HOW TO USE A REFERENCE BOOK

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "HOW TO USE A REFERENCE BOOK"

Transcription

1 What is a reference book? HOW TO USE A REFERENCE BOOK A reference book, such as a dictionary, an encyclopedia, a yearbook, or a directory is compiled to provide facts or definite pieces of information of varying length. As Harrod defines, A reference book is intended to be referred to rather than read through (Prytherch 647). In other words, a reference book would be used when a reader needs to know the meaning of a word (a dictionary), or wants to learn about the life of an important person (biographical dictionary). This is one reason why a reference book does not circulate, so the library keeps it for all readers to use any time they need it. A reference work may be a one-volume or multi-volume book. It can be also found in an electronic format, such as a CD-ROM. The abbreviation Ref. printed on top of the call number of a book is the mark that distinguishes a reference book from one that may be borrowed, such as books and DVDs. Types of reference books v Encyclopedias An encyclopedia is a book or set of books that gives information on all branches of knowledge or on one branch, generally including articles arranged alphabetically and signed by the authors. A good encyclopedia should have a subject index either in a separate volume or at the back of the book. These subject indexes help the reader locate topics easily. It is important to use the subject index first because it shows in which volumes and on what pages a particular subject is discussed. An encyclopedia is a good source of information. Since an encyclopedia gives an overview of a subject, it is essential when writing a paper to refer first to an encyclopedia to learn general background information, which sets a good foundation for the paper. This will also help to narrow down the topic of research. 1

2 Types of encyclopedias: Here are some commonly used encyclopedias: Encyclopedia Americana Great Soviet Encyclopedia Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics International Encyclopedia of Education McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology. How to use an encyclopedia: Depending on the type of information required, one can decide whether to use a specialized encyclopedia, like a medical one, or one that contains general information. The next step is to either type the keyword(s) into the search bar of the computerized encyclopedia, then hit the 'go' button, which will bring a list of all articles and illustrations related to that subject matter. When using an encyclopedia in book form, a good option is to go to the list of contents at the beginning to look for the category required. However, it is often easier to go to the index located at the back of the encyclopedia to look up the word by the letter it starts with, which will be listed in alphabetical order in the index. Tips: When using encyclopedias, you need to know the proper spelling of your topic. If you don t spell it correctly, you won t find the information easily. You also need to generate a list of keywords that are related to your topic. Try to include some general as well as specific terms. It can help you when you are looking for your topic in the index. In addition, you can use the index volume to find all of the information related to your topic. Use all your keywords. If you can t locate your topic in the index, it s probably not in that encyclopedia. v Dictionaries A dictionary is a reference work that lists the definition, origin, spelling, and pronunciation of words. 2

3 Types of dictionaries: A dictionary may be: 1. Monolingual: listing words and their meanings in the same language. e.g. Webster's Dictionary of the English language 2. Bilingual: listing words in one language and gives the meaning in another. e.g. A1-Mawrid English-Arabic Dictionary 3. Multilingual: listing words and their meanings in two or more languages. e.g. Dictionnaire Trilingue: Arabe-Francais-Anglais 4. Biographical: providing information on the lives of important people. There are three major types of dictionaries in relation to people including: People in general, international in scope. e.g. Dictionary of International Biography People in general but of the same nationality. e.g. Who's Who in the Arab World People belonging to a profession or a certain field of knowledge e.g. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 5. There are also dictionaries that list the terms of a subject and their meanings. e.g. A Dictionary of the Physical Sciences A Dictionary of the Social Sciences: English-French-Arabic How to use a dictionary: When you come across a word that you do not recognize or know the meaning of, keep a note of it. When you get around to look it up, follow these steps: 1. Proceed to the letter of the alphabet that your word begins with. For example, dog begins with d. Do not forget the possible spellings for trickier words, such as gnome begin with a g, or psychology begins with a p, or knock begins with a k, etc. 2. Check for the guidewords. These are located in the upper corner of each page and give you an indication of how close you are to locating your word. They speed up the process of going through the pages. 3. Once close, use the second letter of your word to run down the page and locate your word. For example, if you were looking for the word futile, u is the second letter. Perhaps you will see furrow/futtock in the upper left corner of the left page and futtock plate/gaberlunzie in the upper right corner of the right page. Now you know that futile is going to be located on one of these two pages. 4. Scan down the list of entry words moving past furry and fuse and fuss. Since the example word begins with fut, go past all the fur and all the 3

4 fus words alphabetically until you reach the FUT area of the page. In this example, move right down through fut and futhark and this, at last, is where you will find futile. How to make a most of your findings: Once you have located the word, there are several useful elements that you can discover about the word from the dictionary: A definition of the word. One or more pronunciations. Look for a pronunciation key near the beginning of the dictionary to help you interpret the written pronunciation. Learn how to use the stress marks, as these will aid your pronunciation. The stress mark ' is placed just prior to the syllable where the stress is placed. For example, infuse \in'fyüz\, which shows the stress in on the second syllabus. Capitalization, where relevant. For Example, the word Deuteronomy, which is one of the books of Bible is capitalized. Prepositions, such as in, on, etc. and their use with the word in question. For example, it shows the proposition you should use with verb insist is on. Irregular endings for verbs. Synonyms and antonyms. You can use these in your writing, or as further clues towards the word's meaning. An etymology, derivation, or history of the word. An etymology is the study of the history and origin of a particular word and its changes over time. For example, The Ancient Greek word, hippos, means horse, and potamus means river. Hence, hippopotamus literally means river horse. A derivation is the formation of a new word or stem from another word or stem. It typically occurs by the addition of an affix. For example, the word kindness derived from kind. Even if you do not know Latin or Ancient Greek, you may find that this information helps you to remember or understand the word. Examples of how the word is used. Use these to add context to the meaning of the word. Derived terms and inflections. Inflection is the name for the extra letter or letters added to nouns, verbs and adjectives in their different grammatical forms. Nouns are inflected in the plural, verbs are inflected in the various tenses, and adjectives are inflected in the comparative/superlative. The inflection of verbs is also called conjugation, and the inflection of nouns, adjectives and pronouns is also called declension. Phrases or idioms associated with the word, and slang usage. An idiom is a phrase with a meaning commonly understood by the speakers of the language 4

