The Design and Commissioning of a Novel Tomographic Polariscope

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Design and Commissioning of a Novel Tomographic Polariscope"

Transcription

1 The Design and Commissioning of a Novel Tomographic Polariscope Rachel A Tomlinson*, Hui Yang*, David Szotten +, and William R B Lionheart + * Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD, UK + University of Manchester, UK ABSTRACT An experimental method has been proposed which allows the non-destructive determination of 3-D stress distributions in birefringent materials thus eliminating the necessity to section stress frozen models. The problem of recovering the full stress tensor field from photoelastic measurements has been addressed mathematically and a new approach devised. This paper describes the experimental issues which were involved in the designing and commissioning of our Tomographic Polariscope which will implement this mathematical approach. A standard transmission polariscope is used through which to view the model with the addition of a component positioning device. The need to take photoelastic measurements around all spherical angles has been eliminated and the model is just rotated around two axes independently inside the immersion tank using a precision rotation stage. A Fourier polarimetry method has been developed to obtain the characteristic photoelastic parameters for each view. The polarizers and rotation stage are controlled by the same system and thus the rotation of model and birefringent data collection is synchronized and automated. 1. INTRODUCTION In photoelasticity, the birefringent effect has been used widely to determine stresses in models of engineering components. However in order to evaluate the internal stresses in three dimensional components, stress freezing [1] is currently the only experimental technique routinely used. This method requires a model to be loaded and subject to a thermal cycle to lock in strains; and the model to be sectioned for two dimensional analysis, consequently destroying the model. The combination of photoelasticity with tomographic techniques could be the solution to this problem. In traditional hard field tomography, for the determination of the internal structure of an object, a certain radiation is passed through a section of the body and a property of this radiation, after it has passed through the body, is measured. This property may be intensity, phase, polarisation, etc. The internal structure of the object can be reconstructed from data measured at many different views from around the body, in terms of the Radon transform. This mathematics is well understood for scalar fields, however the strain field which produces the birefringent effect is a tensor quantity rather than a scalar quantity as usually encountered in tomography. Moreover the integral equation involved is non-linear and couples the components of the tensor. In a research collaboration between the Universities of Manchester and Sheffield, a tomographic photoelasticity method has been proposed which is able to provide three-dimensional stress distributions in birefringent materials [2,3,4]. In [3] we described a method employing a two-dimensional inverse Radon transformation to reconstruct one component of the dielectric tensor in the direction as the tomographic rotation axis. The method of that paper relied on a method of determination a global phase which we have subsequently found to be unstable in the presence of noise. However the same method can be used to determine the anisotropic part of the dielectric tensor using data collected for five rotation axes, and hence the deviatoric stress can be determined from the stress-optic law. In [4] we show how the deviatoric stress can be obtained by an algebraic reconstruction method and if required the hydrostatic stress recovered from the equilibrium condition. Simulation exercises with the new mathematical approach established that highly accurate experimental data was needed for successful implementation. Therefore this paper describes the experimental issues involved in the

2 design and commissioning of the apparatus to obtain such data. 2. IMPROVED FOURIER POLARIMETRY In order to use a two-dimensional Radon inverse transformation to reconstruct the element of the dielectric tensor, it is required to measure three characteristic parameters of a 3D object at different scanning angles to calculate the unitary transfer matrices [ 5]. Several methods have been offered to determine the three characteristic parameters in integrated photoelasticity. When contrasted to the phase-stepping [6] and phase shifting [7] methods it has been shown that Fourier methods [8] are more accurate, particularly when measuring the characteristic directions [9]. However, the Fourier method is not as efficient as other methods since it requires that a minimum of nine intensity images be collected during a whole revolution of a polarizer while the phase-stepping method only needs six intensity images [6]. In practise many more images are recorded to achieve greater accuracy. If the technique is to be used for tomographic photoelasticity, the efficiency needs to be improved since is has been established [4] that many images are required for successful implementation. Therefore we have developed recently an advanced Fourier method which is more efficient for the automated measurement of the characteristic parameters [ 1 ]. Three characteristic parameters are given through the magnitudes of the spectrum of the output periodic intensity at the angular frequencies of 2(n-1) and 2(n+1): 1 arctan[ B2( n 1) / A2( n 1) ] 2 1 arctan[ B2( n 1) / A2( n 1) ] / arctan{[ A B ]/[ A B ]} ( n 1) 2( n 1) 2( n 1) 2( n 1) 1/4 (1) where n is the angular rotation ratio between the analyzer and the polarizer, A 2(n-1), B 2(n-1), A 2(n+1) and B 2(n+1) are the magnitudes of the Fourier components at the angular frequencies of 2(n-1) and 2(n+1) and 2, and are the characteristic retardation, the primary characteristic direction and the characteristic angle, respectively. As the absolute values of 2(n-1) and 2(n+1) should be the smallest integers to satisfy the requirements of efficiency and proper data accuracy, the angular rotation ratio of 1:2 is therefore the optimized value. In this way, the polarizer is still stepwise rotated over 36 degrees but the analyzer is only rotated over 18 degrees and the minimum number of the intensity images to be collected is now only five images. Even with the large number of images required for tomographic photoelasticity, this optimized angular rotation ratio results in data collection about 3 times faster than the angular rotation ratio suggested by previous researchers. The accuracy in terms of noise measured by the angular rotation ratios 1:2 and 3:1 was also investigated. Simulated data showed that the noise levels using the angular rotation ratios 1:2 and 3:1 are very similar for all three characteristic parameters. The characteristic retardation has better performance against the noise when the fringe order is not close to m /2 (m=, 1, 2 ) even when the SNR of the light intensity is 3dB. Accuracy of the primary characteristic direction is heavily affected in the area of around /4 even when the SNR is 1dB. Accuracy of the characteristic angle is independent of its magnitude. Noise in the Fourier method mainly comes from the stability of the light source and the quality of the polarizer and so these were considered when designing the apparatus. The use of a fast Fourier transform means that many images can be sampled which reduces the effect of noise and increases the accuracy of the method. 3. EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS DESIGN Figure 1 shows the configuration of the experimental apparatus. The experimental apparatus consists of four main parts: the imaging system, the Fourier Polarimetry system, the tomographic system and the GUI (Graphic User Interface). The imaging system is composed of the light source, a spatial filter, a collimating lens, imaging lens and a CCD camera. The CW He-Ne laser with the wavelength of 632nm is used as the light source because the laser beam is much easier to be collimated. A 5 m pinhole and a 6x microscopic objective are combined to work as a low-pass spatial filter to eliminate the laser beam high frequency noise. A 4 diameter convex lens is used to expand the laser beam diameter to 9mm and an imaging lens and a CCD camera (SONY XCD71) are used to record the images. Sony XCD71 is a machine version standard camera which its properties can be controlled by the computer through its API. Its maximum resolution is 124x768pixels and its maximum speed is 3 frames per second.

