CS Computer and Network Security: Applied Cryptography


 Jeremy Tobias Montgomery
 1 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 CS Computer and Network Security: Applied Cryptography Professor Patrick Traynor Spring 2016
2 Reminders Project Ideas are due on Tuesday. Where are we with these? Assignment #2 is posted. Let s get to work! 2
3 Key Distribution/Agreement Key Distribution is the process where we assign and transfer keys to a participant Out of band (e.g., passwords, simple) During authentication (e.g., Kerberos) As part of communication (e.g., skipencryption) Key Agreement is the process whereby two parties negotiate a key 2 or more participants Typically, key distribution/agreement this occurs in conjunction with or after authentication. However, many applications can preload keys 3
4 DiffieHellman Key Agreement The DH paper really started the modern age of cryptography, and indirectly the security community Negotiate a secret over an insecure media E.g., in the clear (seems impossible) Idea: participants exchange intractable puzzles that can be solved easily with additional information. Mathematics are very deep Working in multiplicative group G Use the hardness of computing discrete logarithms in finite field to make secure Things like RSA are variants that exploit similar properties 4
5 DiffieHellman Protocol For two participants p 1 and p 2 Setup: We pick a prime number p and a base g (<p) This information is public E.g., p=13, g=4 Step 1: Each principal picks a private value x (<p1) Step 2: Each principal generates and communicates a new value y = g x mod p Step 3: Each principal generates the secret shared key z z = y x mod p Perform a neighbor exchange. 5
6 Attacks on DiffieHellman This is key agreement, not authentication. You really don t know anything about who you have exchanged keys with The man in the middle A B Alice and Bob think they are talking directly to each other, but Mallory is actually performing two separate exchanges You need to have an authenticated DH exchange The parties sign the exchanges (more or less) See Schneier for a intuitive description 6
7 Public Key Cryptography Public Key cryptography Each key pair consists of a public and private component: k + (public key), k  (private key) D(E(p, k + ),k )=p D(E(p, k ),k + )=p Public keys are distributed (typically) through public key certificates Anyone can communicate secretly with you if they have your certificate E.g., SSLbase web commerce 7
8 RSA (Rivest, Shamir, Adelman) A dominant public key algorithm The algorithm itself is conceptually simple Why it is secure is very deep (number theory) Use properties of exponentiation modulo a product of large primes "A method for obtaining Digital Signatures and Public Key Cryptosystems, Communications of the ACM, Feb., (2) pages
9 RSA Key Generation Pick two large primes p and q Calculate n = pq Pick e such that it is relatively prime to phi(n) = (q1)(p1) Euler s Totient Function d 1 = e (mod phi(n)) de mod phi(n) = 1 or 1. p=3, q=11 2. n = 3*11 = phi(n) = (2*10) = e = 7 GCD(20,7) = 1 5. Euclid s Algorithm d 1 = e (mod phi(n)) 1 = 7d mod 20 d = 3 9
10 RSA Encryption/Decryption Public key k + is {e,n} and private key k  is {d,n} Encryption and Decryption E(k+,P) : ciphertext = plaintext e mod n D(k,C) : plaintext = ciphertext d mod n Example Public key (7,33), Private Key (3,33) Data 4 (encoding of actual data) E({7,33},4) = 47 mod 33 = mod 33 = 16 D({3,33},16) = 163 mod 33 = 4096 mod 33 = 4 10
11 Encryption using private key Encryption and Decryption E.g., E(k ,P) : ciphertext = plaintext d mod n D(k +,C) : plaintext = ciphertext e mod n E({3,45},4) = 43 mod 33 = 64 mod 33 = 31 D({7,45},19) = 317 mod 33 = 27,512,614,111 mod 33 = 4 Q: Why encrypt with private key? 11
12 Digital Signatures Models physical signatures in digital world Association between private key and document and indirectly identity and document. Asserts that document is authentic and nonreputable To sign a document Given document d, private key k Signature S(d) = E( k, h(d) ) Validation Given document d, signature S(d), public key k+ Validate D(k+, S(d)) = H(d) 12
13 Cryptanalysis and Protocol Analysis Cryptographic Algorithms Complex mathematical concepts May be flawed What approaches are used to prove correct/find flaws? Cryptographic Protocols Complex composition of algorithms and messages May be flawed What approaches are used to prove correct/find flaws? 13
14 RSA Exponent Problems Small Private Exponent Speeds decryption time However, Known Attacks Exist on Small Private Keys Due to Mike Wiener, can recover private key Result: If N is 1024 bits, d of private key must be at least 256 bits Some workarounds are known (e.g., based on Chinese Remainder Theorem), but not proven secure Small Public Exponent Speed signature verification time Smallest possible value is 3, but recommend Can recover M encrypted with multiple, small public keys Can recover private key from small public + bits of private 14