5 that often has a different meaning from the normal meaning of the words. In addition, the dictionary may explain whether a word is formal or informal. Neighboring words that might be related, such as "futility." Spellings in other forms English (American English, British English, Australian English, etc.) Other usages of a dictionary: Many dictionaries come with a collection of other useful information. Some of the information that you might find in your dictionary includes: Standard formal letters and official writing, etc. Maps and geographical information. Statistics on populations. Weights, volume, and measurements. Lists of countries, cities, capitals, etc. Flags of countries, states, provinces, regions, etc. Lists of famous or historical people. Lists of facts. Tips: If there are multiple definitions, decide which one matches your source or context of the word, and notice how the different definitions are related to one another. In an English dictionary, the most common meaning is usually listed first when there are multiple meanings. Try using your new word in a sentence. To find the words quickly, you need to practice. You can ask someone to write down few words and see how long it takes you to find them. Use the guidewords at the top of each dictionary page. Substitute the meaning you find for the word in the sentence. Be sure you select the most appropriate meaning, not merely the first one you come to. Check all abbreviations and symbols in the special sections. v Thesaurus A thesaurus is a book that lists words in groups of synonyms and related concepts, which helps you avoid repetition in your writing and helps you find a word for an idea you have in mind. Types of thesauruses: There are two main kinds of thesauruses: a Roget-type with a categorization system and an A-to-Z thesaurus. 5

6 How to use a thesaurus: 1. Get to know the features of your thesaurus. A thesaurus may also contain antonyms, wordlists, and other interesting features. Choose synonyms carefully, and then you will soon recognize that few words are exactly identical. Use the thesaurus in conjunction with a good dictionary whenever selecting a word or phrase unfamiliar to you. 2. An entry word, which is a bolded word that begins a separate entry, in the A- to-z listing of thesaurus includes its part of speech. Short definitions accompany the headwords and provide you with a basic reference point. Also, they help you to evaluate synonym choices. 3. In a thesaurus, the entry word represents one meaning, and a group of words can be considered synonymous with it in that sense. The synonyms may have other meanings as well, but they have at least one meaning in common with the entry word and the other synonyms in the list. The definition that comes before the synonym list tells you what meaning is shared by the words in the list. The numbers that appear after the part of speech is to distinguish the different meanings of a word. 4. For a printed thesaurus, read the introduction. Become familiar with the categorization scheme if you have a Roget-type thesaurus. In an A-to-Z thesaurus, you may also benefit from the definitions in each entry. 5. Look up a word in a Roget-type thesaurus in the index. The index will likely have the meanings listed under each word. Try not to limit your search to one category; also look at the categories just before and after the one you first look up. You might find something you can use by broadening your search. Tips: Use the thesaurus to avoid repeating words within a sentence and avoid beginning successive sentences or paragraphs with identical words. A thesaurus groups words that are similar in meaning. Usually, you reach for a thesaurus when you have a word in mind and you are looking for a word that is like it (synonym) or one that means the opposite (antonym). Remember that no two words say the same thing. We turn to a thesaurus to find different, more expressive ways of speaking and writing. However, we must turn to a dictionary to determine the meaning. Always consider synonyms in their desired context and consult a dictionary if you have any doubt about the application of a word or phrase. In order to make an informed selection from words clustered under a thesaurus 6

7 concept, try to check the word in a dictionary and be sure to substitute the synonym in an example sentence to see if it sounds right and conveys the desired meaning. An entry may also list antonyms and words that are in direct contrast with the entry word and synonym group. There may also be contrasted words that are almost the opposite of the entry word but not quite. These words may be stronger or weaker in meaning and may not mean the exact opposite of the entry word. Quiz: 1. Which of the following are the uses of reference books? (Choose all that apply) a. They summarize, digest, or review the literature on a topic b. Each is specifically structured to answer certain kinds of questions c. They provide important background information to help focus your research questions d. They point to literature contained in books, journals, and other publications 2. Which statement is NOT characteristic of a subject encyclopedia? a. Articles are produced by recognized scholars b. Articles provide an in-depth bibliography c. They cover a wide range of knowledge at a basic level d. They outline important concepts, issues, and arguments on a topic 3. If you were interested in gaining an understanding of the issues surrounding cloning or stem cell research, which two of the following subject encyclopedias would be most helpful? a. Encyclopedia of Human Biology b. Encyclopedia of Nursing c. Academic American Encyclopedia d. Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics 4. In addition to providing the definition of a word, an etymological dictionary, like the Oxford English Dictionary, also provides: (Check all that apply) a. A history of the word b. The date the word first entered the language c. Examples of how the word has been used through time Answer Keys: 1. a,b,c,d 2. d 3. a,d 4. a,b,c 7

