Assessment of Groundwater Quality using Water Quality Index (WQI) in Wardha District

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Assessment of Groundwater Quality using Water Quality Index (WQI) in Wardha District"

Transcription

1 Assessment of Groundwater Quality using Water Quality Index (WQI) in Wardha District P. N Rajankar* 1, S. R. Wate 2 D. H. Tambekar 3, S. R. Gulhane Environmental Impact & Risk Assessment Division, NEERI, Nagpur , India 3-4 -P.G. Department of Microbiology, SGB Amravati University, Amravati , India * 1 prashant_nr@rediffmail.com; 2 sr_wate@neeri.res.in; 3 diliptambekar@rediffmail.com. 4 drsanjay_gulhane@rediffmail.com Abstract- Ground water quality of nine tehsils in Wardha district was assessed using a water quality index. Water quality index was calculated using following parameters, ph, turbidity, temperature, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Solids, Nitrate (NO3), Total Phosphate (TP), and Coliforms (total and fecal coliforms) with respect to different uses viz. residential, commercial and agricultural. Other physicochemical parameters (electrical conductivity total hardness, calcium hardness, sulphate, chlorides, sodium, potassium, etc.) also studied and compared with Bureau of Indian Standard to know the groundwater quality and seasonal variation. The observed water quality index in the study area varied between 68 and 82 in the pre monsoon season while, 60 and 81 in the post monsoon season. The water quality index of all samples was compared with national sanitation foundation water quality index criteria, which showed that 100% (74 samples) groundwater samples were of good quality in the pre monsoon season. In the post monsoon season 22% (16 samples) groundwater sample showed the quality changed from good to medium which indicated the seasonal variation due to monsoonal recharge in this district. Keywords Water Quality Index, Seasonal Variation, Groundwater, physicochemical Parameters, Bacteriological Parameters I. INTRODUCTION India, like any other developing country of the world, is facing increasing environmental problems. The vast population and ever increasing industrial activities in India, makes its water resources more vulnerable to water quality deterioration. It is observed that the groundwater resources getting contaminated due to anthropogenic activities, therefore, its quality is deteriorating rapidly [1-2]. This is a common feature in developed as well as developing countries. The changes in the groundwater quality response to variation in physical, chemical and biological environments through which it passes [3]. Presently, water quality assessment is carried out by determining various abiotic (physicochemical) and biotic (biological) parameters, either individually or in combination. Determination of water quality is very important for knowing the suitability of water for various purposes. Use of Water Quality Index (WQI) to determine the water quality of aqua resources is considered as one of the most effective tool for comparing water resources [4-6]. The WQI was developed in the 1970s by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality for the purpose of summarizing and evaluating water quality trends and status [6-7]. To determine WQI, a total of nine physicochemical parameters was measured, which include, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen (DO), fecal coliforms, nitrate, ph, temperature, total dissolved solids, total phosphate, and turbidity [8]. The objectives behind the study were to develop an overall picture of the groundwater quality using WQI, assessment of seasonal variation in the groundwater quality, suitability of groundwater for different purposes, and contamination causes. II. MATERIALS AND METHOD A. Study Area Wardha District is situated in the northeastern part of the state Maharashtra in India. It has a geographical area of 6310 km2, it is bounded by north latitudes and

2 and east longitudes and 79015, the normal annual rainfall varies from 985 mm to 1100 mm and the rainfall progressively increases from north western to south eastern part. B. Sampling The sampling locations consist of rural as well as urban areas in this region. Seventy-Four groundwater samples were collected from hand pump during pre and post monsoon season of year 2006 to 2008 (fig. 1). Figure 1- Location map of the study area The samples were collected in polyethylene containers of 2 L capacity for physicochemical analysis after pumping out a sufficient quantity of water from the source such that, the sample collected serves as a representative sample. For bacteriological analysis, samples were collected in sterilized glass bottles of 500 ml capacity from the source. The samples thus collected were transported to the laboratory at freezer condition (4 C). The collected samples were transported to the National Environmental Engineering Research Institute (NEERI), Nagpur laboratory under suitable condition. The samples were analyzed as per standard procedure [9]. C. Analysis of groundwater samples The groundwater samples were analyzed for physicochemical and biological parameters. D. Physicochemical analysis involving spectrophotometry, flame photometry and volumetry were used for the physicochemical analysis [9]. E. Biological analysis The dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand was carried out using Winkler s method. In bacteriological examination, total coliforms (28 C for 24 h) and fecal coliforms (44.5 C for 24 h) were determined by Membrane Filtration (MF) technique, and the average values were recorded. The total coliforms (TC) was enumerated by M-Endo Agar, (Hi-Media Mumbai) which appeared as metallic sheen color colonies, and fecal coliforms (FC) were enumerated by M-FC Agar, (Hi-Media Mumbai) which appeared as blue color colonies. F. Water quality Index (WQI) Water quality index were calculated using nine indicator parameters of water quality and the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) WQI calculator [10]. WQI is one of the most effective ways to communicate information on the quality of water to the concerned citizen and the policy makers. It, thus become an important parameters for the assessment and management of groundwater. WQI may be defined as a rating reflecting the composite influence of a number of water quality parameters on the overall quality of water. The main objective of the WQI is to turn complex water quality data into information that understandable and usable by the public. WQI is the based on some important parameters viz., ph, temperature, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, total solids, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and coliforms, which can provide simple indicator of water quality. It gives a general idea of the possible problems with water in particular region [11]. NSF has given the classification of water quality on the basis of WQI rating presented in table 1 [12]. Table 1- Water quality criteria based on water quality index rating WQI Rating 0 to 25 Poor Water Quality 25 to 50 Bad 50 to 70 Medium 70 to 90 Good 90 to 100 Excellent The temperature of the samples was noted at III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION their sampling point itself. Standard procedure The physicochemical and biological results 50