15 Timing Attacks Use the timing behavior of system to extract secret Suppose a smartcard stores your private key By precisely measuring the time it takes to perform private key ops, we can recover the key Due to Kocher At most 2n operations required, where n is the number of bits in the key Attack summary Adversary asks smartcard to generate signatures on several messages Recover one bit at a time starting with least significant Compare times to those measured offline Solution: blinding 15
16 Power Analysis Attacks Also, Discovered by Kocher Power usage is higher than normal in these computations Measure the timing of high power consumption Simple Power Analysis Direct interpretation of power measurements Reveals instructions executions Some crypto ops may be sensitive to data, e.g., DES S boxes Differential Power Analysis Statistical analysis of power data correlations Solution: Must change the code! 16
17 Power and Timing What is the threat model in power/timing attacks? How does this conflict with the trust model? What is the vulnerability? 17
18 A Protocol Story NeedhamSchroeder Public Key Authentication Protocol Defined in 1978 Assumed Correct Many years without a flaw being discovered Proven Correct BAN Logic So, It s Correct, Right? 18
19 NeedhamSchroeder Public Key Protocol in detail: Nonce Message a.1: A B : A,B, {N A, A} PKB A initiates protocol with fresh value for B Message a.2: B A : B,A, {N A, N B } PKA B demonstrates knowledge of N A and challenges A Message a.3: A B : A,B, {N B } PKB A demonstrates knowledge of N B A and B are the only ones who can read N A and N B 19
20 Gavin Lowe Attack An active intruder X participates... Message a.1: A X : A,X, {N A, A} PKX Message b.1: X(A) B : A,B, {N A, A} PKB X as A initiates protocol with fresh value for B Message b.2: B X(A) : B,A, {N A, N B } PKA Message a.2: X A : X,A, {N A, N B } PKA X asks A to demonstrates knowledge of N B Message a.3: A X : A,X, {N B } PKX A tells X N B; thanks A! Message b.3: X(A) B : A,B, {N B } PKB X completes the protocol as A 20
21 What Happened? X can get A to act as an oracle for nonces Hey A, what s the N B in this message from any B? A assumes that any message encrypted for it is legit Bad idea X can enable multiple protocol executions to be interleaved Should be part of the threat model? 21
22 The Fix It s Trivial (find it) Message a.1: A > B : A,B, {N A, A} PKB A initiates protocol with fresh value for B Message a.2: B > A : B,A, {N A, N B, B} PKA B demonstrates knowledge of N A and challenges A Message a.3: A > B : A,B, {N B} PKB A demonstrates knowledge of N B 22
23 Impact on Protocol Analysis Protocol Analysis Took a Black Eye BAN Logic Is Insufficient BAN Logic Is Misleading Protocol Analysis Became a Hot Topic Lowe s FDR Meadow s NRL Analyzer Millen s Interrogator Rubin s Nonmonotonic protocols In the end, could find known flaws, but... attacker model is too complex 23
24 DolevYao Result Strong attacker model Attacker intercepts every message Attacker can cause one of a set of operators to be applied at any time Operators for modifying, generating any kind of message Attacker can apply any operator except other s decryption Theoretical Results Polynomial Time for One Session Undecidable for Multiple Sessions Moral: Analysis is Difficult Because Attacker Can Exploit Interactions of Multiple Sessions End Result: Manual Induction and Expert Analysis are the main approaches 24
25 Review: secret vs. public key crypto Secret key cryptography Symmetric keys, where A single key (k) is used is used for E and D D( E( p, k ), k ) = p All (intended) receivers have access to key Note: Management of keys determines who has access to encrypted data E.g., password encrypted Also known as symmetric key cryptography Public key cryptography Each key pair consists of a public and private component: k+ (public key), k (private key) D( E(p, k+), k ) = p D( E(p, k), k+ ) = p Public keys are distributed (typically) through public key certificates Anyone can communicate secretly with you if they have your certificate E.g., SSLbased web commerce 25
26 The symmetric/asymmetric key tradeoff Symmetric (shared) key systems Efficient (Many MB/sec throughput) Difficult key management Kerberos Key agreement protocols Asymmetric (public) key systems Slow algorithms (so far ) Easy (easier) key management PKI  public key infrastructures Webs of trust (PGP) 26
