Sorting Through Theories and Behaviors

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1 Chapter 2 How and Why People Develop and Learn Activity A Sorting Through Theories and Behaviors Matching: Match the following theories and identifying phrases. D 1. Ideas about how people process information, think, and learn. C 2. Assigning traits and behaviors based on a person s biology or genetic makeup. E 3. Comprehensive explanations about why people act and behave the way they do and how they change over time. A 4. Ideas that analyze the symbolic meaning behind behaviors. F 5. Assigning traits and behaviors based on a person s environment. B 6. Theory based on the assumption that people are affected by rewards and punishments, but their reaction to rewards and punishments are filtered by their own perceptions, thoughts, and motivations. A. psychoanalytic theories B. social cognitive theory C. ethological theory D. cognitive theories E. developmental theories F. ecological theory True/False: If a statement is true, write a + in the blank. If a statement is false, change the underlined word or words to make the statement true. Write the correct answer in the blank. Erik Erikson s 7. According to Lawrence Kohlberg s psychosocial developmental stages, people must successfully resolve a psychological and/or social conflict before moving to the next stage Moral decisions are personal choices that evaluate what is right and what is wrong. genes 9. Genetics is the study of observable behaviors Behaviorism is the belief that people s behavior is determined by forces in the environment that are beyond their control. operant conditioning 11. B.F. Skinner was well-known for developing the basic principle of classical conditioning. Fill-in-the-Blank: Complete the following statements by filling in the blanks. cognitive 12. Piaget described the stages of development in four stages. three 13. Kohlberg identified different levels of thinking that people go through in making moral decisions. observable 14. The things people do and say or the way they act are behaviors. classical 15. Pavlov demonstrated the idea of behaviorism through his infamous experiment with a dog, which has been termed conditioning. 11

2 12 Lifespan Development Workbook Theorist Comparison Activity B Complete the following table by listing each theorist s type of theory and a summary of the theory. Keep this table to differentiate between theorists for later chapters. Theorist Name Type of Theory (Cognitive, Psychosocial, Moral, etc.) Summary Sigmund Freud psychoanalytic Events that happened early in life affect a person for years to come. Erik Erikson psychosocial Eight stages in which people must successfully resolve a psychological and/or social conflict before moving to the next stage. Jean Piaget cognitive Four stages of cognitive development explaining how people learn. Stages are based on age. Lev Vygotsky sociocultural and cognitive Theory that the social and cultural environment shapes human cognitive development. Lawrence Kohlberg moral Three different levels of thinking that people go through in making moral decisions. Ivan Pavlov behaviorism, classical conditioning Theory that behaviors are associated with emotional responses. B.F. Skinner behaviorism, operant conditioning Theory that behaviors are repeated when reinforced. Albert Bandura social cognitive Theory based on the assumption that people are affected by rewards and punishments, but their reaction to rewards and punishments are filtered by their own perceptions, thoughts, and motivations.

3 How and Why People Develop and Learn 13 My Life: Erikson s Psychosocial Developmental Stages Activity C What do you remember about your own psychosocial development? Describe each stage in Erikson s psychosocial theory of development. Then, give examples of your own social learning to demonstrate Erikson s stages. For examples from infancy and childhood, interview your caregivers to complete the table. For the stages you have not yet experienced, draw on your knowledge from observation of family members, friends, movies, or books to write a realistic example demonstrating Erikson s stages. Stage Age Description Example Trust versus mistrust Infancy (birth to 1 year) Babies learn about trust from their caregivers who meet their needs including food, attention, physical contact, interaction, and safety. When needs are not met, babies do not learn to trust others and the world is perceived as unpredictable. (Examples will vary.) Autonomy versus shame and doubt Toddler (1 to 3 Toddlers learn how to control their physical bodies by feeding, toileting, dressing and undressing, and making strides in physical development. As toddlers learn new skills, they become selfconfident. A lack of control or independence can make them feel like failures and cause shame and doubt. Initiative versus guilt Early childhood (3 through 5 Through discovery and exploration, young children learn about the world and their place in it. They learn what is real and what is imaginary. They learn to take initiative for their place in the world. Criticism and punishment can result in guilt for their own actions. Industry versus inferiority Middle childhood (6 through 12 Children develop competencies both at school and at home. They develop a sense of self and confidence by becoming competent in the outside world. If they or others compare them negatively against others, feelings of inferiority can surface. (Continued)