3 have been subjected to statistical analysis and given in the Table 2 and 3. The observed ranges of the samples were compared with Bureau of Indian standards (BIS) [13]. The WQI values indicate the seasonal variation in groundwater quality (Table 4), which might happen due to different anthropogenic activities carried out near the sources. A. Physicochemical Parameters 1) ph: ph was found to be alkaline in nature in most of the samples but in some samples collected in monsoon shown slightly acidic. In the present study it range of in pre monsoon and in post monsoon season. ph value of different samples was within the desirable and suitable range. 2) Turbidity: The Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS) (1991) guideline value for turbidity in drinking water is 5 NTU. The observed range of turbidity was NTU in pre monsoon season and NTU in post monsoon season. In the present study 74% groundwater samples were found within BIS acceptable limit but 26% samples were in excess range in pre monsoon season. Likewise 64% groundwater samples were in BIS acceptable limit but 36% samples were in excess range in pre monsoon season. 3) Temperature: The temperature was in the range of C in pre monsoon and C in post monsoon season. Overall no considerable variation observed in the groundwater temperature but some location showed slightly difference which may due to different timings of collection and influence of season [14]. Table 2 - Physicochemical quality of groundwater in pre and post monsoon season Parameters Units Pre Monsoon Season Post Monsoon Season BIS Standards OR Avg SD OR Avg SD DL PL ph No Relaxation Temperature 0 C Turbidity NTU EC (µs/cm) TS NO Total Alk (as CaCO 3) TH (ascaco 3) Ca Hardness (as (mg/l) CaCO 3) Cl SO Na K TP EC-Electrical Conductance; TS-Total Solids; NO 3 -Nitrate; Total Alk-Total Alkalinity; TH-Total Hardness; Ca-Calcium; Cl Chlorides; SO 4-Sulphate; Na + -Sodium; K + -Potassium; TP-Total Phosphate; WQI-Water Quality Index; SD-Standard Deviation, OR-Observed Range, Avg-Average, DL- Desirable Limit, PL-Permissible Limit Table 3 - Biological quality of groundwater in pre and post monsoon season Parameters Units Pre Monsoon Season Post Monsoon Season BIS Standards OR Avg SD OR Avg SD DL PL DO (mg/l) BOD (mg/l) TC (CFU/100ml) Nil 10 FC (CFU/100ml) Nil 10 DO-Dissolved Oxygen; BOD-Biochemical Oxygen Demand; TC-Total Coliforms; FC-Faecal Coliforms; OR-Observed Range, Avg-Average, DL- Desirable Limit, PL-Permissible Limit 51

4 Table 4 - Seasonal Variation in Water Quality Index (WQI) in Wardha district Pre Monsoon Season Post Monsoon Season WQI Observed Range Average Quality of Water Observed Range Average Water Quality Good Medium 90 to100- Excellent; 70 to 90-Good; 50 to 70-Medium; 25 to 50-Bad; 0 to 25-Very Bad 4) Electrical conductivity: Electrical conductivity is a measure of the mineral content, was found to vary from (µs/cm) in pre monsoon season and µs/cm in the post monsoon season. There was no seasonal variation found in electrical conductivity. EC remains similar in pre-monsoon and post monsoon season in bore wells [15]. 5) Total Alkalinity: Alkalinity was found in the range of mg/l in pre monsoon season and mg/l in post monsoon season. Alkaline water may decrease the solubility of metals. The alkalinity varies in accordance with the fluctuation in the pollution load [16]. 6) Total Hardness and calcium hardness: Hardness is very important in decreasing the toxic effect of poisonous element. Hardness is measured in terms of total hardness and calcium hardness. Total hardness of groundwater sample was found to be in the range of mg/l in pre monsoon season and mg/l in post monsoon season. In both the season in some area the hardness was very high, also beyond the permissible limit. It is due to rocks bearing salts of Calcium and Magnesium. BIS has prescribed desirable limit of total hardness is 300 mg/l and permissible limit in the absence of alternate source is 600 mg/l (De, 2002). Calcium hardness of the groundwater sample was found to be in range of mg/ l and mg/l in pre monsoon and post monsoon season respectively. The BIS prescribed desirable limit of total hardness is 300 mg/l and the permissible limit is 600 mg/l. 7) Sulphate: The sulphate concentration was varied from mg/l in the pre monsoon season and mg/l in post monsoon season. There was no considerable seasonal variation in sulphate concentration. All the location not crossed the BIS limit (200mg/l) for sulphate in any season. 8) Chloride: The observed chloride content in the groundwater samples were ranges from mg/l and mg/l in the pre and post monsoon season. There is no much seasonal variation in the chloride contents. 9) Sodium and Potassium: The observed sodium content in the groundwater sample was varied from mg/l and mg/l. in pre and post monsoon season. The BIS has laid down the permissible limit of sodium, which is 60 to 120 mg/l. Natural waters normally contain low concentration of Potassium. Neither BIS nor any other organization lay down any limits for potassium content in drinking water [17]. The potassium content in ground water was found in the range of mg/l and mg/l in pre and post monsoon season respectively. 10) Total Solid: The observed range of solid was mg/l in pre monsoon season and mg/l in post monsoon season. In the present study 92% groundwater sample were in BIS acceptable limit but 8% samples were in excess range in pre monsoon season and 61% groundwater sample were in BIS acceptable limit (500 mg/l) but 39% samples were in excess range in pre monsoon season. 11) Nitrate: The nitrate concentration was found to be in the range of mg/l in pre monsoon season and mg/l in post monsoon season. It is within the desirable limit. BIS prescribed desirable limit of nitrate is 45mg/l. Nitrate indicates the pollution in ground water due to agricultural activities, sewage percolation beneath the surface. Presence of nitrate in water indicates the final stage of mineralization [18]. Nitrate concentration increases in ground water in the post monsoon season [15]. 12) Total Phosphate: The total phosphate concentration of groundwater ranged from mg/l in pre 52

