Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Answers and Solutions to Text Problems"

Transcription

1 Chapter 6 Answers and Solutions 6 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 6.1 A chemical change occurs when the atoms of the initial substances rearrange to form new substances. Chemical change is indicated by a change in properties of the reactants. For example, a rusting nail, souring milk, and a burning match are all chemical changes. a. physical: the shape changes, but not the substance. b. chemical: new substances form c. physical: water evaporates forming gaseous water d. chemical: the composition of the substances change to give new substances e. physical: water freezes f. chemical: new substances form 6.2 a. physical b. chemical c. physical d. chemical e. chemical f. physical 6.3 a. On the reactant side, there are two nitrogen atoms and four oxygen atoms. On the product side, there are two nitrogen atoms (2NO) and four oxygen atoms (2NO + O 2 ) b. On the reactant side, there are five carbon atoms (5C), two sulfur atoms (2SO 2 ), and four oxygen atoms (2SO 2 ). On the product side, there are five carbon atoms, two sulfur atoms, and four oxygen atoms c. On the reactant side, there are four carbon atoms, four hydrogen atoms, and ten oxygen atoms. On the product side, there are four carbon atoms, four hydrogen atoms, and ten oxygen atoms. d. On the reactant side, there are two nitrogen atoms, eight hydrogen atoms, and four oxygen atoms. On the product side, there are two nitrogen atoms, eight hydrogen atoms, and four oxygen atoms 6.4 a. On the reactant side, there are one carbon atom, four hydrogen atoms, and four oxygen atoms. On the product side, there are one carbon atom, four hydrogen atoms, and four oxygen atoms. b. On the reactant side, there are four phosphorus atoms, and ten oxygen atoms. On the product side, there are four phosphorus atoms, and ten oxygen atoms c. On the reactant side, there are ten nitrogen atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms. On the product side, there are ten nitrogen atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and six oxygen atoms. d. On the reactant side, there are six carbon atoms, eighteen oxygen atoms, and twelve hydrogen atoms. On the product side, there are six carbon atoms, eighteen oxygen atoms, and twelve hydrogen atoms 6.5 An equation is balanced when there are equal numbers of atoms of each element on the reactant as on the product side. a. not balanced b. balanced c. not balanced d. balanced 6.6 a. balanced b. balanced c. not balanced d. not balanced 6.7 a. There are two sodium atoms and two chlorine atoms on each side of the equation. b. There are three chlorine atoms, one phosphorus atom, and six hydrogen atoms on each side of the equation. c. There are four phosphorus atoms, sixteen oxygen atoms, and twelve hydrogen atoms on each side of the equation.