8 This handout is based on the following references: Cuesta College. Interpreting a Dictionary Entry. N.d. Web. 19 Mar Prytherch, Raymond John, and Leonard Montague Harrod. Harrod's Librarians' Glossary Of Terms Used In Librarianship, Documentation And The Book Crafts, And Reference Book. n.p.: Aldershot, Hants. ; Brookfield, VT, U.S.A.: Gower, Print. All of the above texts are available in the Writing Center. For more information, please visit our website at Last Revised: 9/10/14 8

Adoption Date: July 22, 2013

Adoption Date: July 22, 2013 Grade 4 Language Standards : Conventions of Standard English Essential Questions: 1. Why is it important to have command of Standard English conventions? 2. How do I determine the meaning of an unfamiliar

More information

SPELLING WORD #1: SENTENCE:

SPELLING WORD #1: SENTENCE: ACTIVITY 1: SENTENCES: Use each spelling word in a third grade sentence. (Underline the spelling word.) Ex. I know how to spell each word because I did my homework. SPELLING WORD #1: ACTIVITY 2: SYLLABLES:

More information

bibliography - an organized list of resources used to write an article or a report C

bibliography - an organized list of resources used to write an article or a report C 4 th Grade ELA Vocabulary Terms A adage - a statement that contains some kind of truth about human nature adjective - a word that describes a person, place, or thing adverb - a word that describes a verb,

More information

Keys To a Powerful Vocabulary by Maker and Lenier Oxford Students' Dictionary of American English Pencil

Keys To a Powerful Vocabulary by Maker and Lenier Oxford Students' Dictionary of American English Pencil COURSE NUMBER COURSE TITLE CREDIT HOURS INSTRUCTOR PREP-008 VOCABULARY SKILLS 1 CREDIT HOUR BETTY CORLE OFFICE LOCATION LEARNING LAB ROOM 153 OFFICE HOURS PREREQUISITE(S) REQUIRED TEXT AND MATERIAL COURSE

More information

TELL ME MORE Step by Step ACTIVITY GUIDE

TELL ME MORE Step by Step ACTIVITY GUIDE TELL ME MORE Step by Step ACTIVITY GUIDE The following are the main components for each activity in this guide: ACTIVITY TITLE Activity's title as it appears in TELL ME MORE. Activity type and explanation

More information

Glossary. apostrophe. abbreviation

Glossary.  apostrophe. abbreviation [ Glossary a abbreviation An abbreviation is a shortened form of phrase or word. apostrophe An apostrophe has two uses: to show that two words have been shortened to make one (called a contraction ) and

More information

Roanoke County Public Schools. Grade 4 English. Pacing Guide

Roanoke County Public Schools. Grade 4 English. Pacing Guide Roanoke County Public Schools Grade 4 English Pacing Guide 2012 Standards 2010 English Standards of Learning Grammar Skills Progression by Grade Capitalize all proper nouns and the word 1. Use singular

More information

VA English Standards of Learning Related to Spelling. Kindergarten

VA English Standards of Learning Related to Spelling. Kindergarten VA English Standards of Learning Related to Spelling Kindergarten K.4 The student will identify, say, segment, and blend various units of speech sounds. a) Begin to discriminate between spoken sentences,

More information

Common Core Question Stems: 4th Grade. Reading: Literature Reading: Informational Text Writing Speaking and Listening Language

Common Core Question Stems: 4th Grade. Reading: Literature Reading: Informational Text Writing Speaking and Listening Language Common Core Question Stems: 4th Grade Reading: Literature Reading: Informational Text Writing Speaking and Listening Language LACC.4.RL.1.1 Can you explain why happened? What details support your explanation?

More information

4th Grade Language Arts Curriculum Overview

4th Grade Language Arts Curriculum Overview 4th Grade Language Arts Curriculum Overview Reading: Literature Key Ideas and Details: Draw inferences from a text. Identify a theme using the details in the text. Summarize a text. Describe a character,

More information

Action verb: A verb that describes an action. The action can be a physical action or a mind action.

Action verb: A verb that describes an action. The action can be a physical action or a mind action. Action verb: A verb that describes an action. The action can be a physical action or a mind action. Adjective: An adjective modifi es (describes) a noun or pronoun. It tells what kind, how many, or which

More information

4th Grade Common Core Checklist

4th Grade Common Core Checklist Foundational Skills 1. Not applicable to 4 th grade 2. Not applicable to 4 th grade 3. Know and apply grade level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. a. Use combined knowledge of all letter

More information

Table 4. Subdivisions of Individual Languages and Language Families

Table 4. Subdivisions of Individual Languages and Language Families Table 4. Subdivisions of Individual Languages and Language Families The following notation is never used alone, but may be used as required by add notes under subdivisions of specific languages or language

More information

Key skills End of year 1 - Expectations in Writing

Key skills End of year 1 - Expectations in Writing End of year 1 - Expectations in Writing I can spell my word list accurately. I can spell some unusual words correctly. I can spell the days of the week. I know the names of all the letters of the alphabet

More information

Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details

Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details Craft and Structure RL.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly

More information

Meeting the Standard in North Carolina

Meeting the Standard in North Carolina KINDERGARTEN 1.02 Demonstrate understanding of the sounds of letters and understanding that words begin and end alike (onsets and rhymes). 1.03 Recognize and name upper and lower case letters of the alphabet.