5 monsoon season and mg/l in post monsoon season. B. Biological Parameters 1) Dissolved Oxygen and Biochemical Oxygen Demand: The dissolved oxygen concentration in groundwater was varied from mg/l and mg/l in pre and post monsoon season respectively. There is slightly variation in dissolved oxygen concentration in the post monsoon season. The biochemical oxygen demand in the groundwater sample was very low (ranges from mg/l in pre and post monsoon season) which showed that there would not be much organic waste present in the water. 2) Coliforms: The observed range of coliforms was 0-24 CFU/100ml in pre monsoon season and 0-81 CFU/100ml in post monsoon season. It was indicating the seasonal variation and the cross contamination of the sources, which might be possible due to anthropogenic activities. The BIS recommended value for coliforms is nil in 100 ml, but this presence of coliforms make the water unsuitable for drinking. 3) Water Quality Index The range of WQI values of all the samples collected during this study is presented in table 4. In pre monsoon season the WQI varied from 68 to 82, while during post monsoon season, it was between 60 and 81. It was found a significantly lower WQI during the postmonsoon season indicating a substandard quality of the groundwater during that season. In general 100% (74 samples) groundwater samples were of good quality in pre monsoon season but out of all sample 22% (16 samples) groundwater sample showed the quality change from good to medium in post monsoon season ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author hereby acknowledges the kind and wholehearted support of the Director, NEERI, Nagpur, India. I also take this opportunity to thank Dr. Atul Kulkarni, Director, Datasol Consultancy, Nagpur, M.S. India, for his overall support in data management and analysis. REFERENCES [1] Olaniya, M.S. and Saxena, K.L., 1977 Groundwater pollution by open refuse dumps at Jaipur. Environ. Health. 19, [2] Gillison, R.J and Patmont, C.R., Lake phosphorus loading from septic systems by seasonally perched groundwater. J. Water Pollut. Con. Fed. 55, [3] Singh, Mandeep, Samanpreet Kaur and Sooch, S.S., Groundwater pollution An overview. J. IPHE. 2, [4] Sinha, D. K., & Shrivastava, A. K., Water quality index for river Sai at Rae Bareli for the pre-monsoon period and after the onset of monsoon. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, 14(5), [5] Pradhan, S. K., Patnaik, D., & Rout, S. P., Groundwater quality index for groundwater around a phosphatic fertilizers plant. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, 21(4), [6] Rajankar, P.N., Tambekar, D. H., and Wate, S. R., Groundwater Quality and Water Quality Index at Bhandara District. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, DOI /s y. [7] Dunnette, D. A., A geographically variable water quality index used in Oregon. Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation, 51(1), [8] Padmanabha, B., and Belagali, S. L., Water quality index of Kabini River in the Kallahally Village of Nanjangud Taluk, Mysore District, Karnataka (India). Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, 49(1), [9] APHA (1998) Standard Methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 19th ed. American Public Health Association, Washington, D. C., 1:467. [10] NSF- [11] Bangalore S. Shankar and Latha Sanjeev (2008) Environmental Engineering Science. 25(6), doi: /ees [12] Rajankar, P.N., Gulhane, S. R., Tambekar, D.H., Ramteke, D. S., and Wate, S. R., Water Quality Assessment of Groundwater Resources in Nagpur Region Based on Water Quality Index. E-Journal of Chemistry., 6(3), [13] BIS (1991) Indian standard specification for drinking water. BIS [14] Jayaraman, P.R., Ganga Devi, T. and Vasuena Naya, T., Water quality studies on Kasmane River, Thiruvanantpuram, District South Kerala, India, Poll. Res., 32(1), [15] Mutiyar P. K., Mittal A. K. and Pekdeger A., 2011 Status of organochlorine pesticides in the drinking water well-field located in the Delhi 53

6 region of the flood plains of river Yamuna, Drink. Water Eng. Sci. 4, [16] Parashar C., Dixit, S. and Srivastava, R Seasonal Variations in Physico-chemical characteristics in upper Lake of Bhopal, Asian. J. Exp. Sci., 20(2), [17] Srivastava, S.K., Groundwater quality in parts of Uttarakhand Groundwater Proc.National Seminar on Agri. Dev. and Rural Drinking Water, Vol II Bhopal, India, [18] Nema P., Rajgopalan, S. and Mehta, C.G., Quality and Treatment of Sabarmati River water Ahmedabad, J.I.W.W.A. 16(1),

QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AS FLUORIDE, IRON AND NITRATE CONTAMINATED DRINKING GROUNDWATER

QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AS FLUORIDE, IRON AND NITRATE CONTAMINATED DRINKING GROUNDWATER QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AS FLUORIDE, IRON AND NITRATE CONTAMINATED DRINKING GROUNDWATER K. T. Bharati* N.D. Phatangare* Dr.D.B.Gujarathi* IN NASHIK DISTRICT, MAHARASHTRA,

More information

An Investigation of Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability to Irrigated Agriculture in Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India A GIS Approach

An Investigation of Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability to Irrigated Agriculture in Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India A GIS Approach An Investigation of Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability to Irrigated Agriculture in Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu, India A GIS Approach Balachandar. D 1, Sundararaj P. 1, Rutharvel Murthy K. 1 Kumaraswamy

More information

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION MAPPING FOR VARIOUS POLLUTANTS OF AL-KUFA RIVER USING GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)

SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION MAPPING FOR VARIOUS POLLUTANTS OF AL-KUFA RIVER USING GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 6, Issue 10, Oct 2015, pp. 01-14 Article ID: IJCIET_06_10_001 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?jtype=ijciet&vtype=6&itype=10

More information

Ground Water Contamination by Leachate

Ground Water Contamination by Leachate Ground Water Contamination by Leachate Manoj P. Wagh, Piyush K. Bhandari, Swapnil Kurhade Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, P. D. V. V. P. College of Engineering, Ahmednagar, India.

More information

Total Suspended Solids Total Dissolved Solids Hardness

Total Suspended Solids Total Dissolved Solids Hardness Total Suspended Solids (TSS) are solids in water that can be trapped by a filter. TSS can include a wide variety of material, such as silt, decaying plant and animal matter, industrial wastes, and sewage.

More information

NAJAFGARH DRAIN-SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

NAJAFGARH DRAIN-SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS Dr. Anamika Paul* Preeti Jain* Kartikey Handa* NAJAFGARH DRAIN-SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS Abstract: Over the past years, due to rapid industrialization and advanced agricultural activities environmental deterioration

More information

National Water Quality Monitoring Programme

National Water Quality Monitoring Programme National Water Quality Monitoring Programme Objectives of Water Quality Monitoring The preamble of Water (prevention and control of pollution) Act, 1974 stated that pollution control board both at States

More information

WATER QUALITY MONITORING AND APPLICATION OF HYDROLOGICAL MODELING TOOLS AT A WASTEWATER IRRIGATION SITE IN NAM DINH, VIETNAM

WATER QUALITY MONITORING AND APPLICATION OF HYDROLOGICAL MODELING TOOLS AT A WASTEWATER IRRIGATION SITE IN NAM DINH, VIETNAM WATER QUALITY MONITORING AND APPLICATION OF HYDROLOGICAL MODELING TOOLS AT A WASTEWATER IRRIGATION SITE IN NAM DINH, VIETNAM LeifBasherg (1) OlujZejlllJul Jessen (1) INTRODUCTION The current paper is the

More information

[Dubey*, 5(2): February, 2016] ISSN: 2277-9655 (I2OR), Publication Impact Factor: 3.785

[Dubey*, 5(2): February, 2016] ISSN: 2277-9655 (I2OR), Publication Impact Factor: 3.785 IJESRT INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES & RESEARCH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF WATER QUALITY STATUS OF YAMUNA RIVER AND ITS TREATMENT BY ELECTRODE BASED TECHNIQUES R. S. Dubey* Department of