3 Fourier Polarimetry system is composed of a polarizer, an analyzer, two rotation stages and a motion controller. The analyzer and polarizer are assembled within the rotation stages to enable automatic control. The rotation stages provide rotations with a resolution of.1 degrees, a repeatability of.1 degrees, an absolute accuracy of.23 degrees and a maximum speed of 2 degrees per second. The analyzer and polarizer are rotated step by step simultaneously at the fixed ratios of 1:2 over one 36 revolution of the polarizer, so a series of images will be recorded for Fourier analysis. So for 36 images recording, the rotation interval of the polarizer is 1 degrees. Lens Analyzer in Rotation stage Polarizer in Rotation stage Motion controller Spatial filter Laser CCD camera GUI in PC Specimen in immersion tank rotated by the rotation stage below Figure 1a) Photograph of the experimental apparatus Lens Analyzer Tank Specimen Polarizer Lens Spatial filter CCD Laser Rotation stage Rotation stage Rotation stage Computer Motion controller/driver Laser controller/driver Figure 1b) Configuration of the experimental apparatus The tomographic system includes a rotation stage, a tank with immersion fluid and the specimen positioning devices. It is more convenient to rotate the specimen than the imaging system for tomographic scanning and this is achieved by the rotating stage inside the tank which is coupled via a sealed bearing to a precision rotation stage mounted under the tank. The specimen is rotated at discrete intervals (5 degrees) and therefore 36 sets of characteristic parameters are obtained. The specimen is immersed in the fluid, which refractive index is exactly same as that of the specimen to avoid refraction of the light beam. The tank is made of stress free glass and has parallel sides so that the light is not refracted as it passes through the tank. The specimen positioning devices, which are made of the same transparent materials as the specimen, are used to mount and fix the specimen at different views. One-view data can provide one component of the dielectric tensor and five elements could be obtained by five specified views. The specimen is tilted 45 degrees and 9 degrees manually to achieve full data required by the tomographic reconstruction approach [2]. The GUI (Figure 2) was developed using Matlab to control image acquisition, configure the CCD camera and

4 drive the motion controller. The camera and motion controller, which controls the rotation of analyzer, polarizer and specimen, are all connected to a computer. By using the GUI, it is able to control the motion of rotation, set the properties of CCD camera and furthermore synchronously carry out the whole image acquisition procedure with limited operator input. 4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 4.1 Disc in Compression Figure 2 Graphic User Interface, GUI The following experimental procedure was implemented for the commissioning of the experimental apparatus with the Fourier Polarimetry method. A stress-frozen disc was placed in the tomographic polariscope (Figure 1) and the analyzer and polarizer were rotated simultaneously at the fixed ratios of 1:2 and 3:1 with respect to each other over one 36º revolution of the polarizer. 18 images for each of n=1:2 and n=3:1 were recorded at discrete intervals by the CCD camera connected to the PC. These images were then processed to find the three characteristic parameters. Figure 3 shows experimental data obtained at the rotation ratios of 1:2 and 3:1 respectively. It is shown that the three characteristic parameters have similar distributions at the angular rotation ratios of 1:2 and 3:1. Figure 4 shows a comparison of the characteristic retardation measured by the angular rotation ratios 1:2 and 3:1 along the lines shown in Fig. 3. The two rotation ratios provide similar fringe orders with comparable accuracy and noise levels. Considering the efficiency of the data collection (one third of the time for the same number of images) and the accuracy of the data analysis, the rotation ratio of 1:2 is the optimized choice for the Fourier method. It is noted that there are some undefined regions in the primary characteristic direction and the characteristic angle, which appears when the characteristic retardation =m /2 (m=, 1, 2 ). This is a known phenomenon discussed by Tomlinson [6].

5 Characteristic parameters (n=1:2) Characteristic parameters (n=3:1) Characteristic retardation (fringes) Primary characteristic direction (degrees) Characteristic angle (degrees) Figure 3 Full field maps of the characteristic parameters for the disc in compression.9.8 Characteristic Retardation (fringes) n=3:1 n=1: Pixel Figure 4 A comparison of the characteristic retardation measured by the angular rotation ratios 1:2 and 3:1 along the lines shown in Figure Cube with an offset point load A three-dimensional birefringent cubic specimen was designed for the experimental verification of tomographic algorithms developed by Szotten [4]. For the application of this novel tomographic method, the linear approximation of integrated photoelasticity was assumed. This means that tomographic algorithms are valid only when the rotation of the principal stress axes is small or optical retardation is low. A specimen with low retardation (smaller than 1 fringe order) was used in our experimental test: an epoxy resin cube with dimensions 25mmx25mmx25mm. A three-dimensional stress field was created by applying a point load offset from the surface centre during a stress freezing thermal cycle. For each view of the specimen 36 images (1º intervals of the polarizer) and 72 images (5º intervals of the polarizer) were recorded with n=1:2 and then the three periodic characteristic parameters were determined using the Fourier method. Figure 5 shows the results for one view of the specimen. The fringes around the loading point are very clear although the noise from the background is still a little high. Figure 6 shows a comparison of the characteristic retardation measured by 36 and 72 images along the lines shown in Figure 5. It can be seen that the noise in the data produced with 72 images is much smaller than that with 36 images. A typical full tomographic measurement cycle (72x36x6 images = images, i.e. 72 images for the Fourier polarimetry, 5º

6 interval of the specimen rotation stage and 6 views) is expected to take 4.5 hours excluding the time taken for manual re-positioning about horizontal axes. These images are then processed to obtain 36x6 sets of three characteristic parameters, which will be used for tomographic reconstruction. 36 Images Images Characteristic Retardation (fringes) Primary Characteristic Direction (degrees) Characteristic Angle (degrees) Figure 5 The results of one view of the cube specimen.5 Characteristic Retardation (fringes) images 36 images Figure 6 A comparison of the characteristic retardation measured by 36 and 72 images along the lines shown in Figure 5 Pixels