27 Crypto... the end? This marks the end of our coverage of cryptographic building blocks for the semester. There are open problems in crypto (e.g., quantumresistant systems) However, we have plenty of basic constructions to help us build secure systems. You will see crypto pop up throughout the semester, but those with more interest should take the crypto course here at UF. 27
Module: Applied Cryptography. Professor Patrick McDaniel Fall 2010. CSE543  Introduction to Computer and Network Security
CSE543  Introduction to Computer and Network Security Module: Applied Cryptography Professor Patrick McDaniel Fall 2010 Page 1 Key Distribution/Agreement Key Distribution is the process where we assign
More informationLecture 6  Cryptography
Lecture 6  Cryptography CSE497b  Spring 2007 Introduction Computer and Network Security Professor Jaeger www.cse.psu.edu/~tjaeger/cse497bs07 Question 2 Setup: Assume you and I don t know anything about
More informationCIS 433/533  Computer and Network Security Public Key Crypto/ Cryptographic Protocols
CIS 433/533  Computer and Network Security Public Key Crypto/ Cryptographic Protocols Professor Kevin Butler Winter 2010 Computer and Information Science Key Distribution/Agreement Key Distribution is
More informationOverview of PublicKey Cryptography
CS 361S Overview of PublicKey Cryptography Vitaly Shmatikov slide 1 Reading Assignment Kaufman 6.16 slide 2 PublicKey Cryptography public key public key? private key Alice Bob Given: Everybody knows
More informationCSCE 465 Computer & Network Security
CSCE 465 Computer & Network Security Instructor: Dr. Guofei Gu http://courses.cse.tamu.edu/guofei/csce465/ Public Key Cryptogrophy 1 Roadmap Introduction RSA DiffieHellman Key Exchange Public key and
More informationCryptography and Network Security
Cryptography and Network Security Fifth Edition by William Stallings Chapter 9 Public Key Cryptography and RSA PrivateKey Cryptography traditional private/secret/single key cryptography uses one key shared
More informationCIS 6930 Emerging Topics in Network Security. Topic 2. Network Security Primitives
CIS 6930 Emerging Topics in Network Security Topic 2. Network Security Primitives 1 Outline Absolute basics Encryption/Decryption; Digital signatures; DH key exchange; Hash functions; Application of hash
More informationUOSEC Week 2: Asymmetric Cryptography. Frank IRC kee Adam IRC xe0 IRC: irc.freenode.net #0x4f
UOSEC Week 2: Asymmetric Cryptography Frank farana@uoregon.edu IRC kee Adam pond2@uoregon.edu IRC xe0 IRC: irc.freenode.net #0x4f Agenda HackIM CTF Results GITSC CTF this Saturday 10:00am Basics of Asymmetric
More informationCIS 5371 Cryptography. 8. Encryption 
CIS 5371 Cryptography p y 8. Encryption  Asymmetric Techniques Textbook encryption algorithms In this chapter, security (confidentiality) is considered in the following sense: Allornothing secrecy.
More informationRSA Attacks. By Abdulaziz Alrasheed and Fatima
RSA Attacks By Abdulaziz Alrasheed and Fatima 1 Introduction Invented by Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Len Adleman [1], the RSA cryptosystem was first revealed in the August 1977 issue of Scientific American.
More informationNotes on Network Security Prof. Hemant K. Soni
Chapter 9 Public Key Cryptography and RSA PrivateKey Cryptography traditional private/secret/single key cryptography uses one key shared by both sender and receiver if this key is disclosed communications
More informationPublicKey Cryptography. Oregon State University
PublicKey Cryptography Çetin Kaya Koç Oregon State University 1 Sender M Receiver Adversary Objective: Secure communication over an insecure channel 2 Solution: Secretkey cryptography Exchange the key
More informationPublic Key Cryptography. Basic Public Key Cryptography
Public Key Cryptography EJ Jung Basic Public Key Cryptography public key public key? private key Alice Bob Given: Everybody knows Bob s public key  How is this achieved in practice? Only Bob knows the
More informationPublic Key (asymmetric) Cryptography
PublicKey Cryptography UNIVERSITA DEGLI STUDI DI PARMA Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell Informazione Public Key (asymmetric) Cryptography Luca Veltri (mail.to: luca.veltri@unipr.it) Course of Network Security,
More informationCryptography and Network Security Chapter 9
Cryptography and Network Security Chapter 9 Fifth Edition by William Stallings Lecture slides by Lawrie Brown (with edits by RHB) Chapter 9 Public Key Cryptography and RSA Every Egyptian received two names,
More informationChapter 10 AsymmetricKey Cryptography
Chapter 10 AsymmetricKey Cryptography Copyright The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 10.1 Chapter 10 Objectives To distinguish between two cryptosystems: symmetrickey
More informationPublic Key Cryptography: RSA and Lots of Number Theory
Public Key Cryptography: RSA and Lots of Number Theory Public vs. PrivateKey Cryptography We have just discussed traditional symmetric cryptography: Uses a single key shared between sender and receiver