More information

4.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDES

4.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDES 4.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF CHLORIDES Sl. No. Contents Preamble 4.1 Aim 4.2 Introduction 4.2.1 Environmental Significance 4.3 Principle 4.4 Materials Required 4.4.1 Apparatus Required 4.4.2 Chemicals

More information

- 129 - ANANLYSIS OF WATER QUALITY VARIATION IN KELANI RIVER, SRI LANKA USING PRINCIPAL COMPONET ANALYSIS

- 129 - ANANLYSIS OF WATER QUALITY VARIATION IN KELANI RIVER, SRI LANKA USING PRINCIPAL COMPONET ANALYSIS - 129 - ANANLYSIS OF WATER QUALITY VARIATION IN KELANI RIVER, SRI LANKA USING PRINCIPAL COMPONET ANALYSIS.S.W. Athukorala 1, L. S. Weerasinghe 1, M. Jayasooria 1, D. Rajapakshe 1, L. Fernando 1, M. Raffeeze

More information

Major Ions in Water. Training module # WQ - 28. New Delhi, September 1999

Major Ions in Water. Training module # WQ - 28. New Delhi, September 1999 World Bank & Government of The Netherlands funded Training module # WQ - 28 Major Ions in Water New Delhi, September 1999 CSMRS Building, 4th Floor, Olof Palme Marg, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 11 00 16 India

More information

Chemical nutrient analysis of different composts (Vermicompost and Pitcompost) and their effect on the growth of a vegetative crop Pisum sativum

Chemical nutrient analysis of different composts (Vermicompost and Pitcompost) and their effect on the growth of a vegetative crop Pisum sativum Available online at www.pelagiaresearchlibrary.com Asian Journal of Plant Science and Research, 2011, 1 (1):116-130 Chemical nutrient analysis of different composts (Vermicompost and Pitcompost) and their

More information

Testing Water for Gardening and Lawn Irrigation

Testing Water for Gardening and Lawn Irrigation wellcare information for you about Testing Water for Gardening and Lawn Irrigation Within a household, water may serve many functions beyond everyday household uses such as drinking, cooking, laundry,

More information

Hydro Chemical Analysis of Surface and Ground Water Quality of Yamuna River at Agra, India

Hydro Chemical Analysis of Surface and Ground Water Quality of Yamuna River at Agra, India J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 2 (4) (211) 373-378 Maheshwari et al. ISSN : 228-258 Hydro Chemical Analysis of Surface and Ground Water Quality of Yamuna River at Agra, India Arti Maheshwari 1,*, Manisha Sharma

More information

5.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF TOTAL HARDNESS

5.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF TOTAL HARDNESS 5.0 EXPERIMENT ON DETERMINATION OF TOTAL HARDNESS Sl. No. Contents Preamble 5.1 Aim 5.2 Introduction 5.2.1 Environmental Significance 5.3 Principle 5.4 Materials Required 5.4.1 Apparatus Required 5.4.2

More information

How do you treat water based on water quality from different water sources?

How do you treat water based on water quality from different water sources? How do you treat water based on water quality from different water sources? Why? Authors: Wendy Lane and Kim Sciarrone Seattle Public Schools; Seattle, WA Water from different sources will contain different

More information

Appendix D lists the Field Services Standard Operating Procedures. Appendix E lists the Biological Monitoring Standard Operating Procedures.

Appendix D lists the Field Services Standard Operating Procedures. Appendix E lists the Biological Monitoring Standard Operating Procedures. Page 16 of 87 3.3 Sample Collection, Storage and Preservation Figure 3 details required containers, sample volumes, preservation techniques, and holding times for proper sample collection. A discussion

More information

Seasonal Variations of Physico-chemical Characteristics in Water Resources Quality in Western Niger Delta Region, Nigeria

Seasonal Variations of Physico-chemical Characteristics in Water Resources Quality in Western Niger Delta Region, Nigeria JASEM ISSN 1119-8362 All rights reserved Full-text Available Online at www.bioline.org.br/ja Seasonal Variations of Physico-chemical Characteristics in Water Resources Quality in Western Niger Delta Region,

More information

Water and Wastewater. Sample Collection and Analysis

Water and Wastewater. Sample Collection and Analysis Water and Wastewater Sample Collection and Analysis December 2011 Introduction Accurate testing of drinking water is crucial to maintaining the health and safety of Islanders who rely on this resource.

More information

Phosphate Recovery from Municipal Wastewater through Crystallization of Calcium Phosphate

Phosphate Recovery from Municipal Wastewater through Crystallization of Calcium Phosphate Phosphate Recovery from Municipal Wastewater through Crystallization of Calcium Phosphate A. Alamdari, Ph.D. * and S. Rohani, M.Sc. * Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University,

More information

Bacteriological water quality status of River Yamuna in Delhi

Bacteriological water quality status of River Yamuna in Delhi Journal of Environmental Biology January 2006, 27(1) 97-101 (2006) Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India) For personal use only Free paper downloaded from: www.jeb.co.in Commercial distribution of this copy

More information

Factors Affecting Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate

Factors Affecting Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate Factors Affecting Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate John A. Wojtowicz Chemcon Laboratory tests with clear solutions showed that precipitation of calcium carbonate does not occur in the ph range 7.5 to

More information

Hardness Comparisons

Hardness Comparisons Hardness Comparisons Hardness Adapted from: An original Creek Connections activity. Creek Connections, Box 10, Allegheny College, Meadville, Pennsylvania 16335. Grade Level: all Duration: 50 minutes Setting:

More information

Characterization of Contaminated Soil and Surface Water/ Ground Water Surrounding Waste Dump Sites in Bangalore

Characterization of Contaminated Soil and Surface Water/ Ground Water Surrounding Waste Dump Sites in Bangalore International Journal of Environmental Research and Development. ISSN 2249-3131 Volume 4, Number 2 (2014), pp. 99-104 Research India Publications http://www.ripublication.com/ijerd.htm Characterization

More information

Guidance for assessment of representativeness and reliability of baseline environmental attributes

Guidance for assessment of representativeness and reliability of baseline environmental attributes Annex IV Methods of Monitoring and Analysis Guidance for assessment of representativeness and reliability of baseline environmental attributes (Also Please Refer CPCB Guidelines on Methods of Monitoring

More information

Planning, Designing, Monitoring and Inspection of Wastewater Treatment Systems of Industries

Planning, Designing, Monitoring and Inspection of Wastewater Treatment Systems of Industries International Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. ISSN 2248-9924 Volume 3, Number 3 (2013), pp. 225-230 Research India Publications http://www.ripublication.com Planning, Designing, Monitoring

More information

2x800 MW Thermal Power Project Near Village Paraspani, Tehsil Pathargama, Godda- District By Adani Power (Jharkhand) Limited

2x800 MW Thermal Power Project Near Village Paraspani, Tehsil Pathargama, Godda- District By Adani Power (Jharkhand) Limited (IV) Proposed Terms of Reference for EIA Studies Project Category Project Proponent Location Paraspani Thermal Power Plant (2x800 MW) Coal based Thermal Power Project A [1(d) Thermal Power Plant 500 MW]

More information

Parts per million (ppm) or Milligrams per liter (mg/l): one part by weight of analyte to 1 million parts by weight of the water sample.