7 5. DISCUSSION The issues which were identified when assembling the tomographic polariscope and developing a methodology to collect sufficient data for the tomographic reconstruction were speed of data collection, accuracy of data collected, and accuracy of image position within the field of view. With possibly a minimum of images to record, the speed at which these can be recorded needs to be reduced further while still maintaining quality data. However by changing the rotation ratio to 1:2 means full data collection within 4.5 hours rather than 13.5 hours under alternative ratios. The total automation and synchronization of the recording and rotation systems via the GUI also means little operator input is necessary. The majority of time has been spent in trying to reduce the noise in the system, since the reconstruction approach ideally needs noise free data. Issues which have been addressed include superior spatial filtering, improving polarizer quality, and careful alignment of the optical components. In 2-D transmission photoelasticity alignment of the immersion tank perfectly perpendicular to the light source is desirable but not absolutely essential as with the tomographic method. The fact that we wanted a full-field technique meant some optical components had to be relatively large, such as the imaging lenses. Quality over price is an issue here since high quality large lenses are difficult to acquire within a tight budget. Accuracy of positioning of the specimen is more about knowledge of its location. The tilt angle of the specimen is critical since each view gives one component of the tensor field, but as long as this angle is known it can be included in the processing. Therefore accurate measurement is necessary, which was achieved by accurate machining of the positioning devices. The rotation stages were selected for their precision and repeatability. Additionally it is essential that the specimen is accurately located within the field of view. To achieve this, a target was placed on each surface of the test specimen, four images taken and a correlation method used to determined the relative position of the marker to the rotation axes. 6. CONCLUSION In this paper we have reported the design and commissioning of an advanced tomographic polariscope. The experimental apparatus integrated with a new Fourier polarimetry method has been constructed and tested. The experimental results have shown that the system is able to provide the characteristic parameters efficiently and accurately. These results are currently being analyzed using the tomographic reconstruction method and it is hope to present further data at the conference. 7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Engineering and Physical Research Council (Grant Number GR/R8627/1). 8. REFERENCES 1 Fessler, H., (1993),An assessment of frozen stress photoelasticity, J. Strain Analysis, 27 (3), Hammer, H, Lionheart, W R B, and Tomlinson, R A, Recent Advances In Tomographic Photoelasticity, (24) Proceedings of the SEM X International Congress & Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Costa Mesa, California, USA, June 7-1, 24, Paper No Hammer, H. and Lionheart, W. R. B., (25), Reconstruction of spatially inhomogeneous dielectric tensors via optical tomography,j. OSA (A), 22 (2), Szotten, D, Tomlinson, R A, and Lionheart, W R B, (26), Tomographic Reconstruction of Stress from Photoelastic Measurements using Elastic Regularization, submitted to Inverse Problems 5 Hammer, H., (24)Characteristic parameters in integrated photoelasticity: an application of Poincare s equivalence theorem, J. Modern Optics, 51, Tomlinson, R. A. and Patterson, E. A., (22) The use of phase stepping for the measurement of characteristic parameters in integrated photoelasticity, Experimental Mechanics, 42 (1), Mangal, S.K. and Ramesh, K., (1999),Determination of Characteristic Parameters in Integrated Photoelasticity by Phase-shifting Techniques. Optics and Lasers in Engineering, 31, Berezhna, S., Berezhnyy, I. and Takashi, M., (21), Integrated photoelasticity through imaging Fourier polarimetry of an elliptic retarder, Applied Optics, 4 (5), Gibson, S, Tomlinson, R A, and Patterson, E A,(23) Towards Accurate Full-field Collection of Characteristic Parameters, Proceedings of the SEM Annual Conf. on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, 2-4 June, 23, Charlotte, USA, Paper No Yang, H. and Tomlinson, R. A., (26), Improvement of Fourier Polarimetry for Applications in Tomographic Photoelasticity, Submitted to Experimental Mechanics

AUTOMATED THREE-ANTENNA POLARIZATION MEASUREMENTS USING DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING

AUTOMATED THREE-ANTENNA POLARIZATION MEASUREMENTS USING DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AUTOMATED THREE-ANTENNA POLARIZATION MEASUREMENTS USING DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING John R. Jones and Doren W. Hess Abstract In this paper we present a three-antenna measurement procedure which yields the

More information

Automatic and Objective Measurement of Residual Stress and Cord in Glass

Automatic and Objective Measurement of Residual Stress and Cord in Glass Automatic and Objective Measurement of Residual Stress and Cord in Glass GlassTrend - ICG TC15/21 Seminar SENSORS AND PROCESS CONTROL 13-14 October 2015, Eindhoven Henning Katte, ilis gmbh copyright ilis

More information

Optical Metrology. Third Edition. Kjell J. Gasvik Spectra Vision AS, Trondheim, Norway JOHN WILEY & SONS, LTD

Optical Metrology. Third Edition. Kjell J. Gasvik Spectra Vision AS, Trondheim, Norway JOHN WILEY & SONS, LTD 2008 AGI-Information Management Consultants May be used for personal purporses only or by libraries associated to dandelon.com network. Optical Metrology Third Edition Kjell J. Gasvik Spectra Vision AS,

More information

TWO-DIMENSIONAL X-RAY DIFFRACTION

TWO-DIMENSIONAL X-RAY DIFFRACTION TWO-DIMENSIONAL X-RAY DIFFRACTION BOB B. HE GQ WILEY ,. "'! :~! CONTENTS~\.-.~..). Preface 1. Introduction 1.1 X-Ray Technology and Its Brief History, 1.2 Geometry of Crystals, 2 1.2.1 Crystal Lattice

More information

Typical Interferometer Setups

Typical Interferometer Setups ZYGO s Guide to Typical Interferometer Setups Surfaces Windows Lens Systems Contents Surface Flatness 1 Plano Transmitted Wavefront 1 Parallelism (Wedge) 2 Prism and Corner Cube Testing 2 Sphere Selection

More information

Revision problem. Chapter 18 problem 37 page 612. Suppose you point a pinhole camera at a 15m tall tree that is 75m away.