More information

3 rd Grade ELA Vocabulary Terms

3 rd Grade ELA Vocabulary Terms 3 rd Grade ELA Vocabulary Terms A abstract noun - a noun that names an idea such as childhood or friendship act - a group of connected scenes in a drama adjective - a word that describes a noun or pronoun

More information

Grade Level Expectations for the Sunshine State Standards

Grade Level Expectations for the Sunshine State Standards for the Sunshine State Standards FLORIDA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION www.myfloridaeducation.com The fourth grade student: Reading uses text features to predict content and monitor comprehension (for example,

More information

Continuum to the Kindergarten California Common Core Standards

Continuum to the Kindergarten California Common Core Standards Listening & Speaking Speaking and Listening Standards 1.0 Language Use and Conventions Comprehension and Collaboration T1 Participate in collaborative conversations K1 1.1 Use language to communicate with

More information

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Language Arts Curriculum and Assessment Alignment Form Rewards Intermediate Grades 4-6

Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Language Arts Curriculum and Assessment Alignment Form Rewards Intermediate Grades 4-6 Minnesota K-12 Academic Standards in Language Arts Curriculum and Assessment Alignment Form Rewards Intermediate Grades 4-6 4 I. READING AND LITERATURE A. Word Recognition, Analysis, and Fluency The student

More information

First Six Weeks Essential Questions:

First Six Weeks Essential Questions: First Six Weeks Essential Questions: 1. Rules and Procedures 1. What is the role of a prepositional phrase? 2. How do you determine the proper place for a prepositional phrase in a sentence? 1. What is

More information

Adoption Date: July 22, 2013

Adoption Date: July 22, 2013 Adoption Date: July 22, 2013 Grade 2 Language Standards : Conventions of Standard English Essential Questions: 1. Why is it important to have command of Standard English conventions? 2. How do I determine

More information

SPAG. Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar. Glossary for Parents

SPAG. Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar. Glossary for Parents SPAG Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar Glossary for Parents Exclamation mark: an exclamation mark is used at the end of a sentence to indicate strong emotion, e.g. Get out! Finite verb: the finite verb

More information

Language Arts Florida Standards (LAFS) Grade 4

Language Arts Florida Standards (LAFS) Grade 4 Language Arts Florida Standards (LAFS) Grade 4 Cluster 1: Key Ideas and Details CODE LAFS.4.RL.1.1 Strand: READING S FOR LITERATURE Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text

More information

9. Criteria for writing a letter to the editor

9. Criteria for writing a letter to the editor 9. Criteria for writing a letter to the editor In general, people write letters to an editor because they have been offended by something published in the paper, disagree with something that was published,

More information

Third Grade Language Arts Learning Targets - Common Core

Third Grade Language Arts Learning Targets - Common Core Third Grade Language Arts Learning Targets - Common Core Strand Standard Statement Learning Target Reading: 1 I can ask and answer questions, using the text for support, to show my understanding. RL 1-1

More information

Alberta Education ESL Proficiency Benchmarks Tracking Sheets: Grades 10 12

Alberta Education ESL Proficiency Benchmarks Tracking Sheets: Grades 10 12 Alberta Education ESL Proficiency Benchmarks Tracking Sheets: Grades 10 12 Student Name: Grade 10 Year: Teacher: Grade 11 Year: Teacher: Grade 12 Year: Teacher: LEVEL 1 LEVEL 2 LISTENING Grades 10 12 LEVEL

More information

FSD Kindergarten READING

FSD Kindergarten READING College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or

More information

Basic Steps to Writing a Research Paper (Adapted from the Big Six Research Guide http://www.lufkinisd.org/lhshome/library/big6write.

Basic Steps to Writing a Research Paper (Adapted from the Big Six Research Guide http://www.lufkinisd.org/lhshome/library/big6write. The following pages will help you organize your thoughts and lead you to some of the recommended resources available to you. The workbook was created by synthesizing many books and websites which are listed

More information

KINDGERGARTEN. Listen to a story for a particular reason

KINDGERGARTEN. Listen to a story for a particular reason KINDGERGARTEN READING FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS Print Concepts Follow words from left to right in a text Follow words from top to bottom in a text Know when to turn the page in a book Show spaces between words

More information

Language and Literacy

Language and Literacy Language and Literacy In the sections below is a summary of the alignment of the preschool learning foundations with (a) the infant/toddler learning and development foundations, (b) the common core state

More information

ENGLISH GRAMMAR I TABLE OF CONTENTS

ENGLISH GRAMMAR I TABLE OF CONTENTS GRAMMAR I GRAMMAR I Introduction Unit 1: SENTENCE DEVELOPMENT Making a Complete Sentence Nouns (Subject Parts) and Verbs (Predicate Parts) Four Kinds of Sentences Capitalization Paragraph Development Unit

More information

Basic Spelling Rules: Learn the four basic spelling rules and techniques for studying hard-to-spell words. Practice spelling from dictation.