Parts per million (ppm) or Milligrams per liter (mg/l): one part by weight of analyte to 1 million parts by weight of the water sample. 2015 Annual Drinking Water Quality Report St. Johns County Utility CR 214 Mainland We're pleased to present to you this year's Annual Water Quality Report. This report is designed to inform you about the

More information

Analysis of the Water Quality of Eighteenmile Creek, Erie County, New York:

Analysis of the Water Quality of Eighteenmile Creek, Erie County, New York: Analysis of the Water Quality of Eighteenmile Creek, Erie County, New York: A Comparison of Water Quality Between 1970, 1973 and 2000 By: Kristal Lynn Krasinski Senior Student Department of Geography/Planning

More information

Irrigation Water for Greenhouses and Nurseries

Irrigation Water for Greenhouses and Nurseries Agriculture and Natural Resources Irrigation Water for Greenhouses and Nurseries FSA6061 James Robbins Professor - Ornamentals Arkansas Is Our Campus Visit our web site at: http://www.uaex.edu Both the

More information

TREATMENT OF SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOW

TREATMENT OF SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOW TREATMENT OF SANITARY SEWER OVERFLOW WITH FIXED MEDIA BIOREACTORS J. Tao, K. M. Mancl, O. H. Tuovinen ABSTRACT. Fixed media bioreactors (biofilters) are a promising and proven technology used for wastewater

More information

ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY APPROVAL PROGRAM CERTIFICATION MANUAL DATE 06/15/12

ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY APPROVAL PROGRAM CERTIFICATION MANUAL DATE 06/15/12 1 of 5 Since ELAP no longer certifies for the CLP tier, the CLP tier personnel requirements were removed from this item. Technical Director Each environmental laboratory shall appoint one or more technical

More information

Study and Interpretation of Physico-Chemical Characteristic of Kerwa Dam Water Quality in Bhopal City (India)

Study and Interpretation of Physico-Chemical Characteristic of Kerwa Dam Water Quality in Bhopal City (India) International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Science 3(1): 28-34(2011) ISSN No. (Print) : 0975-1718 ISSN No. (Online) : 2249-3247 Study and Interpretation of Physico-Chemical Characteristic of Kerwa

More information

Texas Commission on Environmental Quality

Texas Commission on Environmental Quality Matrix: Drinking Water Method EPA 1603 (modified mtec) AB ID Method ID Escherichia coli (enumeration) TX 2525 10236201 Method EPA 200.5 AB ID Method ID Arsenic TX 1010 10213975 Beryllium TX 1020 10213975

More information

Innovative Removal of Agricultural Related Water Pollutants in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

Innovative Removal of Agricultural Related Water Pollutants in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Innovative Removal of Agricultural Related Water Pollutants in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed William E. Roper, Kelly P. Rock, and Howard E. Sorber III Micronic Technologies, Wise, VA National Capital Regional

More information

SOURCE WATER PROTECTION DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS ISSUES EVALUATION

SOURCE WATER PROTECTION DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS ISSUES EVALUATION SOURCE WATER PROTECTION DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS ISSUES EVALUATION OXFORD COUNTY PUBLIC WORKS DEPARTMENT OCTOBER 2009 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION...1 1.1. CLEAN WATER ACT AND THE ISSUES IDENTIFICATION/EVALUATION

More information

Water Treatment Filtration Lab. discharged into an aquatic ecosystem? We had to build a water filtration system with

Water Treatment Filtration Lab. discharged into an aquatic ecosystem? We had to build a water filtration system with Water Treatment Filtration Lab Brandon Lyons P.5 APES Abstract: How could polluted water be remediated so that it could support life when it is discharged into an aquatic ecosystem? We had to build a water

More information

water quality 2007 annual report Huntington District Our Customer Charter Dear West Virginia American Water Customer,

water quality 2007 annual report Huntington District Our Customer Charter Dear West Virginia American Water Customer, Dear West Virginia American Water Customer, 2007 annual water quality report You are our top priority. And delivering reliable, high-quality water to you all day, every day is our mission. We deliver at

More information

PROPOSED TOR FOR EIA STUDY

PROPOSED TOR FOR EIA STUDY JAWAHARPUR VIDYUT UTPADAN NIGAM LIMITED 2x660 MW JAWAHARPUR THERMAL POWER PROJECT JAWAHARPUR, DISTRICT ETAH, UTTAR PRADESH PROPOSED TOR FOR EIA STUDY SEPTEMBER- 2015 DESEIN PRIVATE LIMITED CONSULTING ENGINEERS

More information

Treatment of dairy wastewater by natural coagulants

Treatment of dairy wastewater by natural coagulants Treatment of dairy wastewater by natural coagulants Prof. Chidanand Patil 1, Ms. Manika Hugar 2 1 Assistant professor, Environmental Engineering, KLEMSSCET Belgaum, Karnataka, India 2PG Scholar, Environmental

More information

CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION: WATER SOFTENING

CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION: WATER SOFTENING CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION: WATER SOFTENING Submitted to: Dr. Hashsham Research Complex Engineering Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 4884 Authors

More information

WASTEWATER TREATMENT OBJECTIVES

WASTEWATER TREATMENT OBJECTIVES WASTEWATER TREATMENT OBJECTIVES The student will do the following: 1. Define wastewater and list components of wastewater. 2. Describe the function of a wastewater treatment plant. 3. Create a wastewater

More information

Lesson Plan: How Do We Know What is Healthy Water?