More informationAnnouncements. CS243: Discrete Structures. More on Cryptography and Mathematical Induction. Agenda for Today. Cryptography
Announcements CS43: Discrete Structures More on Cryptography and Mathematical Induction Işıl Dillig Class canceled next Thursday I am out of town Homework 4 due Oct instead of next Thursday (Oct 18) Işıl
More informationPUBLIC KEY ENCRYPTION
PUBLIC KEY ENCRYPTION http://www.tutorialspoint.com/cryptography/public_key_encryption.htm Copyright tutorialspoint.com Public Key Cryptography Unlike symmetric key cryptography, we do not find historical
More informationPublic Key Cryptography and RSA
Public Key Cryptography and RSA Raj Jain Washington University in Saint Louis Saint Louis, MO 63130 Jain@cse.wustl.edu Audio/Video recordings of this lecture are available at: http://www.cse.wustl.edu/~jain/cse57111/
More informationThe Mathematics of the RSA PublicKey Cryptosystem
The Mathematics of the RSA PublicKey Cryptosystem Burt Kaliski RSA Laboratories ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Dr Burt Kaliski is a computer scientist whose involvement with the security industry has been through
More informationAsymmetric Encryption. With material from Jonathan Katz, David Brumley, and Dave Levin
Asymmetric Encryption With material from Jonathan Katz, David Brumley, and Dave Levin Warmup activity Overview of asymmetrickey crypto Intuition for El Gamal and RSA And intuition for attacks Digital
More informationCS 348: Computer Networks.  Security; 30 th  31 st Oct 2012. Instructor: Sridhar Iyer IIT Bombay
CS 348: Computer Networks  Security; 30 th  31 st Oct 2012 Instructor: Sridhar Iyer IIT Bombay Network security Security Plan (RFC 2196) Identify assets Determine threats Perform risk analysis Implement
More informationSECURITY IMPROVMENTS TO THE DIFFIEHELLMAN SCHEMES
www.arpapress.com/volumes/vol8issue1/ijrras_8_1_10.pdf SECURITY IMPROVMENTS TO THE DIFFIEHELLMAN SCHEMES Malek Jakob Kakish Amman Arab University, Department of Computer Information Systems, P.O.Box 2234,
More informationChapter 10 AsymmetricKey Cryptography
Chapter 10 AsymmetricKey Cryptography Copyright The McGrawHill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 10.1 Chapter 10 Objectives Present asymmetrickey cryptography. Distinguish
More informationDiscrete Mathematics, Chapter 4: Number Theory and Cryptography
Discrete Mathematics, Chapter 4: Number Theory and Cryptography Richard Mayr University of Edinburgh, UK Richard Mayr (University of Edinburgh, UK) Discrete Mathematics. Chapter 4 1 / 35 Outline 1 Divisibility
More informationCS 161 Computer Security
Song Spring 2015 CS 161 Computer Security Discussion 11 April 7 & April 8, 2015 Question 1 RSA (10 min) (a) Describe how to find a pair of public key and private key for RSA encryption system. Find two
More informationCS 758: Cryptography / Network Security
CS 758: Cryptography / Network Security offered in the Fall Semester, 2003, by Doug Stinson my office: DC 3122 my email address: dstinson@uwaterloo.ca my web page: http://cacr.math.uwaterloo.ca/~dstinson/index.html
More informationModeling and verification of security protocols
Modeling and verification of security protocols Part I: Basics of cryptography and introduction to security protocols Dresden University of Technology Martin Pitt martin@piware.de Paper and slides available
More informationNetwork Security. Computer Networking Lecture 08. March 19, 2012. HKU SPACE Community College. HKU SPACE CC CN Lecture 08 1/23
Network Security Computer Networking Lecture 08 HKU SPACE Community College March 19, 2012 HKU SPACE CC CN Lecture 08 1/23 Outline Introduction Cryptography Algorithms Secret Key Algorithm Message Digest
More information9 Modular Exponentiation and Cryptography
9 Modular Exponentiation and Cryptography 9.1 Modular Exponentiation Modular arithmetic is used in cryptography. In particular, modular exponentiation is the cornerstone of what is called the RSA system.
More informationSoftware Tool for Implementing RSA Algorithm
Software Tool for Implementing RSA Algorithm Adriana Borodzhieva, Plamen Manoilov Rousse University Angel Kanchev, Rousse, Bulgaria Abstract: RSA is one of the mostcommon used algorithms for publickey
More informationΕΠΛ 674: Εργαστήριο 3
ΕΠΛ 674: Εργαστήριο 3 Ο αλγόριθμος ασύμμετρης κρυπτογράφησης RSA Παύλος Αντωνίου Department of Computer Science PrivateKey Cryptography traditional private/secret/single key cryptography uses one key
More informationAdvanced Cryptography
Family Name:... First Name:... Section:... Advanced Cryptography Final Exam July 18 th, 2006 Start at 9:15, End at 12:00 This document consists of 12 pages. Instructions Electronic devices are not allowed.