Revision problem. Chapter 18 problem 37 page 612. Suppose you point a pinhole camera at a 15m tall tree that is 75m away. Revision problem Chapter 18 problem 37 page 612 Suppose you point a pinhole camera at a 15m tall tree that is 75m away. 1 Optical Instruments Thin lens equation Refractive power Cameras The human eye Combining

More information

P R E A M B L E. Facilitated workshop problems for class discussion (1.5 hours)

P R E A M B L E. Facilitated workshop problems for class discussion (1.5 hours) INSURANCE SCAM OPTICS - LABORATORY INVESTIGATION P R E A M B L E The original form of the problem is an Experimental Group Research Project, undertaken by students organised into small groups working as

More information

SPINDLE ERROR MOVEMENTS MEASUREMENT ALGORITHM AND A NEW METHOD OF RESULTS ANALYSIS 1. INTRODUCTION

SPINDLE ERROR MOVEMENTS MEASUREMENT ALGORITHM AND A NEW METHOD OF RESULTS ANALYSIS 1. INTRODUCTION Journal of Machine Engineering, Vol. 15, No.1, 2015 machine tool accuracy, metrology, spindle error motions Krzysztof JEMIELNIAK 1* Jaroslaw CHRZANOWSKI 1 SPINDLE ERROR MOVEMENTS MEASUREMENT ALGORITHM

More information

Stress Optics laboratory practice guide 2012

Stress Optics laboratory practice guide 2012 Stress Optics laboratory practice guide 2012 Transparent materials having internal mechanical stress are found to be birefringent, due to their anisotropic nature. That is, they demonstrate double refraction

More information

Spectroscopy Instrumentation

Spectroscopy Instrumentation Chapter 1 Spectroscopy Instrumentation 1.1 Introduction Fourier-transform spectrometers (FTS or FT spectrometers) have been replacing the dispersive instruments in many infrared and near-infrared applications

More information

Alpy guiding User Guide. Olivier Thizy (olivier.thizy@shelyak.com) François Cochard (francois.cochard@shelyak.com)

Alpy guiding User Guide. Olivier Thizy (olivier.thizy@shelyak.com) François Cochard (francois.cochard@shelyak.com) Alpy guiding User Guide Olivier Thizy (olivier.thizy@shelyak.com) François Cochard (francois.cochard@shelyak.com) DC0017A : april 2013 Alpy guiding module User Guide Olivier Thizy (olivier.thizy@shelyak.com)

More information

Realization of a UV fisheye hyperspectral camera

Realization of a UV fisheye hyperspectral camera Realization of a UV fisheye hyperspectral camera Valentina Caricato, Andrea Egidi, Marco Pisani and Massimo Zucco, INRIM Outline Purpose of the instrument Required specs Hyperspectral technique Optical

More information

Polarization of Light

Polarization of Light Polarization of Light Introduction Light, viewed classically, is a transverse electromagnetic wave. Namely, the underlying oscillation (in this case oscillating electric and magnetic fields) is along directions

More information

How can I tell what the polarization axis is for a linear polarizer?

How can I tell what the polarization axis is for a linear polarizer? How can I tell what the polarization axis is for a linear polarizer? The axis of a linear polarizer determines the plane of polarization that the polarizer passes. There are two ways of finding the axis

More information

APPLICATION NOTE. Variable Attenuator for Lasers. Technology and Applications Center Newport Corporation

APPLICATION NOTE. Variable Attenuator for Lasers. Technology and Applications Center Newport Corporation APPLICATION NOTE Variable Attenuator for Lasers 6 Technology and Applications Center Newport Corporation This application note details a simple and cost effective solution for the continuous attenuation

More information

How to Select a Waveplate

How to Select a Waveplate How to Select a Waveplate A wave retarder is a component that resolves a light wave into two orthogonal polarization components and produces a phase shift between them. The resulting difference in phase

More information

Rectilinear Wide-angle Lenses and Fish-Eye (All Sky) Lenses. Charles S. Johnson, Jr., Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Rectilinear Wide-angle Lenses and Fish-Eye (All Sky) Lenses. Charles S. Johnson, Jr., Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Rectilinear Wide-angle Lenses and Fish-Eye (All Sky) Lenses Charles S. Johnson, Jr., Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Photographic lenses are usually designed so that straight lines in a scene are

More information

EXPERIMENT O-6. Michelson Interferometer. Abstract. References. Pre-Lab

EXPERIMENT O-6. Michelson Interferometer. Abstract. References. Pre-Lab EXPERIMENT O-6 Michelson Interferometer Abstract A Michelson interferometer, constructed by the student, is used to measure the wavelength of He-Ne laser light and the index of refraction of a flat transparent

More information

Micro-CT for SEM Non-destructive Measurement and Volume Visualization of Specimens Internal Microstructure in SEM Micro-CT Innovation with Integrity

Micro-CT for SEM Non-destructive Measurement and Volume Visualization of Specimens Internal Microstructure in SEM Micro-CT Innovation with Integrity Micro-CT for SEM Non-destructive Measurement and Volume Visualization of Specimens Internal Microstructure in SEM Innovation with Integrity Micro-CT 3D Microscopy Using Micro-CT for SEM Micro-CT for SEM

More information

The Theory of Birefringence

The Theory of Birefringence Birefringence spectroscopy is the optical technique of measuring orientation in an optically anisotropic sample by measuring the retardation of polarized light passing through the sample. Birefringence

More information

Laser Beam Expanders Basics and Applications

Laser Beam Expanders Basics and Applications Laser Beam Expanders Basics and Applications In complex laser systems, such as those for material processing (Fig. ), passive optical components and systems play a key role alongside active optical components

More information

TopHat StableTop Beamshaper

TopHat StableTop Beamshaper TopHat StableTop Beamshaper The top-hat beam shaper is a diffractive optical element (DOE) used to transform a near-gaussian incident laser beam into a uniform-intensity spot of either round, rectangular,

More information

Optical laser beam scanner lens relay system

Optical laser beam scanner lens relay system 1. Introduction Optical laser beam scanner lens relay system Laser beam scanning is used most often by far in confocal microscopes. There are many ways by which a laser beam can be scanned across the back

More information

Theremino System Theremino Spectrometer Technology

Theremino System Theremino Spectrometer Technology Theremino System Theremino Spectrometer Technology theremino System - Theremino Spectrometer Technology - August 15, 2014 - Page 1 Operation principles By placing a digital camera with a diffraction grating

More information

Studies of a Diffraction Grating, Spectral Lines of Hydrogen, and Solar Spectrum

Studies of a Diffraction Grating, Spectral Lines of Hydrogen, and Solar Spectrum Studies of a Diffraction Grating, Spectral Lines of Hydrogen, and Solar Spectrum Objectives: 1. To become familiar with capturing spectral lines using a CCD camera. 2. To study selected properties of a

More information

Determining Polar Axis Alignment Accuracy

Determining Polar Axis Alignment Accuracy Determining Polar Axis Alignment Accuracy by Frank Barrett 7/6/008 Abstract: In order to photograph dim celestial objects, long exposures on the order of minutes or hours are required. To perform this

More information

Imaging ultrasound field and shear wave propagation using acoustooptic laser speckle contrast analysis (AO-LASCA)