4 14 Lifespan Development Workbook Activity C (Continued) Name Stage Age Description Example Identity versus identity confusion Adolescence (13 through 18 years or older) Preteens and teens begin to understand and experiment with a number of different roles. A task during this stage is to integrate multiple roles such as sister, daughter, student, athlete, friend, and employee into one consistent role. If a central or core identity is not established, role confusion exists. (Examples will vary.) Intimacy versus isolation Early adulthood (19 through 39 During later adolescence and early adulthood, intimate relationships form. These relationships should involve sharing one s self emotionally. Success in this stage is based on success in earlier stages. Failure to establish intimacy results in emotional or psychological isolation. Generativity versus stagnation Middle adulthood (40 through 65 Adults in midlife begin to place emphasis on assisting others through sharing culture with the next generation. This can be done in many ways including rearing children, teaching others in the workplace or community, or passing on cultural values. A lack of generativity leads to stagnation. Integrity versus despair Older adulthood (66 years and older) In the last stage of life, adults review their life and reflect on its meaning. If people are satisfied with the meaning of their life and involvement, there is a sense of integrity. Without it, despair emerges at the end of their life.

5 How and Why People Develop and Learn 15 Piaget s Theory Activity D In the following table, describe each stage of Piaget s cognitive development theory. Then, give a realistic example of learning that might occur to demonstrate each of the stages. Stage Age Description Example Sensorimotor Birth to 2 years Babies begin to learn about the world through exploring with their mouths, grasping objects, and using other senses. Learning relies on reflexes, but moves to more sophisticated behaviors. (Examples will vary.) Preoperational 2 to 7 years Toddlers and young children begin to learn to communicate through language or other symbols. They do not make broad generalizations about things they learn, but learn specific knowledge. As they progress through this stage, they begin to understand concepts such as reversibility and consequences. Concrete operational 7 to 11 years Children in this stage can make generalizations and understand reversibility and consequences. They understand that an action or behavior can cause a chain of events resulting in a different result. They can group, subgroup, and make classification hierarchies. They become more logical during this stage. Formal operational 11 years and older Individuals become more logical, concrete, and can process abstract thoughts during this stage. They can make predictions about cause and effect, use analogies and metaphors, and entertain what if questions. Objects do not need to be seen to be considered.

6 16 Lifespan Development Workbook Theories in Action Activity E Read the following scenario and then complete the table. When Daria s son, Dmitry, received a job offer to work overseas, she agreed to take care of his three children, ages 6 months, 3 years, and 7 years. Although Daria never intended on raising another young family, she was committed to keeping her grandchildren together and happy. Every time Dmitry calls, the family becomes visibly happy and excited. The oldest child begins to jump and clap. The 3-year-old is also beginning to jump and clap whenever the phone rings. Dmitry is very extroverted, a trait that tends to be prevalent in his family. Daria is expecting that even without Dmitry present, all three children will be extroverted. She also notices that the neighborhood they live in tends to be quiet. Neighbors do not interact much and she wonders if this will affect the three children. How does each theory relate to the case study for either Daria, Dmitry, or the three young children? Theory Erikson s psychosocial theory (Answers will vary.) How It Applies Piaget s cognitive theory Kohlberg s theory of moral development Behaviorism: classical and operant conditioning Social cognitive theory Ethological theory Ecological theory

7 How and Why People Develop and Learn 17 I Am Who I Am Because Activity F You are who you are because of many factors, including biological and environmental influences. In the following table, list any traits you have inherited or learned that have influenced your personal development. Then, indicate if the trait is caused by heredity or environment, or a combination of both. (Responses will vary.) Influences My parents Traits Heredity, Environment, or a Combination of Both? My siblings My extended family My friends My school My neighborhood My culture

8 18 Lifespan Development Workbook Research Methods Activity G Read the three scenarios about fictional research studies. In the spaces provided, write the research method and data collection strategy used in each study. 1. Researchers measured the lifetime effects of a corrective surgery that first became available during the 1960s. Each year, participants are mailed a questionnaire that asks various questions on the effects of the corrective surgery and whether the surgery effects have changed throughout the lifespan. longitudinal study, survey 2. Researchers measured the physical effects of violent television on preteens. Two groups participated in the study. Each day, one group watched one hour of violent television programming and the second group watched two hours of similar violent television programming. All participants watched the program in an observation room, where their heart rates and blood pressure levels were monitored during viewing sessions. manipulative experiment, observation in a laboratory setting 3. Researchers compared the attitudes toward running and completing a 5K run (3.1 miles) across different age groups. Participants were directly asked about their goals, motivation, and attitudes on completing the run. In the final report, researchers compared positive and negative attitudes toward running the 5K based on age and gender. descriptive study, interview Select one scenario above and describe how to conduct the same experiment using a different research or data collection strategy. (Answers will vary.) List the advantages and disadvantages of using this new research method. (Answers will vary.)

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