Engine Management Systems for Flex Fuel

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1 TECNOLOGIA DE PONTA NOS MOTORES FLEX Engine Management Systems for Flex Fuel Fábio Ferreira 1

2 Agenda Fuels System solutions for Flex Fuel Challenges/drivers for Flex Fuel Main trends for engine management systems 2

3 Composition of Ethanol Containing Fuels E0..5 E10 E22 E85 E100 max. 5% waterless Ethanol max. 10% waterless Ethanol 22* % waterless Ethanol 85 % waterless Ethanol 7 % water min. 95% gasoline (E0) min. 90% gasoline (E0) 78 % gasoline (E0) 15 % gasoline (E0) 93 % Ethanol W-Europe: Gasoline today USA Europe: under discussion Brazil: Regular Gasoline USA / Sweden: E85 Brazil: Alcohol 100% 97% 91% 70% 61% Relative energy content in tank compared to gasoline E0..5 Gasoline Blends Flex-Fuel 3 * variation on annual basis

4 Fuel properties and effects Property Unit Gasoline E0 Ethanol E100 Ethanol differences: Air-fuel ratio ,0 higher injection timing Specific calorific value kcal/kg Latent heat of vaporization Ignition temperature KJ/kg o C 280 / more fuel film + higher torque due to cooling of air Burning speed cm/ms 33 / Evaporation curve/value C 35 C 200 C 78 C cold start behavior Octane number RON > lower knocking 4

5 Bad fuel impacts Fuel pump: Filter saturation Accelerated wear Contact Isolation Fuel injector Deposits Corrosion 5

6 Ethanol & Flex Fuel Specific Components Electronic Control Unit - Hardware - Software - Calibration Fuel Pump Module - Fuel Pump for E85/E100 - Sealed electrical connectors (fuel pump) - Fuel level sensor (plated contacts) Fuel Pressure Regulator - Stainless steel - Higher pressure for fuel spray atomization 6

7 Ethanol & Flex Fuel Specific Components Fuel Injector - Materials - Design to Ethanol - Flow Range Fuel Rail Assembly - Ethanol resistant Oxygen Sensor - Quick heating - Splash protected tube 7

8 Ethanol & Flex Fuel Specific Components Spark Plug - Higher temperature - Higher Energy -Geometry High Pressure Injector - Mixture formation - Stainless steel - Flow Range High Pressure Pump - Stainless steel - Flow Range Direct Injection 8

9 Fuel level Oxygen sensor Ethanol Sensor Fuel change prediction & reset Fuel blend recognition & verification Parameters adjustment: air charge determination torque structure engine start & warm up transient (cold, warm) emission optimization cat. heating & lambda contr. component protection safety monitoring diagnostic thresholds 9

10 Cold Start System for Ethanol Gasoline Sub tank Ethanol vaporization below 13 o C 10

11 Flex-fuel challenges Emission Proconve L-5 & EU V: Hydrocarbon 69% reduction NO x 50% reduction OBD-BR2 & EOBD (EU V) Emission limits on-board diagnosis Market: Mileage range increase Fuel consumption reduction Cold start improvement Bad fuels Fuel standards (E85) 11

12 Main Trends Electronic management improvement: Special software functions for: Start Emission optimization Drive ability Fuel blend determination Drive-by-wire Stat Stop Automatic Start 12

13 Main Trends Fuel mixture preparation improvements: Fuel droplet size reduction Fuel pressure increase Spray guide optimization Fuel heating 13

14 Fuel Heating System Features Engine start system for flex fuel vehicles Temperature range 25 C > T > -5 C (E100) Temperature range 0 C > T > -30 C (E85) Automatic control by the ECU Customer Benefits Reduction of HC emission up to 30% Reliable engine start for E85/100 Low impact on engine design Improved driveability on warm-up 14 Lower oil contamination

15 Main Trends Engines improvement: Closed coupled catalyst Compression ratio > 12 Variable valve timing Direct injection Turbo charging 15

16 Sauber Clean Sparsam (CO 2 ) Fuel Economy Sicher Safe 16

17 TECNOLOGIA DE PONTA NOS MOTORES FLEX Thank you! Engine Management Systems for Flex Fuel Fábio Ferreira 17

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