2 Chemical Reactions 6.8 a. There are four nitrogen atoms and six oxygen atoms. b. There are two aluminum atoms, three oxygen atoms, six hydrogen atoms, and six chlorine atoms. c. There are five carbon atoms, twelve hydrogen atoms, and sixteen oxygen atoms. 6.9 Place coefficients in front of formulas until you make the atoms of each element equal on each side of the equation. Try starting with the formula that has subscripts. a. N 2 + O 2 2NO b. 2HgO 2Hg + O 2 c. 4Fe + 3O 2 2Fe 2 O 3 d. 2Na + Cl 2 2NaCl e. 2Cu 2 O + O 2 4CuO 6.10 a. 2Al + 3Cl 2 2AlCl 3 b. P 4 + 5O 2 P 4 O 10 c. C 4 H 8 + 6O 2 4CO H 2 O d. Sb 2 S 3 + 6HCl 2SbCl 3 + 3H 2 S e. Fe 2 O 3 + 3C 2Fe + 3 CO 6.11 a. There are two NO 3 in the product. Balance by placing a 2 before AgNO 3. Mg + 2 AgNO 3 Mg(NO 3 ) Ag b. CuCO 3 CuO + CO 2 c. Start with the formula Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3. Balance the Al by writing 2 Al and balance the SO 4 2- by writing 3CuSO 4 + Al + 3CuSO 4 3Cu + Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 d. Pb(NO 3 ) NaCl PbCl 2 + 2NaNO 3 e. 2 Al + 6 HCl 2 AlCl H a. Zn + H 2 SO 4 ZnSO 4 + H 2 b. 2Al + 3H 2 SO 4 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 3H 2 c. K 2 SO 4 + BaCl 2 BaSO 4 + 2KCl d. CaCO 3 CaO + CO 2 e. Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 6KOH 2Al(OH) 3 + 3K 2 SO a. Decomposition. A single reactant splits into two simpler substances (elements). b. This is a single replacement reaction. I 2 in BaI 2 is replaced by Br a. Two elements unite to form a compound. b. The components in two reactants exchange places a. combination and combustion b. single replacement c. decomposition d. double replacement e. combustion f. decomposition g. double replacement h. combination and combustion 6.16 a. double replacement b. combination c. combustion d. double replacement e. combination and combustion f. single replacement g. decomposition h. double replacement 6.17 a. Combine the reactants to form a large compound: Mg + Cl 2 MgCl 2 b. Split the reactant to give simpler substances: 2 HBr H 2 + Br 2 c. Replace the Zn with Mg: Mg + Zn(NO 3 ) 2 Mg(NO 3 ) 2 + Zn d. Switch metals placing K + with NO 3 and Pb 2+ with S 2 : K 2 S + Pb(NO 3 ) 2 2KNO 3 + PbS e. Write the products CO 2 and H 2 O and balance: 2 C 2 H O 2 4 CO H 2 O

3 Chapter 6 Answers and Solutions 6.18 a. Ca + S CaS b. PbO 2 Pb + O 2 c. 2KI + Cl 2 2KCl + I 2 d. CuCl 2 + Na 2 S CuS + 2NaCl e. C 2 H 4 + 3O 2 2CO 2 + 2H 2 O 6.19 a. oxidation b. reduction c. oxidation d. reduction 6.20 a. oxidation b. reduction c. reduction d. oxidation 6.21 a. Zinc(Zn) is oxidized because it loses electrons to form Zn 2+ ; chlorine (Cl 2 ) is reduced b. Bromide ion (2Br - ) is oxidized to Br 0 2 ; chlorine (Cl 2 ) is reduced to 2 Cl - (gains electrons) c. Oxide ion (O 2-) is oxidized to O 0 2 (loses electrons); lead (II) ion Pb 2+ is reduced d. Sn 2+ ion is oxidized to Sn 4+ (loses electrons) ; Fe 3+ ion is reduced to Fe 2+ ( gains electrons) 6.22 a. Lithium is oxidized and fluorine is reduced b. Iodide ion is oxidized and chlorine is reduced c. Zinc is oxidized and copper (II) ion is reduced d. Iron is oxidized and copper (II) ion is reduced 6.23 a. Fe 3+ + e - Fe 2+ is a reduction. b. Fe 2+ Fe 3+ + e is an oxidation For chlorine to become chloride ion, each chlorine atom must gain an electron: Cl 2 + 2e 2Cl Thus the reaction is a reduction Because the linoleic acid adds hydrogen, the acid has been reduced a. Because the reaction of succinic acid involves the loss of hydrogen, the acid is oxidized. b. Because the reaction of the coenzyme FAD involves the addition of hydrogen, the coenzyme is reduced. c. Because an oxidation always accompanies a reduction, one would expect the reaction of succinic acid to occur along with the FAD reaction. d. Energy reactants products Reaction progress 6.28 a. The heat of reaction is the heat energy that is given off (or used up) during a reaction as a result of reactant(s) bonds being broken and product(s) bonds being formed. b. In an exothermic reaction, energy is given off because the products are lower in energy than the reactants. In an endothermic reaction, energy is absorbed in forming products with a higher energy than the reactants. c. Because energy is absorbed during an endothermic reaction, the products have a higher energy than the reactants. d. Energy products Energy of activation reactants Reaction progress

