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1 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 2 - Cont. 30 January 2014 The Structure of the Atom and the Periodic Table Element Information in the Periodic Table 20 atomic number Ca symbol calcium name atomic mass 1

2 Electron Arrangement and the Periodic Table The electron arrangement is the primary factor in understanding how atoms join together to form compounds Electron configuration - describes the arrangement of electrons in atoms Valence electrons - outermost electrons The electrons involved in chemical bonding Valence Electrons The number of valence electrons is the group number for the representative elements The period number gives the energy level (n) of the valence shell for all elements 2

3 Valence Electrons and Energy Level How many valence electrons does fluorine have? 7 valence electrons What is the energy level of these electrons? Energy level is n = 2 Valence Electrons - Detail What is the total number of electrons in fluorine? Atomic number = 9 9 protons and 9 electrons 7 electrons in the valence shell, (n = 2 energy level), so where are the other two electrons? In n = 1 energy level Level n=1 holds only two electrons 3

4 Determining Electron Arrangement List the total number of electrons, total number of valence electrons, and energy level of the valence electrons for silicon. 1. Find silicon in the periodic table Group IVA Period 3 Atomic number = Atomic number = number of electrons in an atom Silicon has 14 electrons Determining Electron Arrangement #2 List the total number of electrons, total number of valence electrons, and energy level of the valence electrons for silicon. 3. As silicon is in Group IV, only 4 of its 14 electrons are valence electrons Group IVA = number of valence electrons 4. Energy levels: n = 1 holds 2 electrons n = 2 holds 8 electrons (total of 10) n = 3 holds remaining 4 electrons (total = 14) 4

5 Determining Electron Arrangement Practice List the total number of electrons, total number of valence electrons, and energy level of the valence electrons for: Na Ar Determining Electron Arrangement Practice List the total number of electrons, total number of valence electrons, and energy level of the valence electrons for: Na total: 11 Ar 5

6 Determining Electron Arrangement Practice List the total number of electrons, total number of valence electrons, and energy level of the valence electrons for: Na total: 11, valence 1 Ar Determining Electron Arrangement Practice List the total number of electrons, total number of valence electrons, and energy level of the valence electrons for: Na total: 11, valence 1, energy level n=3 Ar 6

7 Determining Electron Arrangement Practice List the total number of electrons, total number of valence electrons, and energy level of the valence electrons for: Na total: 11, valence 1, energy level n=3 Ar total 18, Determining Electron Arrangement Practice List the total number of electrons, total number of valence electrons, and energy level of the valence electrons for: Na total: 11, valence 1, energy level n=3 Ar total 18, valence 8, 7

8 Determining Electron Arrangement Practice List the total number of electrons, total number of valence electrons, and energy level of the valence electrons for: Na total: 11, valence 1, energy level n=3 Ar total 18, valence 8, energy level n=3 The Quantum Mechanical Atom Bohr s model of the hydrogen atom didn t clearly explain the electron structure of other atoms Electrons in very specific locations, principal energy levels Wave properties of electrons conflict with specific location Schröedinger developed equations that took into account the particle nature and the wave nature of the electrons 8

9 Schröedinger s equations Equations that determine the probability of finding an electron in specific region in space, quantum mechanics Principal energy levels (n = 1,2,3 ) Each energy level has one or more sublevels or subshells (s, p, d, f) Each sublevel contains one or more atomic orbitals Energy Levels and Sublevels n = 1, 2, 3, PRINCIPAL ENERGY LEVELS The larger the value of n, the higher the energy level and the farther away from the nucleus the electrons are The number of sublevels in a principal energy level is equal to n in n = 1, there is one sublevel in n = 2, there are two sublevels 9

10 Principal Energy Levels The electron capacity of a principal energy level (or total electrons it can hold) is 2(n) 2 n = 1 can hold 2(1) 2 = 2 electrons n = 2 can hold 2(2) 2 = 8 electrons How many electrons can be in the n = 3 level? 2(3) 2 = 18 Compare the formula with periodic table.. n=1, 2(1) 2 =2 n=3, 2(3) 2 =18 n=2, 2(2) 2 =8 n=4, 2(4) 2 =32 10

11 Sublevels Sublevel: a set of energy-equal orbitals within a principal energy level Subshells increase in energy: s < p < d < f [sharp, principal, diffuse, and fundamental] Electrons in 3d subshell have more energy than electrons in the 3p subshell Specify both the principal energy level and a subshell when describing the location of an electron Sublevels in Each Energy Level Principal energy level (n) Possible subshells 1 1s 2 2s, 2p 3 3s, 3p, 3d 4 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f 11