Basic Spelling Rules: Learn the four basic spelling rules and techniques for studying hard-to-spell words. Practice spelling from dictation. CLAD Grammar & Writing Workshops Adjective Clauses This workshop includes: review of the rules for choice of adjective pronouns oral practice sentence combining practice practice correcting errors in adjective

More information

Level 3 Shirley English

Level 3 Shirley English Level 3 Shirley English SEPTEMBER: Chapter 1 Pages 1-9 Lesson 1 Long- term goals and short- term goals Lesson 2 Beginning setup plan for homeschool, WRITING (journal) Lesson 3 SKILLS (synonyms, antonyms,

More information

English Language Arts Kindergarten Page 1 of 9 Cluster I Can Key Vocabulary

English Language Arts Kindergarten Page 1 of 9 Cluster I Can Key Vocabulary Reading: Literature (A)/Information Text (B) English Language Arts Kindergarten Page 1 of 9 1. (A) (B) With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. -Explain that a

More information

Virginia English Standards of Learning Grade 8

Virginia English Standards of Learning Grade 8 A Correlation of Prentice Hall Writing Coach 2012 To the Virginia English Standards of Learning A Correlation of, 2012, Introduction This document demonstrates how, 2012, meets the objectives of the. Correlation

More information

COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS ~ READING Kindergarten

COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS ~ READING Kindergarten READING STANDARDS FOR FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS Print Concepts RF.K.1 1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. a. Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page

More information

Google it up! A Tutorial on Selecting Just the Right Phrase

Google it up! A Tutorial on Selecting Just the Right Phrase Google it up! A Tutorial on Selecting Just the Right Phrase By Juan Fernandez, Student Writing Support Consultant 2011 2013 B.S., Biology, 2013 In this tutorial, we will learn a two-part method to use

More information

DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS

DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS DETAILED TABLE OF CONTENTS UNIT 1: CAPITALIZATION AND PUNCTUATION Lesson 1.1 Capitalization Screen 1: Lesson 1.1 Topics Screen 2: Capital Letters Screen 3: Capitals in Proper Nouns, Proper Adjectives,

More information

Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details

Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details Craft and Structure RL.5.1 Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when

More information

Pennsylvania Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening Grades 6-10 Standards Mapping Boardworks 2010

Pennsylvania Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening Grades 6-10 Standards Mapping Boardworks 2010 Pennsylvania Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening Grades 610 Standards Mapping Boardworks 2010 1.5 Quality of Writing Grade 6 (2009) 1.5. Quality of Writing Students write clear and focused text to

More information

Ongoing Student Learning Expectations to be Addressed Each Nine Weeks

Ongoing Student Learning Expectations to be Addressed Each Nine Weeks W.4.2.1 Contribute to a writer s notebook (i.e., interesting words or phrases, books or experiences that spark an interest, etc.) Northwest Arkansas Instructional Alignment English Language Arts Grade

More information

Grade 3 Reading and Literature Objectives

Grade 3 Reading and Literature Objectives Grade 3 Reading and Literature Objectives STATE GOAL 1: Reading with understanding and fluency. 1A. Apply word analysis and vocabulary skills to comprehend selections. 1.A.2a Read and comprehend unfamiliar

More information

Grammar Year 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Year 1. There are a few nouns with different morphology in the plural (e.g. mice, formulae).

Grammar Year 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. Year 1. There are a few nouns with different morphology in the plural (e.g. mice, formulae). Grammar Year 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 Term digraph grapheme phoneme Year 1 Guidance A type of grapheme where two letters represent one phoneme. Sometimes, these two letters are not next to one another; this

More information

Fourth Grade ELA Standards and I Can Statements

Fourth Grade ELA Standards and I Can Statements Fourth Grade ELA Standards and I Can Statements Standard - CC.4.L.1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when speaking or writing. a. Use relative pronouns (who,

More information

English for Academic Purposes (EAP) Advanced with IELTS exercises

English for Academic Purposes (EAP) Advanced with IELTS exercises English for Academic Purposes (EAP) Advanced with IELTS exercises This is an EAP Advanced course. It corresponds to CEFR level C1. You will find a collection of grammar exercises, listening activities,

More information

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 199 ( 2015 )

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 199 ( 2015 ) Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 199 ( 2015 ) 334 339 GlobELT: An International Conference on Teaching and Learning English as an Additional

More information

LANGUAGE! 4 th Edition, Levels A C, correlated to the South Carolina College and Career Readiness Standards, Grades 3 5

LANGUAGE! 4 th Edition, Levels A C, correlated to the South Carolina College and Career Readiness Standards, Grades 3 5 Page 1 of 57 Grade 3 Reading Literary Text Principles of Reading (P) Standard 1: Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. Standard 2: Demonstrate understanding of spoken

More information

Grade 5 Reading and Literature Objectives

Grade 5 Reading and Literature Objectives Grade 5 Reading and Literature Objectives STATE GOAL 1: Reading with understanding and fluency. 1A. Apply word analysis and vocabulary skills to comprehend selections. 1.A.2a Read and comprehend unfamiliar

More information

Determine two or more main ideas of a text and use details from the text to support the answer

Determine two or more main ideas of a text and use details from the text to support the answer Strand: Reading Nonfiction Topic (INCCR): Main Idea 5.RN.2.2 In addition to, in-depth inferences and applications that go beyond 3.5 In addition to score performance, in-depth inferences and applications

More information

Notes from Vocabulary Research (Lewis)

Notes from Vocabulary Research (Lewis) Notes from Vocabulary Research (Lewis) Couple of sources Learning Vocabulary in Another Language (Nation, Cambridge University Press, 2001) Vocabulary Size, Text Coverage, and Word Lists (Nation, Waring)

More information

Grade 4 Reading and Literature Objectives

Grade 4 Reading and Literature Objectives Grade 4 Reading and Literature Objectives STATE GOAL 1: Reading with understanding and fluency. 1A. Apply word analysis and vocabulary skills to comprehend selections. 1.A.2a Read and comprehend unfamiliar

More information

This image cannot currently be displayed. Course Catalog. Language Arts 400. 2016 Glynlyon, Inc.