More informationSFWR ENG 4C03  Computer Networks & Computer Security
KEY MANAGEMENT SFWR ENG 4C03  Computer Networks & Computer Security Researcher: Jayesh Patel Student No. 9909040 Revised: April 4, 2005 Introduction Key management deals with the secure generation, distribution,
More informationNetwork Security. Chapter 2 Basics 2.2 Public Key Cryptography. Public Key Cryptography. Public Key Cryptography
Chair for Network Architectures and Services Department of Informatics TU München Prof. Carle Encryption/Decryption using Public Key Cryptography Network Security Chapter 2 Basics 2.2 Public Key Cryptography
More informationCryptography and Network Security Chapter 10
Cryptography and Network Security Chapter 10 Fifth Edition by William Stallings Lecture slides by Lawrie Brown (with edits by RHB) Chapter 10 Other Public Key Cryptosystems Amongst the tribes of Central
More informationToday ENCRYPTION. Cryptography example. Basic principles of cryptography
Today ENCRYPTION The last class described a number of problems in ensuring your security and privacy when using a computer online. This lecture discusses one of the main technological solutions. The use
More informationNetwork Security. Abusayeed Saifullah. CS 5600 Computer Networks. These slides are adapted from Kurose and Ross 81
Network Security Abusayeed Saifullah CS 5600 Computer Networks These slides are adapted from Kurose and Ross 81 Public Key Cryptography symmetric key crypto v requires sender, receiver know shared secret
More information7! Cryptographic Techniques! A Brief Introduction
7! Cryptographic Techniques! A Brief Introduction 7.1! Introduction to Cryptography! 7.2! Symmetric Encryption! 7.3! Asymmetric (PublicKey) Encryption! 7.4! Digital Signatures! 7.5! Public Key Infrastructures
More informationAsymmetric Cryptography. Mahalingam Ramkumar Department of CSE Mississippi State University
Asymmetric Cryptography Mahalingam Ramkumar Department of CSE Mississippi State University Mathematical Preliminaries CRT Chinese Remainder Theorem Euler Phi Function Fermat's Theorem Euler Fermat's Theorem
More informationChapter 9 Public Key Cryptography and RSA
Chapter 9 Public Key Cryptography and RSA Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Practices (3rd Ed.) 2004/1/15 1 9.1 Principles of Public Key PrivateKey Cryptography traditional private/secret/single
More informationRSA Cryptosystem. Yufei Tao. Department of Computer Science and Engineering Chinese University of Hong Kong. RSA Cryptosystem
Yufei Tao Department of Computer Science and Engineering Chinese University of Hong Kong In this lecture, we will discuss the RSA cryptosystem, which is widely adopted as a way to encrypt a message, or
More informationAn Introduction to the RSA Encryption Method
April 17, 2012 Outline 1 History 2 3 4 5 History RSA stands for Rivest, Shamir, and Adelman, the last names of the designers It was first published in 1978 as one of the first publickey crytographic systems
More informationSecure Network Communication Part II II Public Key Cryptography. Public Key Cryptography
Kommunikationssysteme (KSy)  Block 8 Secure Network Communication Part II II Public Key Cryptography Dr. Andreas Steffen 20002001 A. Steffen, 28.03.2001, KSy_RSA.ppt 1 Secure Key Distribution Problem
More informationCRYPTOGRAPHIC ALGORITHMS (AES, RSA)
CALIFORNIA STATE POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY, POMONA CRYPTOGRAPHIC ALGORITHMS (AES, RSA) A PAPER SUBMITTED TO PROFESSOR GILBERT S. YOUNG IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE COURSE CS530 : ADVANCED
More information1720  Forward Secrecy: How to Secure SSL from Attacks by Government Agencies
1720  Forward Secrecy: How to Secure SSL from Attacks by Government Agencies Dave Corbett Technical Product Manager Implementing Forward Secrecy 1 Agenda Part 1: Introduction Why is Forward Secrecy important?
More informationApplied Cryptology. Ed Crowley
Applied Cryptology Ed Crowley 1 Basics Topics Basic Services and Operations Symmetric Cryptography Encryption and Symmetric Algorithms Asymmetric Cryptography Authentication, Nonrepudiation, and Asymmetric
More informationPublic Key Cryptography and RSA. Review: Number Theory Basics
Public Key Cryptography and RSA Murat Kantarcioglu Based on Prof. Ninghui Li s Slides Review: Number Theory Basics Definition An integer n > 1 is called a prime number if its positive divisors are 1 and
More informationThe application of prime numbers to RSA encryption
The application of prime numbers to RSA encryption Prime number definition: Let us begin with the definition of a prime number p The number p, which is a member of the set of natural numbers N, is considered
More informationThe mathematics of cryptology
The mathematics of cryptology Paul E. Gunnells Department of Mathematics and Statistics University of Massachusetts, Amherst Amherst, MA 01003 www.math.umass.edu/ gunnells April 27, 2004 What is Cryptology?
