In what ways did Erikson disagree with his mentor, Freud? Why do children often copy their parents habits and prejudices?

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2 WHAT WILL YOU KNOW? How does a theory differ from a fact? In what ways did Erikson disagree with his mentor, Freud? Why do children often copy their parents habits and prejudices? Do people sometimes act on thoughts that are not true? Does what a child learns depend on what culture he or she experiences? Do all humans strive for the same goals? Why is it better to use several theories to understand human development rather than just one?

3 What Theories Do Developmental theory Systematic statement of principles and generalizations Framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older

4 What Theories Do Theories produce hypotheses. Theories generate discoveries. Theories offer practical guidance.

5 What Theories Do Facts and norms Norms: Average, or typical, standard of behavior or accomplishment Backpacks or Bouquets? Children worldwide are nervous on the first day of school, but their coping reflects implicit cultural theories. Kindergartener Madelyn Ricker in Georgia shows her new backpack to her teacher, and elementary school children in Russia bring flowers to their teachers.

6 Theories Freud s psychoanalytic theory Constructed elaborate, multifaceted theory Proposed development in first six years occurs in three psychosexual stages characterized by sexual interest and pleasure arising from body part Each stage includes its own struggle.

7 Theories Psychoanalytic theory Epigenetic Theory Stresses that genes and biological impulses are powerfully influenced by the social environment Erik Erikson ( ) Described eight developmental stages, each characterized by a challenging developmental crisis Proposed five psychosocial stages build on Freud's theory, but added three adult stages If Erikson had published his theory at age 73 (when this photograph was taken) instead of in his 40s, would he still have described his life as a series of crises?

8 Theories Behaviorism Conditioning Proposes that learning takes place through processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli Learning theory Focuses on observable behavior Describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned

9 Theories Behaviorism Argued that scientists should examine only what they could observe and measure Proposed anything can be learned with focus on behavior No specific stages proposed John Watson ( ) American psychologist One of earliest proponent of behaviorism and learning theory John Watson

10 Theories Behaviorism Classical conditioning Demonstrates that behaviors can be learned by making an association between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus Also called respondent conditioning Pavlov ( ) Received the Nobel Prize in 1904 for his digestive processes research. Resulted in discovery of classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov

11 Theories Behaviorism Operant conditioning Proposes that reinforcement or punishment may be used to either increase or decrease the probability that a behavior will occur again in the future Also called instrumental conditioning Skinner ( ) Agreed with Watson that psychology should focus on the scientific study of behavior Was best known for experiments with rats, pigeons and his own daughter Skinner applied his knowledge to human behavior. For his daughter, he designed a glass-enclosed crib in which temperature, humidity, and perceptual stimulation could be controlled to make her time in the crib enjoyable and educational.

12 Theories Social learning theory Refers to extension of behaviorism that emphasizes that other people influence each person's behavior What kind of learning do you see in this image? Proposes that even without specific reinforcement, every individual learns many things through observation and imitation of other people (modeling) Involves sense of self-efficacy

13 Theories Type of Learning Learning Process Result Classical Conditioning Learning occurs through association. Neutral stimulus becomes conditioned response. Operant Conditioning Learning occurs through reinforcement and punishment. Weak or rare responses become strong, frequent responses or, with punishment, become extinct. Social Learning Learning occurs through modeling what others do. Observed behaviors become copied behaviors.

14 Theories Cognitive theory Proposes thoughts and expectations profoundly affect actions, attitudes, beliefs and assumption Focuses on changes in how people think over time Jean Piaget ( ) Would You Talk to This Man? Children loved talking to Jean Piaget, and he learned by listening carefully especially to their incorrect explanations, which no one had paid much attention to before. Maintained that cognitive development occurs in four major age-related periods, or stages Intellectual advancement occurs lifelong because humans seek cognitive equilibrium

15 Piaget Piaget used scientific observations to form the central thesis of his theory and his stages of children s cognitive development. Sensorimotor Preoperational Concrete operational Formal operational

16 Piaget Cognitive theory Assimilation Experiences are interpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old ideas Accommodation Old ideas are restructured to include, or accommodate, new experiences

17 How to Think About Flowers (a) A person s stage of cognitive growth influences how he or she thinks about everything, including flowers. (b) Can you identify the Piagetian stage at which each person is thinking about flowers? (c)

18 Theories Information processing theory Represents newer version of cognitive theory Compares human thinking processes, by analogy, to computer analysis of data, including sensory input, connections, stored memories, and output

19 Piaget and Neuroscience Details of brain scans require interpretation from neurologists, but even the novice can see that adults who have been diagnosed with ADHD (second line of images) reacted differently in this experiment when they were required to push a button only if certain letters appeared on a screen.

20 Newer Versions of Cognitive Theory Are multicultural and multidisciplinary Propose human development results from dynamic interaction between developing person and surrounding society View culture as integral to development every day through the social context

21 Sociocultural theory Proposes thoughts and human development results from the dynamic interaction between developing persons and their surrounding society Focuses on culture as integral to a person s development Lev Vygotsky ( ) Describes interaction between culture and education Developed concepts of apprenticeship in thinking and guided participation

22 Vygotsky Zone of proximal development Skills, knowledge, and concepts that learner is close to acquiring but cannot master without help Process of joint construction New knowledge obtained through mentoring The intellectual excitement of that zone is the origin of the joy that both instruction and study can bring.

23 Taking culture into account Sociocultural perspective Influences inclusion of culture into contemporary research Sheds new light on cultural differences in many areas, including attachment, gender, and ethnic prejudice

24 Humanism Stresses the potential of all human beings for good and the belief that all people have the same basic needs, regardless of culture, gender Hope and Laughter Maslow believed in the human spirit and that it could overcome oppression and reach selfactualization, where faith, hope, and humor abound. Abraham Maslow ( ) One of founders of humanism Arranged shared human needs in hierarchy Contended that everyone must satisfy each lower level before moving higher

25 Moving Up, Not Looking Back

26 Newer Theories Evolutionary theory Integrates explanations for many issues in human development Suggests humans have two long-standing biologically based drives: survival and reproduction Proposes concept of selective adaptation Suggests genetic variations are particularly beneficial when the environment changes benefits humanity as a whole

27 What Theories Contribute Psychoanalytic theories Behaviorism Cognitive theories Sociocultural theories Universal theories Can you identify the contributions of each of the above theories?

28 What Theories Contribute Eclectic approach Held by most developmentalists Occurs when aspects of each of the various theories of development are selectively applied, rather than adhering exclusively to one theory Helps guard against bias and facilitates openminded to alternative explanations for complexity of human life

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