This image cannot currently be displayed. Course Catalog. Language Arts 400. 2016 Glynlyon, Inc. This image cannot currently be displayed. Course Catalog Language Arts 400 2016 Glynlyon, Inc. Table of Contents COURSE OVERVIEW... 1 UNIT 1: READING AND WRITING... 3 UNIT 2: READING FOR MEANING... 3 UNIT

More information

Fourth Grade Language Arts Learning Targets - Common Core

Fourth Grade Language Arts Learning Targets - Common Core Fourth Grade Language Arts Learning Targets - Common Core Strand Standard Statement Learning Target Reading: 1 I can draw inferences from a text and refer to details and examples in the text when RL 1-1

More information

This image cannot currently be displayed. Course Catalog. Language Arts 600. 2016 Glynlyon, Inc.

This image cannot currently be displayed. Course Catalog. Language Arts 600. 2016 Glynlyon, Inc. This image cannot currently be displayed. Course Catalog Language Arts 600 2016 Glynlyon, Inc. Table of Contents COURSE OVERVIEW... 1 UNIT 1: ELEMENTS OF GRAMMAR... 3 UNIT 2: GRAMMAR USAGE... 3 UNIT 3:

More information

Kindergarten - Reading Standards for Literature K

Kindergarten - Reading Standards for Literature K Kindergarten - Reading Standards for Literature K Key Ideas and Details 1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. 2. With prompting and support, retell familiar

More information

Focus: Reading Unit of Study: Research & Media Literary; Informational Text; Biographies and Autobiographies

Focus: Reading Unit of Study: Research & Media Literary; Informational Text; Biographies and Autobiographies 3 rd Grade Reading and Writing TEKS 3 rd Nine Weeks Focus: Reading Unit of Study: Research & Media Literary; Informational Text; Biographies and Autobiographies Figure 19: Reading/Comprehension Skills.

More information

PROGRESS MONITORING CHECKLIST FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS (ELL)

PROGRESS MONITORING CHECKLIST FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS (ELL) LISTENING Standard : Students demonstrate competence in listening as a tool for learning and comprehension. Proficiency Level I: Students at this level are beginning to understand short utterances. They

More information

Level 1-Beginning ESL Literacy Program (CASAS 180 AND below)

Level 1-Beginning ESL Literacy Program (CASAS 180 AND below) For WASHINGTON STATE Adult LEARNING STANDARDS Level 1-Beginning ESL Literacy Program (CASAS 180 AND below) STANDARD I: Read With Understanding To read with understanding, Washington ESL students should:

More information

Meeting the Standard in Oregon

Meeting the Standard in Oregon KINDERGARTEN Concepts of Print Decoding and Word Recognition Listen to and Read Informational and Narrative Text Read to Perform a Task Speaking Distinguish letters from words. Recognize and name all uppercase

More information

Opening the World of Learning Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy Kindergarten

Opening the World of Learning Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy Kindergarten A Correlation of to the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy Kindergarten Introduction This document demonstrates how (OWL) meets the Common Core State Standards for English

More information

Language Arts 7 Curriculum. Unit 1: Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives. 2 weeks LA7.5, LA7.6

Language Arts 7 Curriculum. Unit 1: Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives. 2 weeks LA7.5, LA7.6 Language Arts 7 Curriculum Unit 1: Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives Lecture Exercises in textbook Worksheets Identify common and proper nouns Identify personal and possessive pronouns Identify adjectives and

More information

CRCT Content Descriptions based on the Georgia Performance Standards. Reading Grades 1-8

CRCT Content Descriptions based on the Georgia Performance Standards. Reading Grades 1-8 CRCT Content Descriptions based on the Georgia Performance Standards Reading Grades 1-8 Kathy Cox State Superintendent of Schools June 2007 Criterion-Referenced Competency Tests (CRCT) Content Descriptions

More information

Grades K-6 Aligned with Common Core State Standards. For English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science & Technical Subjects

Grades K-6 Aligned with Common Core State Standards. For English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science & Technical Subjects Grades K-6 Aligned with Common Core State Standards For English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science & Technical Subjects McGraw-Hill School Education Group and Common Core State

More information

English as a Second Language Student Learning Outcomes by Course

English as a Second Language Student Learning Outcomes by Course English as a Second Language Student Learning Outcomes by Course ESL 2A Conversation and Grammar Level I 1. Demonstrate through face-to-face conversations comprehension of simple words and phrases used

More information

Fiction titles feature a variety of styles including narrative. X X X X X X X X

Fiction titles feature a variety of styles including narrative. X X X X X X X X READING STANDARDS FOR LITERATURE Key Ideas and Details 1.RL.1 Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. 1.RL.2 Retell familiar stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding

More information

LANGUAGE ARTS Grade 2 Standard: Phonemic Awareness, Word Recognition and Fluency

LANGUAGE ARTS Grade 2 Standard: Phonemic Awareness, Word Recognition and Fluency Standard: Phonemic Awareness, Word Recognition and Fluency Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Word Recognition, and Fluency A. Use letter-sound correspondence knowledge and structural analysis to decode words.