More informationElements of Applied Cryptography Public key encryption
Network Security Elements of Applied Cryptography Public key encryption Public key cryptosystem RSA and the factorization problem RSA in practice Other asymmetric ciphers Asymmetric Encryption Scheme Let
More informationSecurity and Cryptography 1. Stefan Köpsell, Thorsten Strufe. Module 4: Basic Crypto, Stream Ciphers
Security and Cryptography 1 Stefan Köpsell, Thorsten Strufe Module 4: Basic Crypto, Stream Ciphers Disclaimer: Günter Schäfer, Mark Manulis, large parts from Dan Boneh Dresden, WS 16/17 Reprise from the
More informationOutline. CSc 466/566. Computer Security. 8 : Cryptography Digital Signatures. Digital Signatures. Digital Signatures... Christian Collberg
Outline CSc 466/566 Computer Security 8 : Cryptography Digital Signatures Version: 2012/02/27 16:07:05 Department of Computer Science University of Arizona collberg@gmail.com Copyright c 2012 Christian
More informationNetwork Security [2] Plain text Encryption algorithm Public and private key pair Cipher text Decryption algorithm. See next slide
Network Security [2] Public Key Encryption Also used in message authentication & key distribution Based on mathematical algorithms, not only on operations over bit patterns (as conventional) => much overhead
More informationA Factoring and Discrete Logarithm based Cryptosystem
Int. J. Contemp. Math. Sciences, Vol. 8, 2013, no. 11, 511517 HIKARI Ltd, www.mhikari.com A Factoring and Discrete Logarithm based Cryptosystem Abdoul Aziz Ciss and Ahmed Youssef Ecole doctorale de Mathematiques
More informationCryptography. Helmer Aslaksen Department of Mathematics National University of Singapore
Cryptography Helmer Aslaksen Department of Mathematics National University of Singapore aslaksen@math.nus.edu.sg www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/sfm/ 1 Basic Concepts There are many situations in life where
More informationMidterm Exam Solutions CS161 Computer Security, Spring 2008
Midterm Exam Solutions CS161 Computer Security, Spring 2008 1. To encrypt a series of plaintext blocks p 1, p 2,... p n using a block cipher E operating in electronic code book (ECB) mode, each ciphertext
More informationCS3235  Computer Security Third topic: Crypto Support Sys
Systems used with cryptography CS3235  Computer Security Third topic: Crypto Support Systems National University of Singapore School of Computing (Some slides drawn from Lawrie Brown s, with permission)
More informationLukasz Pater CMMS Administrator and Developer
Lukasz Pater CMMS Administrator and Developer EDMS 1373428 Agenda Introduction Why do we need asymmetric ciphers? Oneway functions RSA Cipher Message Integrity Examples Secure Socket Layer Single Sign
More informationLecture Note 5 PUBLICKEY CRYPTOGRAPHY. Sourav Mukhopadhyay
Lecture Note 5 PUBLICKEY CRYPTOGRAPHY Sourav Mukhopadhyay Cryptography and Network Security  MA61027 Modern/Publickey cryptography started in 1976 with the publication of the following paper. W. Diffie
More informationQ: Why security protocols?
Security Protocols Q: Why security protocols? Alice Bob A: To allow reliable communication over an untrusted channel (eg. Internet) 2 Security Protocols are out there Confidentiality Authentication Example:
More informationPublic Key Cryptography Overview
Ch.20 PublicKey Cryptography and Message Authentication I will talk about it later in this class Final: Wen (5/13) 16301830 HOLM 248» give you a sample exam» Mostly similar to homeworks» no electronic
More informationCRYPTOGRAPHY IN NETWORK SECURITY
ELE548 Research Essays CRYPTOGRAPHY IN NETWORK SECURITY AUTHOR: SHENGLI LI INSTRUCTOR: DR. JIENCHUNG LO Date: March 5, 1999 Computer network brings lots of great benefits and convenience to us. We can
More informationLecture 5  Cryptography
CSE497b Introduction to Computer and Network Security  Spring 2007  Professors Jaeger Lecture 5  Cryptography CSE497b  Spring 2007 Introduction Computer and Network Security Professor Jaeger www.cse.psu.edu/~tjaeger/cse497bs07/
More informationPrinciples of Public Key Cryptography. Applications of Public Key Cryptography. Security in Public Key Algorithms
Principles of Public Key Cryptography Chapter : Security Techniques Background Secret Key Cryptography Public Key Cryptography Hash Functions Authentication Chapter : Security on Network and Transport
More informationNetwork Security. HIT Shimrit TzurDavid