12 Orbitals Orbital - a specific region of a sublevel containing a maximum of two electrons Orbitals are named by their sublevel and principal energy level 1s, 2s, 3s, 2p, etc. Each type of orbital has a characteristic shape s is spherically symmetrical p has a shape much like a dumbbell Orbital Shapes s is spherically symmetrical 12

13 Orbital Shapes Each p has a shape much like a dumbbell, differing in the direction extending into space Orbital Shapes There are five different d shapes. The f orbitals have seven different shapes, too complicated and therefore seldom shown. 13

14 Electron Spin Electron Configuration -the arrangement of electrons in atomic orbitals Aufbau Principle -or building up principle helps determine the electron configuration Electrons fill the lowest-energy orbital that is available first Remember s<p<d<f in energy When the orbital contains two electrons, the electrons are said to be paired Subshell Number of orbitals s 1 p 3 d 5 f 7 How many electrons can be in the 4d subshell? 10 14

15 Rules for Writing Electron Configurations Obtain the total number of electrons in the atom from the atomic number Every electron has a place to stay Electrons in atoms occupy the lowest energy orbitals that are available 1s first Each principal energy level, n contains only n sublevels Each sublevel is composed of orbitals No more than 2 electrons in any orbital Maximum number of electrons in any principal energy level is 2(n) 2 Rules for Writing Electron Configurations 15

16 Rules for Writing Electron Configurations Remember: The s sublevel has one orbital and can hold two electrons. The p sublevel has three orbitals. The electrons will half-fill before completely filling the orbitals for a maximum of six electrons. The d sublevel has five orbitals. The electrons will half-fill before completely filling the orbitals for a maximum of ten electrons. Electron Distribution This table lists the number of electrons in each shell for the first 20 elements Note that 3 rd shell stops filling at 8 electrons even though if could hold more 16

17 Electron Distribution Writing Electron Configurations H Hydrogen has only 1 electron It is in the lowest energy level & lowest orbital Indicate number of electrons with a superscript 1s 1 Li Lithium has 3 electrons First two have configuration of helium 1s 2 3 rd is in the orbital of lowest energy in n=2 1s 2 2s 1 17

18 Shorthand Electron Configurations Uses noble gas symbols to represent the inner shell and the outer shell or valance shell is written after Aluminum- full electron configuration is: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 1 What noble gas configuration is this? Neon Configuration is written: [Ne]3s 2 3p 1 Remember: How many subshells are in each principal energy level? There are n subshells in the n principal energy level. How many orbitals are in each subshell? s has 1, p has 3, d has 5, and f has 7 How many electrons fit in each orbital? 2 Hence: s can have 2, p 6, d 10 and f 14 electrons 18

19 How many orbitals in 3rd principal energy level? It contains s, p, and d s = 1 p = 3 d = 5 Hence, the answer is 9 (and it can hold 18 electrons) Remember: How many electrons is subshells? There are n subshells in the n principal energy level. s up to 2, p up to 6, d up to 10, f up to 14 electrons Therefore: for n=1: s subshell - up to 2 electrons for n=2: s and p subshells - up to 8 electrons for n=3: s, p, and d subshells - up to 18 electrons for n=4: s, p, d and f subshell, up to 32 electrons 19

20 Write the electron configuration for phosphorus Phosphorus has 15 electrons start with the sequence 1s 2 2s 2 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 3 Write the electron configuration for strontium Strontium has 38 electrons start with the sequence 1s 2 2s 2 simplified notation: [Kr] 5s 2 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 4s 2 4p 6 5s 2 20

21 Classification of Elements According to the Type of Subshells Being Filled The Octet Rule [eight in Latin of Greek - octo, οκτώ ocho] The noble gases are extremely stable Called inert as they don t readily bond to other elements The stability is due to a full complement of valence electrons in the outermost s and p sublevels: 2 electrons in the 1s of helium the s and p subshells full in the outermost shell of the other noble gases (eight electrons) 21

22 Octet of Electrons Elements in families other than the noble gases are more reactive Strive to achieve a more stable electron configuration Change the number of electrons in the atom to result in full s and p sublevels Stable electron configuration is called the noble gas configuration The Octet Rule Octet Rule - elements usually react in such a way as to attain the electron configuration of the noble gas closest to them in the periodic table Elements on the right side of the table move right to the next noble gas Elements on the left side move backwards to the noble gas of the previous row Atoms will gain, lose or share electrons in chemical reactions to attain this more stable energy state 22

23 Ion Formation and the Octet Rule Metallic elements tend to form positively charged ions called cations Metals tend to lose all their valence electrons to obtain a configuration of the noble gas Na Sodium atom 11e -, 1 valence e - [Ne]3s 1 Na + + e - Sodium ion 10e - [Ne] 23

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