More information

Interpreting areading Scaled Scores for Instruction

Interpreting areading Scaled Scores for Instruction Interpreting areading Scaled Scores for Instruction Individual scaled scores do not have natural meaning associated to them. The descriptions below provide information for how each scaled score range should

More information

Languages-Arabic-Foundation to Year 10 Sequence-Scope and Sequence

Languages-Arabic-Foundation to Year 10 Sequence-Scope and Sequence Communicating Strand Sub strand Description Thread Foundation to Year 2 Years 3 and 4 Years 5 and 6 Years 7 and 8 Years 9 and 10 Socialising Interacting orally and in writing to exchange ideas, opinions,

More information

Common Core Standards Pacing Guide Fourth Grade English/Language Arts Pacing Guide 1 st Nine Weeks

Common Core Standards Pacing Guide Fourth Grade English/Language Arts Pacing Guide 1 st Nine Weeks Common Core Standards Pacing Guide Fourth Grade English/Language Arts Pacing Guide 1 st Nine Weeks Key: Objectives in bold to be assessed after the current nine weeks Objectives in italics to be assessed

More information

Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details

Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details Strand: Reading Literature Key Ideas and Craft and Structure Integration of Knowledge and Ideas RL.K.1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text RL.K.2. With prompting

More information

Y1 Parts of Speech: Sentence Structure: Punctuation: I can write a simple sentence with a subject and a verb. I can use and to join two clauses

Y1 Parts of Speech: Sentence Structure: Punctuation: I can write a simple sentence with a subject and a verb. I can use and to join two clauses Y1 Parts of Speech: Sentence Structure: Punctuation: I can write a simple with a subject and a verb I can use and to join two clauses I can use finger spaces to separate words I can use full stops to end

More information

Introduction. To the Student. How to Learn with The Preposition Book

Introduction. To the Student. How to Learn with The Preposition Book Introduction To the Student How to Learn with The Preposition Book The Preposition Book has been written to make English prepositions easier to understand and use. If you are studying alone and have questions

More information

Clevedon School Reading Progressions Year 1 5

Clevedon School Reading Progressions Year 1 5 Clevedon School Year 1 5 National Standard Expectations in Reading: After 40 weeks(1 year) at school After one year at school, students will read, respond to, and think critically about fiction and non

More information

Kindergarten English Language Arts. Scope and Sequence. Quarter 1. Unit 1.1: Book Sense, 8 days

Kindergarten English Language Arts. Scope and Sequence. Quarter 1. Unit 1.1: Book Sense, 8 days Kindergarten English Language Arts Scope and Sequence Quarter 1 Unit 1.1: Book Sense, 8 days The following standards are the focus of this unit of study: RL.K.1 With prompting and support, ask and answer

More information

Grammar Scheme of Work 2015

Grammar Scheme of Work 2015 Grammar Scheme of Work 2015 Year Group EYFS Y1 Y2 Word See separate scheme of work for Phonics and spelling Words carry meanings and are made up of strings of sounds. Grapho-Phonemic Correspondence (GPC)

More information

White Mere Community Primary School

White Mere Community Primary School White Mere Community Primary School KS2 Grammar and Punctuation Overview To ensure our pupils have a complete and secure understanding of discrete grammatical terms, punctuation and spelling rules, discrete

More information

FBLA: BUSINESS COMMUNICATION

FBLA: BUSINESS COMMUNICATION 1. Describe the forms of communication. 2. Identify the five C s of communication. Competency: Communication Concepts 3. Discuss the role of letters, memos, and reports in business. 4. Manage telephone

More information

Indiana Department of Education

Indiana Department of Education GRADE 1 READING Guiding Principle: Students read a wide range of fiction, nonfiction, classic, and contemporary works, to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United

More information

Grade 1 LA. 1. 1. 1. 1. Subject Grade Strand Standard Benchmark. Florida K-12 Reading and Language Arts Standards 27

Grade 1 LA. 1. 1. 1. 1. Subject Grade Strand Standard Benchmark. Florida K-12 Reading and Language Arts Standards 27 Grade 1 LA. 1. 1. 1. 1 Subject Grade Strand Standard Benchmark Florida K-12 Reading and Language Arts Standards 27 Grade 1: Reading Process Concepts of Print Standard: The student demonstrates knowledge

More information

"Who Else Wants to Speak, Write, and Understand Spanish Using Outrageously Easy and Creative Techniques in Just 12 Days or Less?"

Who Else Wants to Speak, Write, and Understand Spanish Using Outrageously Easy and Creative Techniques in Just 12 Days or Less? Attention: This report could make you a confident Spanish speaker in no time at all! "Who Else Wants to Speak, Write, and Understand Spanish Using Outrageously Easy and Creative Techniques in Just 12 Days

More information

Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details

Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details Strand: Reading Literature Key Ideas and Details Craft and Structure RL.3.1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.