Lesson Plan: How Do We Know What is Healthy Water? Lesson Plan: How Do We Know What is Healthy Water? Estimated Time: 1-3 days ph /Chlorine / Hardness State Standards taught and addressed Grade 8: Standards Taught (and evaluated at end of lesson) Science

More information

WASTEWATER TREATMENT

WASTEWATER TREATMENT Freshwater WASTEWATER TREATMENT Water Quality 1. INDICATOR (a) Name: Wastewater treatment. (b) Brief Definition: Proportion of wastewater that is treated, in order to reduce pollutants before being discharged

More information

Phosphorus, Reactive (Orthophosphate)

Phosphorus, Reactive (Orthophosphate) Phosphorus, Reactive (Orthophosphate) DOC316.53.01113 Amino Acid Method 1 Method 8178 0.23 to 30.00 mg/l PO 4 Reagent Solution Scope and application: For water, wastewater and seawater. 1 Adapted from

More information

CITY OF BAD AXE 2014 WATER QUALITY REPORT

CITY OF BAD AXE 2014 WATER QUALITY REPORT CITY OF BAD AXE 2014 WATER QUALITY REPORT In 1996, Congress amended the Safe Drinking Water Act which added a provision requiring that all community water systems provide their customers a brief annual

More information

Environmental Water Testing: Surface Water, Groundwater, Hard Water, Wastewater, & Seawater

Environmental Water Testing: Surface Water, Groundwater, Hard Water, Wastewater, & Seawater Document: AND Sol Env 08 2013 Environmental Water Testing: Surface Water, Groundwater, Hard Water, Wastewater, & Seawater Matrix specific sample preparation and testing methods for environmental waters

More information

Performance of Portable Instant Water Filter Developed for Emergency Water Supply

Performance of Portable Instant Water Filter Developed for Emergency Water Supply International Journal of Water Resources and Arid Environments 1(2): 146-152, 2011 ISSN 2079-7079 PSIPW, 2011 Performance of Portable Instant Water Filter Developed for Emergency Water Supply Er. Subhash

More information

Ion Exchange Softening

Ion Exchange Softening Ion Exchange Softening Ion-exchange is used extensively in small water systems and individual homes. Ion-exchange resin, (zeolite) exchanges one ion from the water being treated for another ion that is

More information

Public Water System. Consumer Confidence Report Template

Public Water System. Consumer Confidence Report Template Public Water System Consumer Confidence Report Template Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Division of Drinking and Ground Waters www.epa.ohio.gov/ddagw Updated March 2015 Section 1: Title {Water System

More information

How To Know If Your Well Water Is Safe

How To Know If Your Well Water Is Safe Bernalillo County Office of Environmental Health A comprehensive guide to help maintain your well and keep your drinking water safe Bernalillo County Office of Environmental Health Bernalillo County Commission

More information

Lesson 4: What Makes Water Healthy?

Lesson 4: What Makes Water Healthy? Lesson 4: What Makes Water Healthy? Activity: Students make observations and measurements of several water samples. This activity helps students think about different ways to determine water quality. Grade

More information

Comparing Levels of Phosphates in Dishwasher Detergents

Comparing Levels of Phosphates in Dishwasher Detergents Lesson Plan Grades 9-12 Note: The Student Resource Page and Student Worksheets can be found at the end of this lesson plan. Essential Questions > How can phosphate levels in water be measured? > How much

More information

Physico-chemical Characterization of Distillery Effluent and its Dilution Effect at Different Levels

Physico-chemical Characterization of Distillery Effluent and its Dilution Effect at Different Levels Available online at wwwscholarsresearchlibrarycom Archives of Applied Science Research, 212, 4 (4):175-1715 (http://scholarsresearchlibrarycom/archivehtml) ISSN 975-58X CODEN (USA) AASRC9 Physico-chemical

More information

SAMPLE CHAPTERS UNESCO EOLSS SURFACE WATER MONITORING. Masanori Ando Musashino University, Japan

SAMPLE CHAPTERS UNESCO EOLSS SURFACE WATER MONITORING. Masanori Ando Musashino University, Japan SURFACE WATER MONITORING Masanori Ando Musashino University, Japan Keywords: surface water, monitoring, sampling, monitoring program, monitoring location, sampling programs, flow measurement, sampling

More information

How To Test For Fecal Coliform Contamination In Drinking Water

How To Test For Fecal Coliform Contamination In Drinking Water African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 6 (6), pp. 713-717, 19 March 2007 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/ajb ISSN 1684 5315 2007 Academic Journals Full Length Research Paper Evaluation

More information

Water Quality Profile of Yamuna River, India

Water Quality Profile of Yamuna River, India Water Quality Profile of Yamuna River, India M.P. Sharma, S.K. Singal and S. Patra Abstract: The water quality profile of a river represents the extent of its pollution in terms of health of a river with

More information

2010 Annual Drinking Water Quality Report Collier County Water Department

2010 Annual Drinking Water Quality Report Collier County Water Department Annual Drinking Water Quality Report Collier County Water Department The Collier County Water Department is pleased to present this annual water quality report. We trust that you will read this report

More information

What we ve learned from over 20 years of voluntary private well water testing

What we ve learned from over 20 years of voluntary private well water testing What we ve learned from over 20 years of voluntary private well water testing Kevin Masarik, David Mechenich and Christine Mechenich WI Section AWRA Conference March 7 th, 2013 What we ve learned from

More information

ENE 806, Project Report 3 CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION: WATER SOFTENING. Grégoire Seyrig Wenqian Shan

ENE 806, Project Report 3 CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION: WATER SOFTENING. Grégoire Seyrig Wenqian Shan ENE 806, Project Report 3 CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION: WATER SOFTENING Grégoire Seyrig Wenqian Shan College of Engineering, Michigan State University Spring 2007 ABSTRACT The groundwater with high level initial

More information

Saving water means saving money; Fix those leaks right away. Community Water Company of Green Valley. Our Water Source

Saving water means saving money; Fix those leaks right away. Community Water Company of Green Valley. Our Water Source Published June 20155 Community Water Company of Green Valley Water Quality Report 1501 S. La Canada Dr., Green Valley, AZ 85622 Phone: 520-625-8409 www.communitywater.com Community Water Company is pleased

More information

TERRA TEK LIMITED GUIDE TO SAMPLE HANDLING. Version 1.06

TERRA TEK LIMITED GUIDE TO SAMPLE HANDLING. Version 1.06 TERRA TEK LIMITED GUIDE TO SAMPLE HANDLING Version 1.06 September 2009 Guidance on Sample Containers & Storage Conditions - SOIL SAMPLES 500ml Plastic Tub Suitable for: Inorganic Parameters, usually sufficient

More information

Title 22: HEALTH AND WELFARE

Title 22: HEALTH AND WELFARE Title 22: HEALTH AND WELFARE Chapter 157-A: HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL TESTING LABORATORY HEADING: PL 1991, c. 499, 2 (new) Table of Contents Subtitle 2. HEALTH... Part 2. STATE AND LOCAL HEALTH AGENCIES...

