Scrum, an agile software process Ansgar Hoffmann

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1 , an agile software process Ansgar Hoffmann

2 SPRiNT it SPRiNT it Gesellschaft für Lösungen Tainings Coaching Certified Master Trainings Sprint Runner ( Planning Tool) Internet Development

3 Agenda Complexity and Agile Underpinnings Overview Responsibilities Planning Agile Implementations Teams and Meetings Day in the Life of a Master and CMM, and XP

4 Agile Alliance Overview Values of Agile Alliance individuals and interactions over processes and tools working software over comprehensive documentation customer collaboration over contract negotiation responding to change over following a plan While there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more.

5 Origins of Agile The New, New Product Development Game* Time Boxes Iterative, Incremental Development Smalltalk Engineering Tools, XP * Harvard Business Review, Jan. 1986, Takeuchi and Nonaka

6 Overview Empirical management & control process inspect and adapt feedback loops Used to build software, embedded software, telephone switches, FDA life critical software, mission critical software in organizations of up to 2,000 and projects of over 3,000. CMM Level3, ISO 9001/R Over 5300 Certified Masters Used by Sun Microsystems, Microsoft, Cisco, Symantec, Federal Reserve Bank, Lockheed Martin, CBOE, BBC, CNA, Siemens, Nokia, Covad, ClearChannel, Arbitron, Yahoo, Wildcard Systems; CapitalOne, TransUnion, and, Extremely simple but very hard.

7 Complexity assessment graph Far from Agreement Close to Agreement Anarchy Complicated Complex Simple Complicated Close to Certainty Technology Far from Certainty

8

9 Phases

10 Roles Activity Owner Responsibilities Manage the vision Product Owner The Product Owner establishes, nurtures and communicates the product vision. He achieves initial and on-going funding for the project by creating initial release plans and the initial Product Backlog. Manage the ROI Product Owner The Product Owner monitors the project against its ROI goals and an investment vision. He updates and prioritizes the Product Backlog to ensure that the most valuable functionality is produced first and built upon. He prioritizes and refines the Product Backlog and measures success against expenses. Manage the development iteration Team Manage the process Master During an iteration the team selects and develops the highest-priority features on the Product Backlog. Collectively, the team expands Product Backlog items into more explicit tasks on a Sprint Backlog and then manages its own work and self-organizes around how it desires to complete the iteration. The team manages itself to its commitments. The Master is responsible for setting the team up for success by ensuring the project and organizational culture are optimized for meeting the ROI goals of the project. This involves organizing a Sprint Planning Meeting (during which the team expands Product Backlog into Sprint Backlog), a Sprint Review Meeting (during which the newly developed functionality is demonstrated), shielding the team from outside disturbances, holding brief Daily meetings, and removing obstacles to progress. Manage the release Product Owner The Product Owner makes decisions about when to create an official release. For a variety of reasons it may not be desirable to release at the conclusion of every increment. Similarly, if an official release is planned for after the fifth increment it may be released (with fewer features) after the fourth increment in order to respond to competitive moves or capture early market share. The Product Owner makes these decisions in a manner consistent with the investment vision that has been established for the project.

11 As a Master, you are responsible for: Removing the barriers between development and the customer so the customer directly drives development Teaching the customer how to maximize ROI and meet their objectives through Improving the lives of the development team by facilitating creativity and empowerment Improving the productivity of the development team in any way possible and, Improving the engineering practices and tools so each increment of functionality is potentially shippable. Leader and Facilitator

12 Most projects deliver software every 6 to 18 months. reduces this to many 1 month deliveries to increase control via inspect/adapt. This puts stress on the team and organization, exposing underlying problems and limitations. The Master s job is to prioritize these problems and help the organization overcome them to get better at software development, managing software investments, and becoming a community to work in.

13 and the Master is a simple iterative, incremental skeleton with some rules. Equipped with a resolute, patient Master, can be used to transform software development into a profession, projects into Valuable endeavors, and development organizations into communities that people look forward to working in. It takes time. Remember that a dead Master is a useless Master. Remember that is just a framework. It doesn t fail. Sometimes people can t stand what it exposes. Masters are the key to its degree of success in transforming organizations.