More information

2016-2017 Curriculum Catalog

2016-2017 Curriculum Catalog 2016-2017 Curriculum Catalog 2016 Glynlyon, Inc. Table of Contents LANGUAGE ARTS 600 COURSE OVERVIEW... 1 UNIT 1: ELEMENTS OF GRAMMAR... 3 UNIT 2: GRAMMAR USAGE... 3 UNIT 3: READING SKILLS... 4 UNIT 4:

More information

CUSD 303 Grade K Literacy Curriculum 1 of 8

CUSD 303 Grade K Literacy Curriculum 1 of 8 CUSD 303 Grade K Literacy Curriculum 1 of 8 D303 Core Literacy Grade K - Yearlong Curriculum CUSD 303 Year: 2011-2012 Reading - Literature Key Ideas and Details RL1 Read closely to determine what the text

More information

ESL Software Programs and ESL courses and levels for which the software is appropriate

ESL Software Programs and ESL courses and levels for which the software is appropriate LMC ESL Program Software in CC2-281 and CC2-232 Gunder 1 ESL Software Programs and ESL courses and levels for which the software is appropriate 1. ----- FOG-I level 1 ESL-021 ESL-041 ESL-011 ESL-031 FOG-I

More information

Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening June 1, 2009 FINAL Elementary Standards Grades 3-8

Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening June 1, 2009 FINAL Elementary Standards Grades 3-8 Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening June 1, 2009 FINAL Elementary Standards Grades 3-8 Pennsylvania Department of Education These standards are offered as a voluntary resource

More information

Cambridge English: Proficiency (CPE) Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Cambridge English: Proficiency (CPE) Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Cambridge English: Proficiency (CPE) Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Is there a wordlist for Cambridge English: Proficiency exams? No. Examinations that are at CEFR Level B2 (independent user), or above

More information

THE IMPORTANCE OF USING DICTIONARY in LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING. Dr. Ece SARIGUL

THE IMPORTANCE OF USING DICTIONARY in LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING. Dr. Ece SARIGUL THE IMPORTANCE OF USING DICTIONARY in LANGUAGE LEARNING AND TEACHING.. * Dr. Ece SARIGUL The purpose of this article is to examine the importance of using dictionary in language learning / teaching process

More information

Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details

Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details Strand: Reading Literature Key Ideas and Details Craft and Structure Integration of Knowledge and Ideas RL.2.1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding

More information

Kindergarten Common Core State Standards: English Language Arts

Kindergarten Common Core State Standards: English Language Arts Kindergarten Common Core State Standards: English Language Arts Reading: Foundational Print Concepts RF.K.1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. o Follow words from

More information

2016-2017 Curriculum Catalog

2016-2017 Curriculum Catalog 2016-2017 Curriculum Catalog 2016 Glynlyon, Inc. Table of Contents LANGUAGE ARTS 400 COURSE OVERVIEW... 1 UNIT 1: JESUS, OUR EXAMPLE... 3 UNIT 2: WORKING WITH INFORMATION... 3 UNIT 3: THE STORY OF OUR

More information

Lesson Plans November st Block - 7th Grade Language Arts

Lesson Plans November st Block - 7th Grade Language Arts Lesson Plans November 21-25 1st Block - 7th Grade Language Arts LANGUAGE!- The objective for the Language! curriculum is as followed: Unit 8 Lessons 1-10, Step 1 (Phonemic Awareness and Phonics): Students

More information

English Language Arts Reading, Writing, and Communicating

English Language Arts Reading, Writing, and Communicating English Language Arts Reading, Writing, and Communicating Standard 1. Speaking and Listening 2. Reading for All Purposes 3. Writing and Composition 4. Research and Reasoning Fifth Grade Level Expectations

More information

Grade 2 LA Subject Grade Strand Standard Benchmark. Florida K-12 Reading and Language Arts Standards 42

Grade 2 LA Subject Grade Strand Standard Benchmark. Florida K-12 Reading and Language Arts Standards 42 Grade 2 LA. 2. 1. 1. 1 Subject Grade Strand Standard Benchmark Florida K-12 Reading and Language Arts Standards 42 Grade 2: Reading Process Phonics/Word Analysis Standard: The student demonstrates knowledge

More information

The Work Sampling System

The Work Sampling System New Jersey State Core Curriculum Content Standards Kindergarten English Language Arts and Literacy Reading: Literature Key Ideas and Details 1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about

More information

NC2014 WRITING LIST OBJECTIVES and CHILD SPEAK TARGETS

NC2014 WRITING LIST OBJECTIVES and CHILD SPEAK TARGETS NC2014 WRITING LIST OBJECTIVES and CHILD SPEAK TARGETS WRITING Key Stage 1 Year 1 Transcription Transcription Spell words containing each of the 40+ phonemes already taught. I can spell my word list accurately.

More information

First Grade Common Core State Standard (CCSS) English Language Arts Scope and Sequence

First Grade Common Core State Standard (CCSS) English Language Arts Scope and Sequence FIRST GRADE ELA STANDARDS 1 2 3 4 Reading Standards for Literature: Key Ideas and Details RL.1.1. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. X I P R RL.1.2. Retell stories, including key details,

More information

Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) Florida State-Aligned Version 4

Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) Florida State-Aligned Version 4 Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) Florida State-Aligned Version 4 The NWEA Goal Structure is a document that represents the content and structure of a state s standards documents. Goal structures are

More information

Reading, Thinking Creatively, and Writing

Reading, Thinking Creatively, and Writing Reading, Thinking Creatively, and Writing Overview http://www.uvu.edu/owl/resource/eslresources/index.html ANTECEDENTS AND APPOSITIVES http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/grammar/g_appos.html Appositives

More information

Florida Department of Education Child Expectation Standards - VPK 3

Florida Department of Education Child Expectation Standards - VPK 3 Child Expectation - VPK 3 rd Reading/Language Arts www.brightbeginningsfl.org 1 Shows motivation for reading (V.A.1) Concepts of Print Standard: knowledge of the concept of print and how it is organized

More information