4 Chemical Reactions 6.29 a. exothermic; heat loss b. endothermic; heat gain c. exothermic; heat loss 6.30 a. The reaction is exothermic. b. The reaction is endothermic. c. The reaction is endothermic a. exothermic b. endothermic c. exothermic 6.32 a. The reaction is exothermic. b. The reaction is exothermic. c. The reaction is endothermic a. The rate of a reaction relates the speed at which reactants are transformed into products. b. Because more reactants will have the energy necessary to proceed to products, (the activation energy), at room temperature than at refrigerator temperatures, the rate of formation of mold will be higher at room temperature a. A catalyst provides an alternate reaction pathway with a lower activation energy, and thus more reactants will have the energy necessary to form products. This results in an increased rate of reaction. b. The use of pure oxygen increases the amount of reactant present, increasing the rate of oxygenation of hemoglobin in blood a. Addition of a reactant increases the reaction rate. b. Increasing the temperature increases the number of collisions with the energy of activation. The rate of reaction will be increased. c. Addition of a catalyst increases the reaction rate. d. Removal of reactant decreases the reaction rate a. Addition of a reactant increases the reaction rate. b. Lowering the temperature decreases the number of reactant molecules with the energy necessary for reaction to occur, (activation energy). The rate of reaction will be decreased. c. Removing reactant decreases the reaction rate. d. Addition of a catalyst increases the reaction rate In a reversible reaction, the forward reaction converts reactants to products and a reverse reaction converts products back to reactants again A reversible reaction reaches equilibrium when the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction, and the amounts of each species present remain constant a. Addition of a reactant pushes the reaction toward the product side. b. Addition of heat to an exothermic reaction pushes the reaction toward the reactant side. c. Removal of a product pulls the reaction toward the product side. d. Removal of a reactant pulls the reaction toward the reactant side a. Removal of a reactant pulls the reaction toward the reactant side in an attempt to reestablish b. Removing heat from an exothermic reaction pulls the reaction toward the product side in an attempt to re-establish c. Addition of a product pushes the reaction toward the reactant side in an attempt to reestablish d. Addition of a reactant pushes the reaction toward the product side in an attempt to reestablish

5 Chapter 6 Answers and Solutions 6.41 a. Addition of a reactant pushes the reaction toward the product side. b. Addition of a product pushes the reaction toward the reactant side. c. Addition of heat to an endothermic reaction pushes the reaction toward the product side. d. Removal of heat from an endothermic reaction pulls the reaction to the reactant side a. Addition of heat to an endothermic reaction pushes the reaction toward the product side in an attempt to re-establish b. Removal of heat from an endothermic reaction shifts the reaction toward the reactant side in an attempt to re-establish c. Removal of CO, which is a product, shifts the reaction toward the product side in an attempt to re-establish d. Addition of a reactant pushes the reaction toward the product side in an attempt to reestablish 6.43 As gaseous carbon dioxide escapes into the atmosphere, product is removed from the reaction system. According to LeChatelier s principle, the reaction will shift toward the product side in an attempt to re-establish However, the soda is open to the atmosphere and will continue to lose its carbonation More reactants must be consumed for the forward reaction s rate to increase. Because we obtain the reactant oxygen by breathing, our breathing rate must also increase a. 2Al + 3Cl 2 2AlCl 3 combination b. 2Fe + 3H 2 SO 4 Fe 2 (SO 4 ) H 2 single replacement c. 2AgNO 3 + H 2 S Ag 2 S + 2 HNO 3 double replacement d. Cl 2 + 2KI 2KCl + I 2 single replacement 6.46 a. 2NI 3 N 2 + 3I 2 decomposition b. 3Mg + N 2 Mg 3 N 2 combination c. 3Na 2 SO 4 + 2Al(OH) 3 Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 6NaOH double replacement d. 2Fe + 6HCl 2FeCl 3 + 3H 2 single replacement 6.47 a. C 4 H O 2 4 CO H 2 O b. C 5 H O 2 5 CO H 2 O c. C 6 H 12 O O 2 6 CO H 2 O 6.48 a. 2C 2 H 6 + 7O 2 4CO 2 + 6H 2 O b. 2C 6 H 6 + 9O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O c. 2C 3 H 8 O 3 + 7O 2 6CO 2 + 8H 2 O 6.49 a. Zn e Zn reduction b. Al Al e oxidation c. Pb Pb e oxidation d. Cl 2 + 2e 2Cl - reduction 6.50 a. S + Cl 2 SCl 2 b. Cl 2 + 2NaBr Br 2 + 2NaCl c. 2Al + Fe 2 O 3 Al 2 O 3 + 2Fe d. 2CuO + C 2Cu + CO a. S S e S oxidized; Cl 2 + 2e 2Cl Cl 2 reduced b. Cl 2 + 2e 2Cl Cl 2 reduced; 2Br Br 2 + 2e Br oxidized c. Al Al e Al oxidized; Fe e Fe Fe 3+ reduced d. Cu e Cu Cu 2+ reduced; C C e C oxidized