14 Agile Skeleton Doing the Right Thing Easy to implement within 1 day Improves ROI Solves customer involvement Removes floundering and politics

15 Building the Thing Right More time to implement Solid engineering practices Solid engineering infrastructure XP

16 Plan the project WHY plan?? Lay out a common set of understandings from which emergence, adaptation and collaboration occur. Establish expectations that progress will be measured against. Convince a source of funding that the ROI of this project is worthwhile.

17 Product Backlog List of functionality, technology, issues Issues are placeholders that are later defined as work Prioritized, estimated More detail on higher priority backlog One list for multiple teams Product Owner responsible for priority Anyone can contribute Maintained and posted visibly Derived from Business Plan or Vision Statement, which sometimes have to be created with customer

18 Prioritize Product Backlog Attributes: Cost (ITD s), Tests, Value ($, H/M/L, x/1000) Sort by Value allocate your planning time 60% to top 20% in value, 30% to next 20%, and 10% to remainder Create Calculated Priority from value/cost Re-sort on Calculated Priority Manually adjust positions of product backlog items to fine tune 80% of the value comes from 20% of the functionality 60% of the functionality delivered in successful projects is rarely or never used.

19 Architecture/Infrastructure Allocate time for architecture and infrastructure development frontloads this development onto highest priority Sprints First Sprint develop business functionality that keeps customer engaged and tests architecture and infrastructure

20 Teams Self-organizing Cross-functional with no roles Seven plus or minus two Responsible for committing to work Authority to do whatever is needed to meet commitment Open, collocated space Resolution of conflicts

21 Meetings Sprint Planning Daily Sprint Review Sprint Retrospective

22 Sprint Planning Meeting Product Backlog Team Capabilities Business Conditions Technology Stability Executable Product Increment Review, Consider, Organize Next Sprint Goal Product Backlog Sprint Backlog

23 Sprint Planning Meeting Rules 1 day 1st - 4 hours max. for team to select Product Backlog and sets goal with Product Owner 2nd - 4 hours max. for team to define Sprint Backlog to build functionality Anyone can attend, but primary conversation and work is between team and Product Owner

24 Sprint Planning Meeting Part 1 Four hour max. meeting Defines what to build in the next Sprint Attended by Product Owner, team, customers, management TEAM DEFINES a SPRINT GOAL!! Team selects as much Product Backlog as it believes it can develop during the next Sprint Estimates may be revised upon review Lower priority backlog may be included if appropriate and Product Owner agrees Estimated effort/cost for selected product backlog items is a budget that team manages to; negotiate with Product Owner before exceeding.

25 Sprint Goal A Sprint Gaol is a theme for the Sprint: Support Features necessary for population genetics studies Prove the concept that was delivered by Architects Make the application run on SQL Server in addition to Oracle

26 Sprint Planning Meeting Part 2 Four hour max. meeting. Defines how to build the product functionality into a product increment in the next Sprint. This list is called the Sprint Backlog. Attended by Product Owner, team, development management Design is extended in this session. Team defines Sprint Backlog, consisting of all tasks that need to be completed during Sprint. Team members sign up for work and estimate their tasks. Tasks are 1-16 hours long; if longer, breakdown into more granularity.

27 Sprint Backlog Tasks to turn product backlog into working product functionality Tasks are estimated in hours, usually 1-16 Tasks with more than 16 hours are broken down later Team members sign up for tasks, they aren t assigned (be patient, just wait!) Estimated work remaining is updated daily Any team member can add, delete or change the Sprint Backlog (theirs or new) Work for the Sprint emerges If work is unclear, define a Sprint Backlog with a larger amount of time break it down later. Update work remaining as more is known, as items are worked

28 Sprint Backlog If the team believes that this is too much, they can meet again with the Product Owner

29 Monitor the task board

30 Another sample task board

31 Sprint Backlog Estimates Work remaining reporting during a Sprint updates the estimated number of hours required to complete a task. This should not be confused with time reporting, which is not part of. There are no mechanisms in for tracking the amount of time that a team works. Teams are measured by meeting goals, not by how many hours they take to meet the goal. is results oriented, not effort driven.

32 Practices -Sprint Thirty calendar day iteration Team builds functionality that includes product backlog and meets Sprint goal Team self-organizes to do work Team conforms to existing standards and conventions Abnormal termination of Sprint

33 Sprint If the Sprint requires >20% more work during the Sprint than was planned by the second day after the Sprint Planning meeting, it needs to plan better. If team members report the same item more than one day, they need to plan better and decompose the tasks to a greater level of granularity. The Product Backlog estimate is a mutually agreed to budget. If the team is going to exceed the budget, it needs to escalate the decision. Every member of the team is responsible for managing the team.