Imaging ultrasound field and shear wave propagation using acoustooptic laser speckle contrast analysis (AO-LASCA) Imaging ultrasound field and shear wave propagation using acoustooptic laser speckle contrast analysis (AO-LASCA) Lipei Song a,b, Yi Cheng c, Rui Li c, Meng-Xing Tang c, Daniel S. Elson a,b a Department

More information

CHAPTER 2 DRUG SUBSTANCES AND INSTRUMENTS EMPLOYED

CHAPTER 2 DRUG SUBSTANCES AND INSTRUMENTS EMPLOYED CHAPTER 2 DRUG SUBSTANCES AND INSTRUMENTS EMPLOYED 2.1 Preparation of Pure polymorphic forms Lamivudine polymorphic Form I and Form II drug substances were prepared in Aurobindo Pharma Limited Research

More information

MODELING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MECHANICAL SYSTEM AND CONTROL OF A CT WITH LOW ENERGY PROTON BEAM

MODELING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MECHANICAL SYSTEM AND CONTROL OF A CT WITH LOW ENERGY PROTON BEAM MODELING AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MECHANICAL SYSTEM AND CONTROL OF A CT WITH LOW ENERGY PROTON BEAM João Antônio Palma Setti, j.setti@pucpr.br Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná / Rua Imaculada

More information

Advantages of CT in 3D Scanning of Industrial Parts

Advantages of CT in 3D Scanning of Industrial Parts Advantages of CT in 3D Scanning of Industrial Parts Julien Noel, North Star Imaging Inc C omputed tomography (CT) has come along way since its public inception in 1972. The rapid improvement of computer

More information

Imatronic Laser Diode Modules

Imatronic Laser Diode Modules Imatronic Laser Diode Modules Features Wide range of industry standard package sizes Off the shelf immediate delivery Wide range of output powers and wavelengths Dots, lines & crosses output projections

More information

TWO AND MULTIPLE SLIT INTERFERENCE

TWO AND MULTIPLE SLIT INTERFERENCE TWO AND MULTIPLE SLIT INTERFERENCE Double Slit and Diffraction Grating. THEORY: L P L+nλ Light d θ L 0 C nλ Wall Screen P Figure 1 If plane waves of light fall at normal incidence on an opaque wall containing

More information

Polarization of Light

Polarization of Light Polarization of Light References Halliday/Resnick/Walker Fundamentals of Physics, Chapter 33, 7 th ed. Wiley 005 PASCO EX997A and EX999 guide sheets (written by Ann Hanks) weight Exercises and weights

More information

Agilent 10716A High-Resolution Interferometer

Agilent 10716A High-Resolution Interferometer 7H Agilent 10716A High-Resolution Interferometer Description Description The Agilent 10716A High Resolution Interferometer (see Figure 7H-1) offers twice the resolution of conventional plane mirror interferometers

More information

Experiment where A is the apex angle of the prism and D is the angle of minimum deviation for the spectral line.

Experiment where A is the apex angle of the prism and D is the angle of minimum deviation for the spectral line. Introduction Experiment 112-8 Grating and Prism Spectrometer Diffraction Gratings 1 : A master diffraction grating is made by ruling a large number of finely, closely spaced lines on a sheet of glass or

More information

Modeling and Testing Array Generation Techniques for Grid Image Refractometry on OMEGA EP

Modeling and Testing Array Generation Techniques for Grid Image Refractometry on OMEGA EP Modeling and Testing Array Generation Techniques for Grid Image Refractometry on OMEGA EP Andrew Zhao Webster Thomas High School, 800 Five Mile Line Road, Webster, NY 14526 Kevin Mizes Pittsford Sutherland

More information

Wavelength-Parallel Polarization Sensor for Multi-Wavelength Optical Networks

Wavelength-Parallel Polarization Sensor for Multi-Wavelength Optical Networks Wavelength-Parallel Polarization Sensor for Multi-Wavelength Optical Networks Xiang (Shawn) Wang wang7@ecn.purdue.edu Andrew M. Weiner amw@ecn.purdue.edu Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 This

More information

Precision wavelength measurement using a Fabry-Pérot etalon

Precision wavelength measurement using a Fabry-Pérot etalon Please do not remove this manual from from the lab. It is available at www.cm.ph.bham.ac.uk/y2lab Optics Precision wavelength measurement using a Fabry-Pérot etalon Introduction The main purpose of this

More information

Microwave Scanning Technology for Material

Microwave Scanning Technology for Material ECNDT 2006 - Th.4.2.2 Microwave Scanning Technology for Material Testing Arndt GÖLLER, hf sensor GmbH, Leipzig, Germany Abstract. Microwave scanners are introduced as imaging systems for nondestructive

More information

PHYSICS 262 GEOMETRIC OPTICS

PHYSICS 262 GEOMETRIC OPTICS PHYSICS 262 GEOMETRIC OPTICS Part I Position and Size of Image: Cardinal Points If the indices of refraction of all elements are known, together with the positions and radii of curvature of all surfaces,

More information

Development of Optical Wave Microphone Measuring Sound Waves with No Diaphragm

Development of Optical Wave Microphone Measuring Sound Waves with No Diaphragm Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Taipei, March 5 8, 3 359 Development of Optical Wave Microphone Measuring Sound Waves with No Diaphragm Yoshito Sonoda, Takashi Samatsu, and

More information

Wholefield NDT of Porous Materials Using Digital Holography

Wholefield NDT of Porous Materials Using Digital Holography Indian Society for Non-Destructive Testing Hyderabad Chapter Proc. National Seminar on Non-Destructive Evaluation Dec. 7-9, 2006, Hyderabad Wholefield NDT of Porous Materials Using Digital Holography B.P.

More information

Optical Filters: Flatness

Optical Filters: Flatness Optical Filters: Flatness Turan Erdogan, PhD (CTO and Co-founder) Semrock, A Unit of IDEX Corporation May 31, 2011 www.semrock.com Wavefront error and flatness Transmitted Wavefront Error (TWE) is usually

More information

Ray Tracing: the Law of Reflection, and Snell s Law

Ray Tracing: the Law of Reflection, and Snell s Law Ray Tracing: the Law of Reflection, and Snell s Law Each of the experiments is designed to test or investigate the basic ideas of reflection and the ray-like behavior of light. The instructor will explain

More information

K1- Fluo. Easy Operation Software The dedicated software controls confocal microscope with easy and intuitive user interface.