6 Chemical Reactions 6.52 Although gas will burn in the atmosphere, (as we have all seen in the lab and when using a gas stove), the activation energy must be provided to initiate the reaction. The energy provided by a lit match or by a spark is sufficient to initiate the combustion of gas N 2 (g) + 2O 2 (g) + heat 2NO 2 (g) a. Addition of heat will push the reaction to the right, which favors the formation of product, NO 2. b. Removal of N 2 will pull the reaction to the left, forming more reactants. c. Addition of O 2 will push the reaction to the right, forming more NO 2 product. d. Removal of NO 2 would pull the reaction to the right, which forms more NO 2 product. e. Removing heat favors the reaction to the left, which forms more reactants A high activation energy would be difficult to attain, except for just a few of the reactants present, and the reaction would therefore be slow An increase in hemoglobin molecules pushes the reaction towards the products, which provides more oxygenated hemoglobin in the blood C 2 H 6 O + 3O 2 2CO 2 + 3H 2 O a. Addition of reactant(s) would increase the rate of reaction. b. Addition of a catalyst would also increase the rate of reaction.

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Student Instructions 1. Identify the reactants and products and write a word equation. 2. Write the correct chemical formula for each of the reactants and the products.

More information

CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Chemistry 51 Chapter 6

CHEMICAL REACTIONS. Chemistry 51 Chapter 6 CHEMICAL REACTIONS A chemical reaction is a rearrangement of atoms in which some of the original bonds are broken and new bonds are formed to give different chemical structures. In a chemical reaction,

More information

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions Chapter 8 - Chemical Equations and Reactions 8-1 Describing Chemical Reactions I. Introduction A. Reactants 1. Original substances entering into a chemical rxn B. Products 1. The resulting substances from

More information

Chapter 5. Chemical Reactions and Equations. Introduction. Chapter 5 Topics. 5.1 What is a Chemical Reaction

Chapter 5. Chemical Reactions and Equations. Introduction. Chapter 5 Topics. 5.1 What is a Chemical Reaction Introduction Chapter 5 Chemical Reactions and Equations Chemical reactions occur all around us. How do we make sense of these changes? What patterns can we find? 1 2 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies,

More information

Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations

Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Name Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations Period When a substance undergoes a chemical reaction, chemical bonds are broken and new bonds are formed. This results in one or more new substances, often

More information

Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes

Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes Unit 10A Stoichiometry Notes Stoichiometry is a big word for a process that chemist s use to calculate amounts in reactions. It makes use of the coefficient ratio set up by balanced reaction equations

More information

Steps for balancing a chemical equation

Steps for balancing a chemical equation The Chemical Equation: A Chemical Recipe Dr. Gergens - SD Mesa College A. Learn the meaning of these arrows. B. The chemical equation is the shorthand notation for a chemical reaction. A chemical equation