Network Security HIT Shimrit TzurDavid 1 Goals: 2 Network Security Understand principles of network security: cryptography and its many uses beyond confidentiality authentication message integrity key
More informationComputer Security: Principles and Practice
Computer Security: Principles and Practice Chapter 20 PublicKey Cryptography and Message Authentication First Edition by William Stallings and Lawrie Brown Lecture slides by Lawrie Brown PublicKey Cryptography
More informationAPNIC elearning: Cryptography Basics. Contact: esec02_v1.0
APNIC elearning: Cryptography Basics Contact: training@apnic.net esec02_v1.0 Overview Cryptography Cryptographic Algorithms Encryption SymmetricKey Algorithm Block and Stream Cipher Asymmetric Key Algorithm
More information159.334 Computer Networks. Network Security 1. Professor Richard Harris School of Engineering and Advanced Technology
Network Security 1 Professor Richard Harris School of Engineering and Advanced Technology Presentation Outline Overview of Identification and Authentication The importance of identification and Authentication
More informationKEY DISTRIBUTION: PKI and SESSIONKEY EXCHANGE. Mihir Bellare UCSD 1
KEY DISTRIBUTION: PKI and SESSIONKEY EXCHANGE Mihir Bellare UCSD 1 The public key setting Alice M D sk[a] (C) Bob pk[a] C C $ E pk[a] (M) σ $ S sk[a] (M) M, σ Vpk[A] (M, σ) Bob can: send encrypted data
More informationA Study on Asymmetric Key Cryptography Algorithms
A Study on Asymmetric Key Cryptography Algorithms ASAITHAMBI.N School of Computer Science and Engineering, Bharathidasan University, Trichy, asaicarrier@gmail.com Abstract Asymmetric key algorithms use
More informationIntroduction to Security Proof of Cryptosystems
Introduction to Security Proof of Cryptosystems D. J. Guan November 16, 2007 Abstract Provide proof of security is the most important work in the design of cryptosystems. Problem reduction is a tool to
More informationUNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering. Introduction to Cryptography ECE 597XX/697XX
UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering Introduction to Cryptography ECE 597XX/697XX Part 6 Introduction to PublicKey Cryptography Israel Koren ECE597/697 Koren Part.6.1
More informationOutline. Computer Science 418. Digital Signatures: Observations. Digital Signatures: Definition. Definition 1 (Digital signature) Digital Signatures
Outline Computer Science 418 Digital Signatures Mike Jacobson Department of Computer Science University of Calgary Week 12 1 Digital Signatures 2 Signatures via Public Key Cryptosystems 3 Provable 4 Mike
More informationCS Asymmetrickey Encryption. Prof. Clarkson Spring 2016
CS 5430 Asymmetrickey Encryption Prof. Clarkson Spring 2016 Review: block ciphers Encryption schemes: Enc(m; k): encrypt message m under key k Dec(c; k): decrypt ciphertext c with key k Gen(len): generate
More informationCommon Pitfalls in Cryptography for Software Developers. OWASP AppSec Israel July 2006. The OWASP Foundation http://www.owasp.org/
Common Pitfalls in Cryptography for Software Developers OWASP AppSec Israel July 2006 Shay Zalalichin, CISSP AppSec Division Manager, Comsec Consulting shayz@comsecglobal.com Copyright 2006  The OWASP
More informationIDbased Cryptography and SmartCards
IDbased Cryptography and SmartCards Survol des techniques cryptographiques basées sur l identité et implémentation sur carte à puce The Need for Cryptography Encryption! Transform a message so that only
More informationBasics of Cryptography
Basics of Cryptography What is Cryptography? Cryptography is an applied branch of mathematics In some situations it can be used to provide Confidentiality Integrity Authentication Authorization Nonrepudiation
More informationcryptography s642 computer security adam everspaugh
cryptography s642 adam everspaugh ace@cs.wisc.edu computer security today Cryptography intro Crypto primitives / Symmetric and asymmetric crypto / MACs / Digital signatures / Key exchange Provable security
More informationCryptography: RSA and the discrete logarithm problem
Cryptography: and the discrete logarithm problem R. Hayden Advanced Maths Lectures Department of Computing Imperial College London February 2010 Public key cryptography Assymmetric cryptography two keys:
More informationSecurity usually depends on the secrecy of the key, not the secrecy of the algorithm (i.e., the open design model!)