K1- Fluo. Easy Operation Software The dedicated software controls confocal microscope with easy and intuitive user interface. K1- Fluo K1-Fluo is confocal fluorescence laser scanning microscopy from Nanoscope Systems - developed for versatile biological, chemical, and medical purpose. Optimized system components ensure great

More information

CH 35. Interference. A. Interference of light waves, applied in many branches of science.

CH 35. Interference. A. Interference of light waves, applied in many branches of science. CH 35 Interference [SHIVOK SP212] March 17, 2016 I. Optical Interference: A. Interference of light waves, applied in many branches of science. B. The blue of the top surface of a Morpho butterfly wing

More information

Microlenses immersed in nematic liquid crystal with electrically. controllable focal length

Microlenses immersed in nematic liquid crystal with electrically. controllable focal length Microlenses immersed in nematic liquid crystal with electrically controllable focal length L.G.Commander, S.E. Day, C.H. Chia and D.R.Selviah Dept of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College

More information

PHYSICS 171 UNIVERSITY PHYSICS LAB II. Experiment 12. Physical Optics: Diffraction, Interference, and Polarization of Light

PHYSICS 171 UNIVERSITY PHYSICS LAB II. Experiment 12. Physical Optics: Diffraction, Interference, and Polarization of Light PHYSICS 171 UNIVERSITY PHYSICS LAB II Experiment 12 Physical Optics: Diffraction, Interference, and Polarization of Light Equipment: Supplies: Laser, photometer with optic probe, optical bench, and angular

More information

Rigorous analysis of general 2D and 3D gratings with VirtualLab 4

Rigorous analysis of general 2D and 3D gratings with VirtualLab 4 Webinar, November 15, 2010 Rigorous analysis of general 2D and 3D gratings with VirtualLab 4 Hagen Schweitzer, LightTrans GmbH Hagen.Schweitzer@lighttrans.com Grating Toolbox - Introduction Introduction

More information

Physics 9e/Cutnell. correlated to the. College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives

Physics 9e/Cutnell. correlated to the. College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives Physics 9e/Cutnell correlated to the College Board AP Physics 1 Course Objectives Big Idea 1: Objects and systems have properties such as mass and charge. Systems may have internal structure. Enduring

More information

Lab 4: DIFFRACTION GRATINGS AND PRISMS (3 Lab Periods)

Lab 4: DIFFRACTION GRATINGS AND PRISMS (3 Lab Periods) revised version Lab 4: Objectives DIFFRACTION GRATINGS AND PRISMS (3 Lab Periods) Calibrate a diffraction grating using a spectral line of known wavelength. With the calibrated grating, determine the wavelengths

More information

Ultimate Optics Testing

Ultimate Optics Testing Ultimate Optics Testing New Generation Of Optics Tester Unrivaled performance based on latest advances in wavefront analysis A step beyond for measuring MTF, PSF, Aberrations Meet the most demanding metrology

More information

NON-CONTACT 3D SURFACE METROLOGY

NON-CONTACT 3D SURFACE METROLOGY LOGO TITLE NON-CONTACT 3D SURFACE METROLOGY COMPANY PROFILE SLOGAN BECAUSE ACCURACY MATTERS LOGO TITLE APPLICATIONS THICK FILM The non-contact measurement technology checks the wet sample immediately after

More information

AUTOCOLLIMATOR. 02/12/96 (std.)

AUTOCOLLIMATOR. 02/12/96 (std.) 02/12/96 (std.) 1.0 GENERAL: An autocollimator is a precision optical instrument used for the purposes of alignment, optical testing or adjusting of optical and mechanical components in laser systems.

More information

Towards a more Accurate Infrared Distance Sensor Model

Towards a more Accurate Infrared Distance Sensor Model Towards a more Accurate Infrared Distance Sensor Model Paulo Malheiros, José Gonçalves and Paulo Costa INESC Porto - Manufacturing Systems Engineering Unit Faculty of Engineering of the University of Porto

More information

Synthetic Sensing: Proximity / Distance Sensors

Synthetic Sensing: Proximity / Distance Sensors Synthetic Sensing: Proximity / Distance Sensors MediaRobotics Lab, February 2010 Proximity detection is dependent on the object of interest. One size does not fit all For non-contact distance measurement,

More information

Holographically corrected telescope for high bandwidth optical communications (as appears in Applied Optics Vol. 38, No. 33, , 20 Nov.

Holographically corrected telescope for high bandwidth optical communications (as appears in Applied Optics Vol. 38, No. 33, , 20 Nov. Holographically corrected telescope for high bandwidth optical communications (as appears in Applied Optics Vol. 38, No. 33, 6833-6835, 20 Nov. 1999) Geoff Andersen and R. J. Knize Laser and Optics Research

More information

linearly polarized with polarization axis parallel to the transmission axis of the polarizer.

linearly polarized with polarization axis parallel to the transmission axis of the polarizer. Polarization Light is a transverse wave: the electric and magnetic fields both oscillate along axes that are perpendicular to the direction of wave motion. The simplest kind of radiation is said to be

More information

12. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY. Confocal microscopy can render depth-resolved slices through a 3D object by

12. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY. Confocal microscopy can render depth-resolved slices through a 3D object by 12. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY Confocal microscopy can render depth-resolved slices through a 3D object by rejecting much of the out of focus light via a pinhole. The image is reconstructed serially, i.e. point

More information

A Three-Dimensional Position Measurement Method Using Two Pan-Tilt Cameras

A Three-Dimensional Position Measurement Method Using Two Pan-Tilt Cameras 43 Research Report A Three-Dimensional Position Measurement Method Using Two Pan-Tilt Cameras Hiroyuki Matsubara, Toshihiko Tsukada, Hiroshi Ito, Takashi Sato, Yuji Kawaguchi We have developed a 3D measuring

More information

Detailed simulation of mass spectra for quadrupole mass spectrometer systems

Detailed simulation of mass spectra for quadrupole mass spectrometer systems Detailed simulation of mass spectra for quadrupole mass spectrometer systems J. R. Gibson, a) S. Taylor, and J. H. Leck Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, The University of Liverpool,

More information

CASE HISTORY #2. APPLICATION: Piping Movement Survey using Permalign Laser Measurement System

CASE HISTORY #2. APPLICATION: Piping Movement Survey using Permalign Laser Measurement System CASE HISTORY #2 APPLICATION: Piping Movement Survey using Permalign Laser Measurement System EQUIPMENT: Dresser-Clark Hot Gas Expander (Turbine), 60-inch Inlet Flange HISTORY: Piping support modifications