More information

Problem Set #10 - Answers

Problem Set #10 - Answers Problem Set #10 - Answers BIG IDEAS Fill in the blanks or circle the correct response in brackets. 1) When a reaction occurs, the stuff you start with is called the _reactants_ and the stuff you end up

More information

Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions. Chapter 8.1

Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions. Chapter 8.1 Chemical Equations and Chemical Reactions Chapter 8.1 Objectives List observations that suggest that a chemical reaction has taken place List the requirements for a correctly written chemical equation.

More information

Chapter 5 Chemical Quantities and Reactions. Collection Terms. 5.1 The Mole. A Mole of a Compound. A Mole of Atoms.

Chapter 5 Chemical Quantities and Reactions. Collection Terms. 5.1 The Mole. A Mole of a Compound. A Mole of Atoms. Chapter 5 Chemical Quantities and Reactions 5.1 The Mole Collection Terms A collection term states a specific number of items. 1 dozen donuts = 12 donuts 1 ream of paper = 500 sheets 1 case = 24 cans 1

More information

Worksheet # 11. 4. When heated, nickel (II) carbonate undergoes a decomposition reaction. Write a balanced equation to describe this reaction

Worksheet # 11. 4. When heated, nickel (II) carbonate undergoes a decomposition reaction. Write a balanced equation to describe this reaction Worksheet # 11 1. A solution of sodium chloride is mixed with a solution of lead (II) nitrate. A precipitate of lead (II) chloride results, leaving a solution of sodium nitrated. Determine the class of

More information

Chemistry Themed. Types of Reactions

Chemistry Themed. Types of Reactions Chemistry Themed Types of Reactions 1 2 Chemistry in the Community-2015-2016 Types of Reactions Date In-Class Assignment Homework T 10/20 TEST on Reactivity of Metals and Redox None W 10/21 Late Start

More information

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions

Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions Chapter 8: Chemical Equations and Reactions I. Describing Chemical Reactions A. A chemical reaction is the process by which one or more substances are changed into one or more different substances. A chemical

More information

2. DECOMPOSITION REACTION ( A couple have a heated argument and break up )

2. DECOMPOSITION REACTION ( A couple have a heated argument and break up ) TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Most reactions can be classified into one of five categories by examining the types of reactants and products involved in the reaction. Knowing the types of reactions can help

More information

Redox and Electrochemistry

Redox and Electrochemistry Name: Thursday, May 08, 2008 Redox and Electrochemistry 1. A diagram of a chemical cell and an equation are shown below. When the switch is closed, electrons will flow from 1. the Pb(s) to the Cu(s) 2+

More information

Chapter 6 Notes Science 10 Name:

Chapter 6 Notes Science 10 Name: 6.1 Types of Chemical Reactions a) Synthesis (A + B AB) Synthesis reactions are also known as reactions. When this occurs two or more reactants (usually elements) join to form a. A + B AB, where A and

More information

David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator, and Consultant Department of Chemistry, Pima Community College

David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator, and Consultant Department of Chemistry, Pima Community College WRITING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS 2004, 2002, 1989 by David A. Katz. All rights reserved. Permission for classroom used provided original copyright is included. David A. Katz Chemist, Educator, Science Communicator,

More information

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe:

Moles. Moles. Moles. Moles. Balancing Eqns. Balancing. Balancing Eqns. Symbols Yields or Produces. Like a recipe: Like a recipe: Balancing Eqns Reactants Products 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(l) coefficients subscripts Balancing Eqns Balancing Symbols (s) (l) (aq) (g) or Yields or Produces solid liquid (pure liquid)

More information

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001

SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, Chemistry 11, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 SCH 4C1 Unit 2 Problem Set Questions taken from Frank Mustoe et all, "Chemistry 11", McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 2001 1. A small pin contains 0.0178 mol of iron. How many atoms of iron are in the pin? 2. A sample

