USE OF BIO-FUELS IN BRAZIL

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1 USE OF BIO-FUELS IN BRAZIL Alfred Szwarc Consultant Ministry of Science and Technology In-Session Workshop on Mitigation SBSTA 21 / COP 10 December 9, 2004 Buenos Aires

2 Brazilian experience with fuel grade ethanol started in the 1920 s. Variable ethanol content in gasoline depending on ethanol availability until 1973 OIL CRISIS & LOW SUGAR PRICES 1975 PROÁLCOOL BRAZILIAN FUEL ETHANOL PROGRAM GASOHOL REGULARLY AVAILABLE SINCE 1977 NEAT ETHANOL FOR ALCOHOL CARS AVAILABLE COMMERCIALLY SINCE 1979 (over 5 million ethanol fueled vehicles produced in Brazil)

3 FUEL ETHANOL TYPES Under Brazilian regulations two types of fuel ethanol are produced: Anhydrous: blended with automotive gasoline Hydrous: used as a neat fuel in vehicles or blended with gasohol by the consumer in FFV Type Anhydrous Hydrous alcohol content ºGL (at 20 ºC) minimum Source: Portaria ANP Nº 126 de 08/08/2002

4 Brazil: Ethanol production milestones (anhydrous + hydrous) million m 3 / crop season 16,0 14,0 12,0 10,0 8,0 6,0 4,0 2,0 0,0 14,7 12,6 11,5 3,7 0,6 75/76 80/81 90/91 95/ /04

5 SUGAR CANE - approx. 5 million ha - 60,000 producers - all-year-round harvest ~ 10% of total cultivated land ~ 1% of total land available for agriculture N-NE (20% land) harvest: sept/march C-S (80% land) harvest: april/november Source: UNICA

6 Brazil: 1997/ /04 Million tons Sugar Cane Production 357,5 303,1 314,9 320,6 306,9 293,1 257,6 97/98 98/99 99/00 00/01 01/02 02/03 03/04 Crop season Source: UNICA About 50% of sugar cane is used for ethanol production

7 Productivity Gains Center-South Region t cane/hectare 85,00 80,00 75,00 70,00 65,00 60,00 55,00 50,00 45,00 40, ,50 7,00 6,50 6,00 5,50 5,00 4,50 4,00 3,50 3,00 2,50 m 3 /hectare t cane/hectare m 3 ethanol/hectare Source: UNICA

8 FERTI-IRRIGATION WITH STILLAGE ferti-irrigation with stillage helps to reduce use of water & chemical fertilizers and recovers soil fertility

9 Autonomous Energy bagasse The sugarcane industry produces its own thermal & electric energy using bagasse as a fuel in co-generation systems and it sells the excess electricity to the public grid (presently 600 MW) electricity Source: UNICA

10 SUGAR & ETHANOL PLANT IN BRAZIL Bagasse

11 The Brazilian Ethanol Experience - Brazilian ethanol, gasohol & Flex-Fuel vehicles - Imported gasohol vehicles and engines energy security & diversification technology development environmental benefits balance of payments jobs % Ethanol in Gasoline (gasohol) 1977: 4.5% 1979: 15% 1981: 20% 1985: 22% 1998: 24% 1999: 20 to 24% SINCE % to 25%

12 FLEX FUEL Vehicles Vehicle can operate on gasoline or ethanol or any ethanol-gasoline blend without any special requirement Consumers good acceptance: 2004 sales projections! 300,000 Flex Fuel units

13 The FLEX FUEL Concept Sensor originally used for emission control measures O 2 content in exhaust gas and sends a signal to the Engine Control Unit (ECU) indicating the level of ethanol in the fuel line! ECU automatically recalibrates spark timing and fuel injection. ECU ENGINE O 2 Sensor Catalytic Converter. Exhaust

14 Vehicle Market Share in Brazil % SALES OF LDV - DOMESTIC MARKET 100% 80% 60% 40% FLEX FUEL ETHANOL GASOHOL 20% 0% Sales Jan/Sept 2004: 35,497 Ethanol 218,320 Flex Fuel 942,993 Gasohol Source: ANFAVEA / Prepared by ÚNICA Diesel vehicles are not included

15 Vehicle Emission Reductions Related to Fuel Ethanol Use in Brazil Lead additives banned since 1990 Reduction of SOx Reduction of PM (carbon and sulfate particles) VOC s with lower toxicity & photochemical reactivity CO: Higher reduction in older E100 (up to 70%) and gasohol (up to 40%) vehicles in comparison with ethnaol-free gasoline Source: CETESB