More information

Automated Optical Inspection is one of many manufacturing test methods common in the assembly of printed circuit boards. This list includes:

Automated Optical Inspection is one of many manufacturing test methods common in the assembly of printed circuit boards. This list includes: What is AOI? Automated Optical Inspection is one of many manufacturing test methods common in the assembly of printed circuit boards. This list includes: Test methods for electronic assemblies: - FT (Functional

More information

ZEISS T-SCAN Automated / COMET Automated 3D Digitizing - Laserscanning / Fringe Projection Automated solutions for efficient 3D data capture

ZEISS T-SCAN Automated / COMET Automated 3D Digitizing - Laserscanning / Fringe Projection Automated solutions for efficient 3D data capture ZEISS T-SCAN Automated / COMET Automated 3D Digitizing - Laserscanning / Fringe Projection Automated solutions for efficient 3D data capture ZEISS 3D Digitizing Automated solutions for efficient 3D data

More information

Thin Film Stress and Curvature Mapping

Thin Film Stress and Curvature Mapping k-space Associates, Inc Thin Film Stress and Curvature Mapping Advanced Tools for Thin Film Characterization May 2005 Company Overview Founded in 1992 Headquartered in Ann Arbor, Michigan Advanced In-situ

More information

DIFFRACTION GRATINGS AND SPECTROSCOPY

DIFFRACTION GRATINGS AND SPECTROSCOPY Experiment 8 Name: S.N.: SECTION: PARTNER: DATE: DIFFRACTION GRATINGS AND SPECTROSCOPY Objectives To introduce and calibrate a diffraction grating, and use it to examine several types of spectra. To learn

More information

T-REDSPEED White paper

T-REDSPEED White paper T-REDSPEED White paper Index Index...2 Introduction...3 Specifications...4 Innovation...6 Technology added values...7 Introduction T-REDSPEED is an international patent pending technology for traffic violation

More information

Encoders for Linear Motors in the Electronics Industry

Encoders for Linear Motors in the Electronics Industry Technical Information Encoders for Linear Motors in the Electronics Industry The semiconductor industry and automation technology increasingly require more precise and faster machines in order to satisfy

More information

IMU Components An IMU is typically composed of the following components:

IMU Components An IMU is typically composed of the following components: APN-064 IMU Errors and Their Effects Rev A Introduction An Inertial Navigation System (INS) uses the output from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), and combines the information on acceleration and rotation

More information

Color holographic 3D display unit with aperture field division

Color holographic 3D display unit with aperture field division Color holographic 3D display unit with aperture field division Weronika Zaperty, Tomasz Kozacki, Malgorzata Kujawinska, Grzegorz Finke Photonics Engineering Division, Faculty of Mechatronics Warsaw University

More information

Integration and test of the acquisition camera for the Goodman spectrograph

Integration and test of the acquisition camera for the Goodman spectrograph Integration and test of the acquisition camera for the Goodman spectrograph Prepared by: A. Tokovinin Version: 1.0 Date: May 26, 2015 File: soar/soar/goodman/acam/acam-integration.tex 1 Pictures of the

More information

Improved Three-dimensional Image Processing Technology for Remote Handling Auxiliary System

Improved Three-dimensional Image Processing Technology for Remote Handling Auxiliary System Improved Three-dimensional Image Processing Technology for Remote Handling Auxiliary System Chiaki Tomizuka Keisuke Jinza Hiroshi Takahashi 1. Introduction Remote handling devices are used in the radioactive

More information

Alignment Laser System.

Alignment Laser System. - O T 6 0 0 0 Alignment Laser System. The OT-6000. Multi -Target,Two Dimensional Alignment. Introducing the most powerful way to measure alignment at distances up to 300 feet. The OT-6000 Alignment Laser

More information

Force measurement. Forces VECTORIAL ISSUES ACTION ET RÉACTION ISOSTATISM

Force measurement. Forces VECTORIAL ISSUES ACTION ET RÉACTION ISOSTATISM Force measurement Forces VECTORIAL ISSUES In classical mechanics, a force is defined as "an action capable of modifying the quantity of movement of a material point". Therefore, a force has the attributes

More information

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 1 - LOADING SYSTEMS

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 1 - LOADING SYSTEMS EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA MECHANICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 1 - LOADING SYSTEMS TUTORIAL 1 NON-CONCURRENT COPLANAR FORCE SYSTEMS 1. Be able to determine the effects

More information

Tube Control Measurement, Sorting Modular System for Glass Tube

Tube Control Measurement, Sorting Modular System for Glass Tube Tube Control Measurement, Sorting Modular System for Glass Tube Tube Control is a modular designed system of settled instruments and modules. It comprises measuring instruments for the tube dimensions,

More information

Position Sensors MicroSense, LLC

Position Sensors MicroSense, LLC Understanding Capacitive Position Sensors 2011 MicroSense, LLC Table of Contents 1. Introduction to Capacitive Sensors... 3 1.1 Characteristics of Capacitive Sensors... 3 1.1.1 Non Contact... 3 1.1.2 High

More information

Measuring the Refractive Index of Infrared Materials by Dual-Wavelength Fabry-Perot Interferometry. A Senior Project. presented to

Measuring the Refractive Index of Infrared Materials by Dual-Wavelength Fabry-Perot Interferometry. A Senior Project. presented to Measuring the Refractive Index of Infrared Materials by Dual-Wavelength Fabry-Perot Interferometry A Senior Project presented to the Faculty of the Physics Department California Polytechnic State University,

More information

Design of Infrared Zoom Collimator in Focal Length Testing of IR Image Simulator

Design of Infrared Zoom Collimator in Focal Length Testing of IR Image Simulator Design of Infrared Zoom Collimator in Focal Length Testing of IR Image Simulator DER-CHIN CHEN 1, RUNG-SHENG CHEN 2,* AND YU-CHENG SU 1 1 Department of Electrical Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taiwan

More information

The application of Fourier analysis in solving the Computed Tomography (CT) inverse problem.