More information

Stoichiometry Review

Stoichiometry Review Stoichiometry Review There are 20 problems in this review set. Answers, including problem set-up, can be found in the second half of this document. 1. N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) --------> 2NH 3 (g) a. nitrogen

More information

Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change

Chemical Equations. Chemical Equations. Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change Chemical Reactions Chemical Equations Chemical reactions describe processes involving chemical change The chemical change involves rearranging matter Converting one or more pure substances into new pure

More information

NET IONIC EQUATIONS. A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is:

NET IONIC EQUATIONS. A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is: NET IONIC EQUATIONS A balanced chemical equation can describe all chemical reactions, an example of such an equation is: NaCl + AgNO 3 AgCl + NaNO 3 In this case, the simple formulas of the various reactants

More information

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Moles Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Micro World atoms & molecules Macro World grams Atomic mass is the mass of an

More information

Chemical Reactions Practice Test

Chemical Reactions Practice Test Chemical Reactions Practice Test Chapter 2 Name Date Hour _ Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The only sure evidence for a chemical reaction

More information

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions CHAPTER 19 REVIEW Oxidation-Reduction Reactions SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. All the following equations involve redox reactions except (a) CaO H 2 O

More information

Atomic Structure. Name Mass Charge Location Protons 1 +1 Nucleus Neutrons 1 0 Nucleus Electrons 1/1837-1 Orbit nucleus in outer shells

Atomic Structure. Name Mass Charge Location Protons 1 +1 Nucleus Neutrons 1 0 Nucleus Electrons 1/1837-1 Orbit nucleus in outer shells Atomic Structure called nucleons Name Mass Charge Location Protons 1 +1 Nucleus Neutrons 1 0 Nucleus Electrons 1/1837-1 Orbit nucleus in outer shells The number of protons equals the atomic number This

More information

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g)

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g) 1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 5 E) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH)

More information

Chem 1100 Chapter Three Study Guide Answers Outline I. Molar Mass and Moles A. Calculations of Molar Masses

Chem 1100 Chapter Three Study Guide Answers Outline I. Molar Mass and Moles A. Calculations of Molar Masses Chem 1100 Chapter Three Study Guide Answers Outline I. Molar Mass and Moles A. Calculations of Molar Masses B. Calculations of moles C. Calculations of number of atoms from moles/molar masses 1. Avagadro

More information

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems

Answers and Solutions to Text Problems Chapter 7 Answers and Solutions 7 Answers and Solutions to Text Problems 7.1 A mole is the amount of a substance that contains 6.02 x 10 23 items. For example, one mole of water contains 6.02 10 23 molecules

More information

BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS

BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS The Conservation of Matter states that matter can neither be created nor destroyed, it just changes form. If this is the case then we must account for all of the atoms in a

More information

Experiment 5. Chemical Reactions A + X AX AX A + X A + BX AX + B AZ + BX AX + BZ

Experiment 5. Chemical Reactions A + X AX AX A + X A + BX AX + B AZ + BX AX + BZ Experiment 5 Chemical Reactions OBJECTIVES 1. To observe the various criteria that are used to indicate that a chemical reaction has occurred. 2. To convert word equations into balanced inorganic chemical

More information

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review DP Chemistry Review Topic 1: Quantitative chemistry 1.1 The mole concept and Avogadro s constant Assessment statement Apply the mole concept to substances. Determine the number of particles and the amount

More information

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS

UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS UNIT (4) CALCULATIONS AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS 4.1 Formula Masses Recall that the decimal number written under the symbol of the element in the periodic table is the atomic mass of the element. 1 7 8 12

More information

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions 6 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Water is by far the most common medium in which chemical reactions occur naturally. It is not hard to see this: 70% of our body mass is water and about 70% of the surface