34 Sprint Abnormal Termination Sprints can be cancelled before the allotted thirty days are over Team can cancel Sprint if they feel they are unable to meet Sprint goal Management can cancel Sprint if external circumstances negate the value of the Sprint goal and If a Sprint is abnormally terminated, the next step is to conduct a new Sprint planning meeting, where the reason for the termination is reviewed.

35 Daily s Daily 15 minute status meeting Same place and time every day Meeting room Chickens and pigs Three questions 1. What have you done since last meeting? 2. What will you do before next meeting? 3. What is in your way? Impediments and Decisions

36 Task Reporting

37 What Is Being Made Visible? When a Team member says done, what does that mean? Code adheres to standards, is clean, has been refactored, has been unit tested, has been checked in, has been built, and has had a suite of unit tests applied to it Development environment for this to happen requires source code library, coding standards, automated build facility, and unit test harness

38 Sprint Review Meeting

39 What Is Being Made Visible? When the Team says done, what does that mean? Maintaining trust with customer by not hiding undone work. Functionality has been code reviewed, functionality has been integrated and built, acceptance tests have been run, and documentation has been created. QA environment for this has automated acceptance testing tools.

40 Sprint Retrospective Process improvement at end of every Sprint Facilitated by Master What went well, what could be improved. Master prioritizes based on team direction Team devises solution to most vexing problem

41 Report Progress Planned product backlog and releases. Revised product backlog and releases. Complete analysis of any changes in backlog, priorities, estimates Analysis of productivity Progress toward release Actions to improve

42 Managing a Release Business determines when a release is needed, what functionality it must contain, and what is an acceptable level of quality and cost Development determines how long it takes to build the release. Development creates preliminary estimates Development refines the estimates as priority increases Development selects the product backlog for development, each Sprint. Business focuses on business value derived from the release.

43 Compliance with CMM Software Framework Level Key Practice Area Requirements management Software project planning Software project tracking and oversight Rating 2 Software subcontract management 2 2 Software quality assurance Software configuration management 3 3 Organization process focus Organization process definition 3 3 Training program Integrated software management 3 Software product engineering 3 3 Intergroup coordination Peer review

44 Project QuickStart Participants: Team, Product Owner, Master, chickens, teacher Agenda Teach concepts, theory, practices Present project vision, goals, timelines Teach Sprint planning Define Product Backlog for at least three months Brainstorm about overcoming impediments Brainstorm about Product Backlog for next Sprint team commits Team defines Sprint Backlog Teach daily, Sprint review, Sprint signature, and management Discuss engineering tools and practices

45 Recommended Readings Agile Project Management with, Ken Schwaber 2004 User Stories Applied, Mike Cohn,Pearson Education, 2004 Extreme Programming Explained, Kent Beck, Addison Wessley, 2000 American Ground, William Langewiesche, North Point Press, 2002 The Blind Men and the Elephant: Mastering Project Work, David Schmaltz, Berrett-Koehler Publishers;, March 2003 Corps Business, David Freedman, HarperCollins, 2000 Industrial Dynamics, Jay W. Forrester, MIT Press, 1961 Complexity and Management, Ralph D. Stacey, Routledge, 2000 Project Retrospectives, Norman Kerth, Dorset House, 2001 The Art of Focused Conversation, Brian Stanfield, New Society Publishers, 2000 The Alphabet Versus the Goddess, Leonard Shlain, Viking, 1998 The Remembered Present, Gerald Edelman, Basic Books, 1989 The Dreams of Reason, Heinz Pagels, Simon and Schuster, 1988 The Knowledge Creating Company, Nonaka and Takeuchi, Oxford University Press, 1995 The Pragmatic Programmer, Hunt and Thomas, Addison Wesley, 2001 Lean Software Development, Poppendieck and Poppendieck, Addison Wesley, 2003 The Capability Maturity Model, Paulk et al, Addison Wesley, 1994 Agile & Iterative Development, Craig Larman, Pearson Education, 2004

46 Resources The Alliance: (www.scrumalliance.org) Control Chaos: (www.controlchaos.org) Agile Alliance: (www.agilealliance.org) Trainings by scrumeducation: (www.scrumeducation.com)

47 ?

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