More information

Department of Environmental Engineering

Department of Environmental Engineering Department of Environmental Engineering Master of Engineering Program in Environmental Engineering (International Program) M.Eng. (Environmental Engineering) Plan A Option 1: (1) Major courses: minimum

More information

Monsoon effects on abandoned and active dumping sitesat Pondicherry

Monsoon effects on abandoned and active dumping sitesat Pondicherry Monsoon effects on abandoned and active dumping sitesat Pondicherry V.JOTHI 1, K. RAVIKUMAR 2*, ASHUTOSH DAS 1 and MUKESH GOEL 1 1 Centre forsustainable Development, PRIST University, Thanjavur, TamilNadu,

More information

THE NEW NSF 350 AND 350-1

THE NEW NSF 350 AND 350-1 THE NEW NSF 350 AND 350-1 These American National Standards help in evaluating and approving water reuse treatment technologies. BY TOM BRUURSEMA Figure 1 At the NSF residential wastewater treatment system

More information

Complete. Water Solutions. for Rural India

Complete. Water Solutions. for Rural India Complete Water Solutions for Rural India More precious than gold. That s what safe drinking water is to India s rural population. Arsenic, iron, fluoride, nitrate, brackishness and pathogens in ground

More information

EPB 311- Strategies for Dealing with Groundwater Treatment Systems Having High Natural Ammonia

EPB 311- Strategies for Dealing with Groundwater Treatment Systems Having High Natural Ammonia EPB 311- Strategies for Dealing with Groundwater Treatment Systems Having High Natural Ammonia Background The occurrence of ammonia (NH 3 ) in the water source is often associated with pollution due to

More information

Available online at www.scholarsresearchlibrary.com. Scholars Research Library. Archives of Applied Science Research, 2011, 3 (1): 175-179

Available online at www.scholarsresearchlibrary.com. Scholars Research Library. Archives of Applied Science Research, 2011, 3 (1): 175-179 Available online at www.scholarsresearchlibrary.com Scholars Research Library Archives of Applied Science Research, 2011, 3 (1): 175-179 (http://scholarsresearchlibrary.com/archive.html) ISSN 0975-508X

More information

Depletion Respiration

Depletion Respiration Depletion Respiration Depletion The investigation and monitoring of biological cleaning treatment processes are becoming more and more important with respect to the environmental requirements such as wastewater

More information

1. Inspection and monitoring... 3

1. Inspection and monitoring... 3 1 Index 1. Inspection and monitoring... 3 1.1 Handling of new elements... 3 1.1.1 Storage of original packaged RO elements... 3 1.1.2 Packing... 3 1.2 Initial start- up checks of a plant... 3 1.2.1 Preparation

More information

WATER TREATMENT IN AUCKLAND

WATER TREATMENT IN AUCKLAND WATER TREATMENT IN AUCKLAND Auckland's water (like water throughout New Zealand) is a combination of water from dams and water from underground springs. Depending on the source of the water, it has different

More information

Chapter 5, Lesson 3 Why Does Water Dissolve Salt?

Chapter 5, Lesson 3 Why Does Water Dissolve Salt? Chapter 5, Lesson 3 Why Does Water Dissolve Salt? Key Concepts The polarity of water molecules enables water to dissolve many ionically bonded substances. Salt (sodium chloride) is made from positive sodium

More information

ASSESSMENT OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND WATER REUSE PRACTICES IN THE GULF COUNTRIES

ASSESSMENT OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND WATER REUSE PRACTICES IN THE GULF COUNTRIES ASSESSMENT OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND WATER REUSE PRACTICES IN THE GULF COUNTRIES Mohamed F. Hamoda Professor of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering Department of Civil Engineering, Kuwait University

More information

Water Softening for Hardness Removal. Hardness in Water. Methods of Removing Hardness 5/1/15. WTRG18 Water Softening and Hardness

Water Softening for Hardness Removal. Hardness in Water. Methods of Removing Hardness 5/1/15. WTRG18 Water Softening and Hardness Water Softening for Removal 1 in Water High concentration of calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) ions in water cause hardness Generally, water containing more than 100 mg/l of hardness expressed as calcium

More information

1 Quality Assurance and Quality Control Project Plan

1 Quality Assurance and Quality Control Project Plan 1 Quality Assurance and Quality Control Project Plan The purpose of this section is to describe the quality assurance/quality control program that will be used during the system specific field testing

More information

Water Quality Monitoring in India: A Review

Water Quality Monitoring in India: A Review International Journal of Information and Computation Technology. ISSN 0974-2239 Volume 3, Number 8 (2013), pp. 851-856 International Research Publications House http://www. irphouse.com /ijict.htm Water

More information

Presented by Paul Krauth Utah DEQ. Salt Lake Countywide Watershed Symposium October 28-29, 2008

Presented by Paul Krauth Utah DEQ. Salt Lake Countywide Watershed Symposium October 28-29, 2008 Basic Nutrient Removal from Water Beta Edition Presented by Paul Krauth Utah DEQ Salt Lake Countywide Watershed Symposium October 28-29, 2008 Presentation Outline Salt Lake County waters / 303(d) listings

More information

Development of Advanced Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation System

Development of Advanced Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation System 14 Development of Advanced Wastewater Treatment and Reclamation System TAKESHI TERAZAKI *1 HOZUMI OTOZAI *2 KOSUKE SHIGIISHI *2 HIDEO SUZUKI *3 HIROSHI NAKASHOJI *4 HIROYUKI KAWAMOTO *5 Recycling and the

More information

Best Practice in Boiler Water Treatment

Best Practice in Boiler Water Treatment Best Practice in Boiler Water Treatment Boiler Water Treatment Part 2 Internal Treatment Objectives of Internal Water Treatment 1 To control the level of total dissolved solids (TDS) within the boiler

More information

NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY. School of Civil and Environmental Engineering. CV2701: Laboratory 2A. Laboratory Manual. For

NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY. School of Civil and Environmental Engineering. CV2701: Laboratory 2A. Laboratory Manual. For NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY School of Civil and Environmental Engineering CV2701: Laboratory 2A Laboratory Manual For Experiment Lab 2A-6(ENV) Wastewater Quality Analysis Location : Environment Laboratory,

