COUNCIL CHILDREN AND ADULTS SERVICE RESEARCH APPROVAL GROUP INFORMATION PACK Children and Adults Service Version 4 October 2015 Children and Adults Service Research Approval Group Page 1

More information