Piaget s Theory. Assimilation. Accommodation. Fitting new objects, events, etc. into an existing schema

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1 Piaget s Theory Assimilation Fitting new objects, events, etc. into an existing schema Accommodation Modifying a schema or creating a new schema to fit new events, objects, etc.

2 Piaget s Stages of Cognitive Develpment Sensory-Motor Stage (Birth-2 years) Preoperational (2-7 years) Concrete Operations (7-11 years) Formal Operations (11 years and older)

3 Piaget s Stages Sensorimotor Understand the world through senses and motor actions Develop object permanence

4 Sensory-Motor Stage (Birth-2 years) Begin cognitive development by responding primarily by reflex. Learn about the world through their senses and motor activities. During period, develop a sense of selfrecognition. i.e., the ability to name themselves in a mirror. Develop object permanence, the realization that objects continue to exist even though they are not presently sensed.

5 Piaget s Stages Preoperational Understand intuitive relations Thinking is egocentric, dominated by perception

6 Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 years) Use symbols to represent the external world, i.e., language. the use of words to stand for objects. Characterized by animistic thinking. i.e., the belief that inanimate objects, especially those that move or appear to move, are alive, are conscious, have feelings, etc. Characterized by egocentric thinking. i.e., viewing situations only from their own perspective cannot distinguish between themselves and the outside world cannot put themselves in someone else s place.

7 Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 years) Characterized by irreversibility, i.e., the inability to mentally retrace their steps in order to reach a conclusion. Characterized by centration, i.e., focus on only one attribute, or dimension, at a time. Showing difficulty in understanding the principle of conservation, the principle that attributes such as mass, weight, volume, etc. remain unchanged regardless of irrelevant changes in the external appearance of an object that have no effect on that attribute.

8 Piaget s Conservation Tasks

9 Piaget s Stages Concrete Operations Can do logical operations Understand reversibility Can do conservation & classification tasks

10 Concrete Operations (7-11 years) Can view things from perspectives other than their own thus can infer what another person knows or may be thinking. During period, achieve reversibility, the ability to understand that actions that affect objects, if reversed in sequence, will return the objects to their original state. During period, achieve decentration. the ability to comprehend more than one aspect of a problem at a time.

11 Concrete Operations (7-11 years) During period, achieves conservation. the principle that attributes such as mass, weight, volume, etc. remain unchanged regardless of irrelevant changes in the external appearance of an object that have no effect on that attribute. Logical, but concrete in their thinking, i.e., can think only in terms of concrete things they can handle or imagine can classify on several dimensions and understand mathematical concepts, provided they are applied to concrete objects or events.

12 Piaget s Stages Formal Operations Can do abstract & hypothetical reasoning Can reason contrary to experience Found only in people's areas of expertise

13 Formal Operations (11 years and older) Can formulate hypotheses, accepting and rejecting them be testing them against available facts. Can manipulate, understand, and reason in abstract terms. Can reflect on their own feelings, attitudes, and actions can think about what others think about them. Can think and reason essentially as an adult.

14 Piaget s Stages of Cognitive Develpment Sensory-Motor Stage (Birth-2 years) Preoperational (2-7 years) Concrete Operations (7-11 years) Formal Operations (11 years and older)

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