More information

Strength and Workability Characteristics of Concrete by Using Different Super Plasticizers

Strength and Workability Characteristics of Concrete by Using Different Super Plasticizers International Journal of Materials Engineering 12, 2(1): 7-11 DOI: 1.923/j.ijme.11.2 Strength and Workability Characteristics of Concrete by Using Different Super Plasticizers Venu Malagavelli *, Neelakanteswara

More information

A User s Guide for the Ambient Water Quality Guidelines for Cadmium

A User s Guide for the Ambient Water Quality Guidelines for Cadmium A User s Guide for the Ambient Water Quality Guidelines for Cadmium What is a Water Quality Guideline? The British Columbia Ministry of Environment develops ambient water quality guidelines (WQGs) to assess

More information

Local Initiatives in Water Quality Management Programs in the Philippines: Policy Issues and Challenges

Local Initiatives in Water Quality Management Programs in the Philippines: Policy Issues and Challenges Local Initiatives in Water Quality Management Programs in the Philippines: Policy Issues and Challenges Carlos M. Pascual*, Catherine P. Abadilla, and Fairie Anne P. Acedebo Mariano Marcos State University

More information

Precipitation Titration: Determination of Chloride by the Mohr Method by Dr. Deniz Korkmaz

Precipitation Titration: Determination of Chloride by the Mohr Method by Dr. Deniz Korkmaz Precipitation Titration: Determination of Chloride by the Mohr Method by Dr. Deniz Korkmaz Introduction Titration is a process by which the concentration of an unknown substance in solution is determined

More information

Mystic River Watershed Association Water Quality Monitoring: Malden River May 28 th 2002

Mystic River Watershed Association Water Quality Monitoring: Malden River May 28 th 2002 Mystic River Watershed Association Water Quality Monitoring: Malden River May 28 th 2002 Introduction The Mystic River Watershed Association, through its Mystic Monitoring Network (MMN) program, has been

More information

Analysis of Total Suspended Solids and Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations of the Algal- Bacterial Selenium Removal (ABSR) system.

Analysis of Total Suspended Solids and Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations of the Algal- Bacterial Selenium Removal (ABSR) system. Analysis of Total Suspended Solids and Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations of the Algal- Bacterial Selenium Removal (ABSR) system Veasna Hang Abstract The Algal-Bacterial Selenium Removal (ABSR) system has

More information

Total Dissolved Solids:

Total Dissolved Solids: Total Dissolved Solids: Going From Tedious to TDS Michael Bechtold, Technical Specialist David Smith, Technical Director Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) What is it and why does it matter? How is it currently

More information

ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES. An introduction

ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES. An introduction ION EXCHANGE FOR DUMMIES An introduction Water Water is a liquid. Water is made of water molecules (formula H 2 O). All natural waters contain some foreign substances, usually in small amounts. The water

More information

Microbiological Testing of the Sawyer Mini Filter. 16 December 2013. Summary

Microbiological Testing of the Sawyer Mini Filter. 16 December 2013. Summary Microbiological Testing of the Sawyer Mini Filter 16 December 2013 Summary The Sawyer Mini Filter was tested for its ability to remove three microorganisms Raoultella terrigena, Bacillus subtilis, and

More information

(IV) Proposed Terms of Reference for EIA Studies

(IV) Proposed Terms of Reference for EIA Studies ENVIRONMENT CLERNCE FOR EXPNSION OF 1X600 MW SUPER CRITICL THERML POWER PLNT BY DDITION 2X800 MW UNIT (PHSE II) IN RIGRH DISTRICT IN CHHTTISGRH STTE (IV) Proposed Terms of Reference for EI Studies Project

More information

TREATMENT OF PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER PLANT WASTE WATER IN FLORIDA FOR DISCHARGE AND RE USE PURPOSES

TREATMENT OF PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER PLANT WASTE WATER IN FLORIDA FOR DISCHARGE AND RE USE PURPOSES TREATMENT OF PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER PLANT WASTE WATER IN FLORIDA FOR DISCHARGE AND RE USE PURPOSES JOHN F. BOSSLER, SIEMENS Water Technologies Corp., Hoffman Estates, IL RONALD TRAVIS, SIEMENS Water Technologies

More information

Brewery Wastewater: 2010 Water and Wastewater Conference. 11.02.2011 Page 1

Brewery Wastewater: 2010 Water and Wastewater Conference. 11.02.2011 Page 1 Brewery Wastewater: Solutions for the Problem By Fred M. Scheer 2010 Water and Wastewater Conference Madison, WI 11.02.2011 Page 1 vr74 What We Will Discuss: Biochemical i Oxygen Demand (BOD): Where does

More information

State of pollution in the Yamuna

State of pollution in the Yamuna State of pollution in the Yamuna Introduction: While the Delhi government had been debating on what needs to be done to clean the river, the pollution levels have only worsened. In its book Sewage Canal:

More information

Water Quality Tests Summary

Water Quality Tests Summary Water Quality Tests Summary Contents Water Quality Tests 13 Water Quality Index 14 Temperature 17 ph.. 17 Chloride and Salinity 19 Turbidity 19 Nitrate Phosphates 21 Water Hardness Calcium and Magnesium

More information

ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY APPROVAL PROGRAM CERTIFICATION MANUAL

ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY APPROVAL PROGRAM CERTIFICATION MANUAL 1 of 8 The quality assurance plan as presented in the Quality Manual should assure that constant and consistent test conditions are met and verified and should be tailored to the laboratory s activities.

More information

Overview of Best Available Technologies for Onsite Septic Systems and Management Considerations Presentation to NAHB

Overview of Best Available Technologies for Onsite Septic Systems and Management Considerations Presentation to NAHB Overview of Best Available Technologies for Onsite Septic Systems and Management Considerations Presentation to NAHB A. R. Rubin, Professor Emeritus, NCSU-BAE Technical Wastewater Issues Treatment Septic

More information

A Study of Well Water Quality in the Front Range

A Study of Well Water Quality in the Front Range ENV 4970 A Study of Well Water Quality in the Front Range 2010 C H R I S S Y B R A D Y & S A R A H M C F E A T E R S Keywords: groundwater, water quality, domestic wells, drinking water, Colorado Abstract:

More information

Water Statistics in Brazil: an Overview

Water Statistics in Brazil: an Overview Water Statistics in Brazil: an Overview By Judicael Clevelario Junior, Valdir Neves, Paula Terezina Tudesco Macedo de Oliveira Valéria Grace Costa Pedro Amendola Roberval M. Rocha Júlio Jorge Gonçalves

More information