16 Ethanol Production & Energy Balance by Feedstock Feedstock Wheat Corn (USA) Sugar Beet (EU) Sugar Cane (Brazil) Gasoline Energy Output/Energy Input Source: F.O. Licht, Macedo, I et alii 2004 NREL 2002

17 Sugar Cane and the CO 2 Cycle Bagasse CO 2 CO 2 Cogeneration Sugar Cane Field Photosynthesis Sugar CO 2 Neat Ethanol or Blends Ethanol Electric Energy SOURCE: ADS

18 Greenhouse Effect Mitigation Under Brazilian production conditions the substitution of ethanol for gasoline & bagasse for fuel oil avoids the emission of: 2.6 t of CO 2 equivalent/m 3 anhydrous ethanol 1.7 t of CO2 equivalent/m 3 hydrous ethanol Source: Macedo, I et alii, 2004

19 Gasoline X Ethanol Prices 100 (Oct 2002) US$ / GJ Ethanol Cumulative Production (thousand m 3 ) Ethanol prices in Brazil trend (Rotterdam gasoline prices) Rotterdam regular gasoline price trend (Ethanol prices) Source: Goldenberg, J. et alii, Biomass and Bioenergy, 26, 2004

20 New Uses for Ethanol AVIATION FUEL (100% ethanol airplane by Embraer. Already certified! production will start in 2005 INDUSTRIAL FUEL 100% ethanol boiler (boiler can operate also on CNG or LPG) Ethanol Vaporizer

21 New Uses for Ethanol DIESEL-ETHANOL BLENDS (Pilot Tests) Truck operating with diesel + 7% ethanol Ethanol H 2 SOURCE TO PRODUCE HYDROGEN FOR FUEL CELLS (Research Level) Reformer

22 New Uses for Ethanol: 100% Renewable Biodiesel + Vegetable Oils Anhydrous Ethanol = transesterification Renewable Biodiesel ETHYL ESTER SOY BEAN + OR! PEANUTS, SUNFLOWER, CORN, COTTON, PALM TREE...ETC. SUGAR CANE

23 Biodiesel in Brazil Since the 1920 s! initiatives to promote use of vegetable oils in Brazil During the 1980 s: Pró-óleo and OVEG Programs! limited results In 2002 MCT implemented the Research & Technology Development PROBIODIESEL National Network 2003 Interministerial Commision evaluated feasibility of Biodiesel in Brazil and set recommendations for a program 2003: first Biodiesel specification (ANP 255/03) 2004: permission to use 2% biodiesel + 98% diesel blends (B2) December : announcement of National Biodiesel Program

24 Vegetable Oil Sources in Brazil NORTH REGION Palm/Babassu/Soybean NORTH-EAST REGION Babassu/Soybean/Castor Oil/ Palm/Cotton/Coconut CENTER-WEST REGION Soybean/Castor Oil/Cotton/Sunflower/Palm SOUTH-EAST REGION Soybean/Castor Oil/Cotton/ Sunflower SOUTH REGION Soybean/Rapeseed/Sunflower/ Cotton soybean oil represents over 95% of present vegetable oil production Source: ABIOVE

25 Vegetable Oil Productivity in Brazil Soybean oil (18-21%) 400Kg/ha Sunflower oil (45-55%) 800Kg/ha Peanut oil (40-50%) 900Kg/ha Castor oil (45-55%) 1200Kg/ha Palm oil (Dendê) (35-45%) 5900 Kg/ha Note: values in % indicate oil content of each feedstock Source: LADETEL/USP - ABIOVE

26 BIODIESEL Environmental Aspects Biodegradable Reduces emission of: Particulates Carbon Monoxide Sulphur oxides Hydrocarbons CO 2 Benefit is proportional to the amount of biodiesel used Soybean biodiesel energy balance 3.2 output energy/input fossil energy For diesel oil the ratio is 0.83 On a well-to-wheel basis it is estimated that: biodiesel reduces CO 2 emissions by 78% compared to diesel oil Source: NREL 1998

27 BRAZIL: Agribusiness Expansion Brazil is one of the few countries with great capacity to expand its agricultural production!opportunities for bio-energy and sustainable development Expansion area in the Brazilian Cerrado region (million hectares) Total Area Area good for agriculture Area in use for cattle raising... (35) Occupied area (forests & plantations) (12) Available Area for expansion Source: EMBRAPA/MAPA

28 Thank You

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