The application of Fourier analysis in solving the Computed Tomography (CT) inverse problem. The application of Fourier analysis in solving the Computed Tomography (CT) inverse problem. by Nasser M. Abbasi July 3, 2010 Abstract Digital signal processing plays an increasingly important rule in

More information

PatchStar Micromanipulator

PatchStar Micromanipulator PatchStar Micromanipulator - 1 Packing list The Scientifica PatchStar is a piece of scientific equipment and as such requires care when handling. If the outside of the shipping packaging is damaged, notify

More information

PROPERTIES OF THIN LENSES. Paraxial-ray Equations

PROPERTIES OF THIN LENSES. Paraxial-ray Equations PROPERTIES OF THIN LENSES Object: To measure the focal length of lenses, to verify the thin lens equation and to observe the more common aberrations associated with lenses. Apparatus: PASCO Basic Optical

More information

Compressive Acquisition of Sparse Deflectometric Maps

Compressive Acquisition of Sparse Deflectometric Maps Compressive Acquisition of Sparse Deflectometric Maps Prasad Sudhakar*, Laurent Jacques*, Adriana Gonzalez Gonzalez* Xavier Dubois +, Philippe Antoine +, Luc Joannes + *: Louvain University (UCL), Louvain-la-Neuve,

More information

EXPERIMENT 9 Diffraction Gratings

EXPERIMENT 9 Diffraction Gratings EXPERIMENT 9 Diffraction Gratings 1. How a Diffraction Grating works? Diffraction gratings are optical components with a period modulation on its surface. Either the transmission (or the phase) changes

More information

CCD TECHNOLOGY The CURE for the common Triangulation Laser

CCD TECHNOLOGY The CURE for the common Triangulation Laser CCD TECHNOLOGY The CURE for the common Triangulation Laser Martin Dumberger Technical Director 3200 Glen Royal Rd Raleigh NC 27617 ph: 919 787 9707 fax:919 787 9706 microepsilon@mindspring.com The twenty

More information

2. Do Not use the laser without getting instructions from the demonstrator.

2. Do Not use the laser without getting instructions from the demonstrator. EXPERIMENT 3 Diffraction Pattern Measurements using a Laser Laser Safety The Helium Neon lasers used in this experiment and are of low power (0.5 milliwatts) but the narrow beam of light is still of high

More information

Fast Varifocal Lenses Based on KTa 1-x Nb x O 3 (KTN) Single Crystals

Fast Varifocal Lenses Based on KTa 1-x Nb x O 3 (KTN) Single Crystals : Crystal Technologies Fast Varifocal Lenses Based on KTa 1-x Nb x O 3 () Single Crystals Tadayuki Imai, Shogo Yagi, Seiji Toyoda, and Masahiro Sasaura Abstract NTT Photonics Laboratories has recently

More information

Experiment No. 4 STUDY AND APPLICATIONS OF TOOL MAKER S MICROSCOPE.

Experiment No. 4 STUDY AND APPLICATIONS OF TOOL MAKER S MICROSCOPE. Tool maker s microscope Experiment No. 4 STUDY AND APPLICATIONS OF TOOL MAKER S MICROSCOPE. Aim :- Experiment on tool maker s microscope Apparatus :- Tool maker s microscope, specimen Theory :- Introduction:-

More information

Automated part positioning with the laser tracker

Automated part positioning with the laser tracker Automated part positioning with the laser tracker S. Kyle, R. Loser, D. Warren Leica Abstract Improvements and new developments for Leica's laser tracker make it suitable for measuring the relative position

More information

Application Note Line Scan Imaging Basics

Application Note Line Scan Imaging Basics Application Note Line Scan Imaging Basics D ALSA cameras are available in a variety of models, but all can be categorized as either area array or line scan array. This application note compares and contrasts

More information

M01/430/H(3) Name PHYSICS HIGHER LEVEL PAPER 3. Number. Wednesday 16 May 2001 (morning) 1 hour 15 minutes INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

M01/430/H(3) Name PHYSICS HIGHER LEVEL PAPER 3. Number. Wednesday 16 May 2001 (morning) 1 hour 15 minutes INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES INTERNATIONAL BACCALAUREATE BACCALAURÉAT INTERNATIONAL BACHILLERATO INTERNACIONAL M01/430/H(3) PHYSICS HIGHER LEVEL PAPER 3 Wednesday 16 May 2001 (morning) Name Number 1 hour 15 minutes INSTRUCTIONS TO

More information

WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT - DIFFRACTION GRATING

WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT - DIFFRACTION GRATING PURPOSE In this experiment we will use the diffraction grating and the spectrometer to measure wavelengths in the mercury spectrum. THEORY A diffraction grating is essentially a series of parallel equidistant

More information

Design and Use of a Novel Flat Field Illumination Light Source

Design and Use of a Novel Flat Field Illumination Light Source Design and Use of a Novel Flat Field Illumination Light Source TECHNICAL NOTE 108. Simon Tulloch. 6th Nov 1996 1 1. Introduction. Flat field exposures are essential for highlighting cosmetic defects on

More information

What s the difference between active and passive 3D glasses?

What s the difference between active and passive 3D glasses? How 3D works? 3D stands for three dimensional and is a synonym for stereoscopic viewing. One of the advantages of having two eyes is the capacity of depth perception. Because our eyes are separated from

More information

Advantages of High Resolution in High Bandwidth Digitizers

Advantages of High Resolution in High Bandwidth Digitizers Advantages of High Resolution in High Bandwidth Digitizers Two of the key specifications of digitizers are bandwidth and amplitude resolution. These specifications are not independent - with increasing

More information

Differentiation of 3D scanners and their positioning method when applied to pipeline integrity

Differentiation of 3D scanners and their positioning method when applied to pipeline integrity 11th European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014), October 6-10, 2014, Prague, Czech Republic More Info at Open Access Database www.ndt.net/?id=16317 Differentiation of 3D scanners and their

More information

Advancements in Laser Doppler Vibrometry for Ultrasonic Applications. Ultrasonics Industry Symposium Eric Lawrence, Polytec Inc.

Advancements in Laser Doppler Vibrometry for Ultrasonic Applications. Ultrasonics Industry Symposium Eric Lawrence, Polytec Inc. Advancements in Laser Doppler Vibrometry for Ultrasonic Applications Ultrasonics Industry Symposium Eric Lawrence, Polytec Inc. Contents Introduction to Laser Vibrometry New PSV-500 Scanning Vibrometer

More information

A down-under undergraduate optics and photonics laboratory

A down-under undergraduate optics and photonics laboratory A down-under undergraduate optics and photonics laboratory Barry Perczuk and Michael Gal School of Physics, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia ABSTRACT Our senior undergraduate

More information

Types of Elements

Types of Elements chapter : Modeling and Simulation 439 142 20 600 Then from the first equation, P 1 = 140(0.0714) = 9.996 kn. 280 = MPa =, psi The structure pushes on the wall with a force of 9.996 kn. (Note: we could

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A single slit forms a diffraction pattern, with the first minimum at an angle of 40 from

More information