1 A cryptosystem has (at least) five ingredients: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Plaintext Secret Key Ciphertext Encryption algorithm Decryption algorithm Security usually depends on the secrecy of the key, not the secrecy
More informationIntroduction to Cryptography
Introduction to Cryptography Part 2: publickey cryptography JeanSébastien Coron January 2007 Publickey cryptography Invented by Diffie and Hellman in 1976. Revolutionized the field. Each user now has
More informationThe Role of Cryptography in Cyberscurity. International Colloquium on ICT 19 November 2014, Brussels
The Role of Cryptography in Cyberscurity International Colloquium on ICT 19 November 2014, Brussels Cybersecurity Cyberspace Cyberspace is becoming the real space Hackers of the 1980 s, 1990 s Advanced
More informationFinal Exam. IT 4823 Information Security Administration. Rescheduling Final Exams. Kerberos. Idea. Ticket
IT 4823 Information Security Administration Public Key Encryption Revisited April 5 Notice: This session is being recorded. Lecture slides prepared by Dr Lawrie Brown for Computer Security: Principles
More informationRef: [Mark Stamp] Chapter 4
Ref: [Mark Stamp] Chapter 4 309 310 311 312 Stream cipher could be an approximation of one time pad. In one time pad the key stream is supp 313 Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) has open design in contrast
More informationEvaluation of Digital Signature Process
Evaluation of Digital Signature Process Emil SIMION, Ph. D. email: esimion@fmi.unibuc.ro Agenda Evaluation of digital signatures schemes: evaluation criteria; security evaluation; security of hash functions;
More informationPart 2 D(E(M, K),K ) E(M, K) E(M, K) Plaintext M. Plaintext M. Decrypt with private key. Encrypt with public key. Ciphertext
Part 2 Plaintext M Encrypt with public key E(M, K) Ciphertext Plaintext M D(E(M, K),K ) Decrypt with private key E(M, K) Public and private key related mathematically Public key can be published; private
More informationThe RSA Algorithm: A Mathematical History of the Ubiquitous Cryptological Algorithm
The RSA Algorithm: A Mathematical History of the Ubiquitous Cryptological Algorithm Maria D. Kelly December 7, 2009 Abstract The RSA algorithm, developed in 1977 by Rivest, Shamir, and Adlemen, is an algorithm
More informationOutline. Digital signature. Symmetrickey Cryptography. Caesar cipher. Cryptography basics Digital signature
Outline Digital signature Cryptography basics Digital signature Dr. László Daragó, Ph.D. Associate professor Cryptography Cryptography encryption decryption Symmetrickey Cryptography Encryption with a
More informationA DPA Attack against Asymmetric Encryption: RSA Attacks and Countermeasures
A DPA Attack against Asymmetric Encryption: RSA Attacks and Countermeasures Lesky D.S. Anatias April 18, 2008 Abstract This paper discusses sidechannel attacks based on Power Analysis. This approach utilizes
More informationOutline. Cryptography. Bret Benesh. Math 331
Outline 1 College of St. Benedict/St. John s University Department of Mathematics Math 331 2 3 The internet is a lawless place, and people have access to all sorts of information. What is keeping people
More informationIntroduction. Digital Signature
Introduction Electronic transactions and activities taken place over Internet need to be protected against all kinds of interference, accidental or malicious. The general task of the information technology
More informationPublicKey Encryption (Asymmetric Encryption)
PublicKey Encryption (Asymmetric Encryption) Summer School, Romania 2014 Marc Fischlin 13. Oktober 2010 Dr.Marc Fischlin Kryptosicherheit 1 The story so far (PrivateKey Crypto) Alice establish secure
More informationEmbedding more security in digital signature system by using combination of public key cryptography and secret sharing scheme
International Journal of Computer Sciences and Engineering Open Access Research Paper Volume4, Issue3 EISSN: 23472693 Embedding more security in digital signature system by using combination of public
More informationAdvanced Analogue and Digital Encryption Methods. Presented by: Dr. S. Sarpal
Advanced Analogue and Digital Encryption Methods Presented by: Dr. S. Sarpal Background Term given to a mathematical algorithm OR a set of known sequences. Mixed with message to hide the meaning of content.
More informationCIS433/533  Computer and Network Security Cryptography
CIS433/533  Computer and Network Security Cryptography Professor Kevin Butler Winter 2011 Computer and Information Science A historical moment Mary Queen of Scots is being held by Queen Elizabeth and
More informationNetwork Security. Security Attacks. Normal flow: Interruption: 孫 宏 民 hmsun@cs.nthu.edu.tw Phone: 035742968 國 立 清 華 大 學 資 訊 工 程 系 資 訊 安 全 實 驗 室
Network Security 孫 宏 民 hmsun@cs.nthu.edu.tw Phone: 035742968 國 立 清 華 大 學 資 訊 工 程 系 資 訊 安 全 實 驗 室 Security Attacks Normal flow: sender receiver Interruption: Information source Information destination
More informationCPSC 467b: Cryptography and Computer Security
CPSC 467b: Cryptography and Computer Security Michael J. Fischer Lecture 1 January 9, 2012 CPSC 467b, Lecture 1 1/22 Course Overview Symmetric Cryptography CPSC 467b, Lecture 1 2/22 Course Overview CPSC
More informationEXAM questions for the course TTM4135  Information Security June 2010. Part 1
EXAM questions for the course TTM4135  Information Security June 2010 Part 1 This part consists of 6 questions all from one common topic. The number of maximal points for every correctly answered question
More information