More information

Chemical Reactions 2 The Chemical Equation

Chemical Reactions 2 The Chemical Equation Chemical Reactions 2 The Chemical Equation INFORMATION Chemical equations are symbolic devices used to represent actual chemical reactions. The left side of the equation, called the reactants, is separated

More information

Chapter 11. Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Chapter 11. Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Chapter 11 Electrochemistry Oxidation and Reduction Reactions An oxidation and reduction reaction occurs in both aqueous solutions and in reactions where substances are burned

More information

CHM-101-A Exam 2 Version 1 October 10, 2006

CHM-101-A Exam 2 Version 1 October 10, 2006 CHM-101-A Exam 2 Version 1 1. Which of the following statements is incorrect? A. SF 4 has ¼ as many sulfur atoms as fluorine atoms. B. Ca(NO 3 ) 2 has six times as many oxygen atoms as calcium ions. C.

More information

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations

Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations Experiment 1 Chemical Reactions and Net Ionic Equations I. Objective: To predict the products of some displacement reactions and write net ionic equations. II. Chemical Principles: A. Reaction Types. Chemical

More information

Balancing Chemical Equations Practice

Balancing Chemical Equations Practice Science Objectives Students will describe what reactants and products in a chemical equation mean. Students will explain the difference between coefficients and subscripts in chemical equations. Students

More information

CP Chemistry Review for Stoichiometry Test

CP Chemistry Review for Stoichiometry Test CP Chemistry Review for Stoichiometry Test Stoichiometry Problems (one given reactant): 1. Make sure you have a balanced chemical equation 2. Convert to moles of the known substance. (Use the periodic

More information

H 2 + O 2 H 2 O. - Note there is not enough hydrogen to react with oxygen - It is necessary to balance equation.

H 2 + O 2 H 2 O. - Note there is not enough hydrogen to react with oxygen - It is necessary to balance equation. CEMICAL REACTIONS 1 ydrogen + Oxygen Water 2 + O 2 2 O reactants product(s) reactant substance before chemical change product substance after chemical change Conservation of Mass During a chemical reaction,

More information

7-5.5. Translate chemical symbols and the chemical formulas of common substances to show the component parts of the substances including:

7-5.5. Translate chemical symbols and the chemical formulas of common substances to show the component parts of the substances including: 7-5.5 Translate chemical symbols and the chemical formulas of common substances to show the component parts of the substances including: NaCl [salt], H 2 O [water], C 6 H 12 O 6 [simple sugar], O 2 [oxygen

More information

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions

Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions Chapter 7 Page 1 Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions A chemical reaction: a process in which at least one new substance is formed as the result of a chemical change. A + B C + D Reactants Products Evidence that

More information

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five groups: A + B AB Synthesis reactions (Combination) H + O H O AB A + B Decomposition reactions (Analysis) NaCl Na +Cl

More information

Chapter 6 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Section 6.1 2. Which one of the statements below is true concerning an oxidation-reduction reaction?

Chapter 6 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Section 6.1 2. Which one of the statements below is true concerning an oxidation-reduction reaction? Chapter 6 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 1. Oxidation is defined as a. gain of a proton b. loss of a proton c. gain of an electron! d. loss of an electron e. capture of an electron by a neutron 2. Which

More information

Learning Guide 3A Salts Chem 1010. If you could look at them more closely, here's what you would see.

Learning Guide 3A Salts Chem 1010. If you could look at them more closely, here's what you would see. Introduction Learning Guide 3A Salts Chem 1010 Look at the samples in the two bottles you were given. What observations can you make about them? A: B: If you could look at them more closely, here's what

More information

20.2 Chemical Equations

20.2 Chemical Equations All of the chemical changes you observed in the last Investigation were the result of chemical reactions. A chemical reaction involves a rearrangement of atoms in one or more reactants to form one or more

More information

Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions.

Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions. Writing, Balancing and Predicting Products of Chemical Reactions. A chemical equation is a concise shorthand expression which represents the relative amount of reactants and products involved in a chemical

More information

neutrons are present?

neutrons are present? AP Chem Summer Assignment Worksheet #1 Atomic Structure 1. a) For the ion 39 K +, state how many electrons, how many protons, and how many 19 neutrons are present? b) Which of these particles has the smallest

More information

Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions Experiment 9 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

More information

Chemistry: Chemical Equations

Chemistry: Chemical Equations Chemistry: Chemical Equations Write a balanced chemical equation for each word equation. Include the phase of each substance in the equation. Classify the reaction as synthesis, decomposition, single replacement,

More information

EDULABZ. Na 2 + H 2 CO 3. O + CO 2 (b) CaO + H 2. + NaCl AgCl + NaNO 3 3. Which of the following reactions does not take place?

EDULABZ. Na 2 + H 2 CO 3. O + CO 2 (b) CaO + H 2. + NaCl AgCl + NaNO 3 3. Which of the following reactions does not take place? 4 TRANSFORMATION OF SUBSTANCE I. Multiple choice questions: (Tick the correct option). 1. The reaction between magnesium and oxygen is: (a) an endothermic reaction (b) an exothermic reaction (c) a catalysed

More information

NAMING QUIZ 3 - Part A Name: 1. Zinc (II) Nitrate. 5. Silver (I) carbonate. 6. Aluminum acetate. 8. Iron (III) hydroxide

NAMING QUIZ 3 - Part A Name: 1. Zinc (II) Nitrate. 5. Silver (I) carbonate. 6. Aluminum acetate. 8. Iron (III) hydroxide NAMING QUIZ 3 - Part A Name: Write the formulas for the following compounds: 1. Zinc (II) Nitrate 2. Manganese (IV) sulfide 3. Barium permanganate 4. Sulfuric acid 5. Silver (I) carbonate 6. Aluminum acetate

More information

Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination. Insert picture from First page of chapter. Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1

Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination. Insert picture from First page of chapter. Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1 Chapter 3 Insert picture from First page of chapter Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1 3.1 Molecular and Formula Masses Molecular mass - (molecular weight) The mass in amu

More information

Word Equations and Balancing Equations. Video Notes

Word Equations and Balancing Equations. Video Notes Word Equations and Balancing Equations Video Notes In this lesson, you will: Use the law of conservation of mass and provide standard rules for writing and balancing equations. Write and balance equations

More information

Decomposition. Composition

Decomposition. Composition Decomposition 1. Solid ammonium carbonate is heated. 2. Solid calcium carbonate is heated. 3. Solid calcium sulfite is heated in a vacuum. Composition 1. Barium oxide is added to distilled water. 2. Phosphorus

More information

Chemical Calculations: Formula Masses, Moles, and Chemical Equations

Chemical Calculations: Formula Masses, Moles, and Chemical Equations Chemical Calculations: Formula Masses, Moles, and Chemical Equations Atomic Mass & Formula Mass Recall from Chapter Three that the average mass of an atom of a given element can be found on the periodic

More information

Unit 6 The Mole Concept

Unit 6 The Mole Concept Chemistry Form 3 Page 62 Ms. R. Buttigieg Unit 6 The Mole Concept See Chemistry for You Chapter 28 pg. 352-363 See GCSE Chemistry Chapter 5 pg. 70-79 6.1 Relative atomic mass. The relative atomic mass

More information

Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key

Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key 1) How many are there in 24 grams of FeF 3? 1.28 x 10 23 2) How many are there in 450 grams of Na 2 SO 4? 1.91 x 10 24 3) How many grams are there in 2.3

More information

Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept

Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept 3 Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept Content 3.1 Symbols, Formulae and Chemical equations 3.2 Concept of Relative Mass 3.3 Mole Concept and Stoichiometry Learning Outcomes Candidates should be

More information

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions.

Aqueous Solutions. Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water. A Solute. Types of Chemical Reactions. Aqueous Solutions and Solution Stoichiometry Water is the dissolving medium, or solvent. Some Properties of Water Water is bent or V-shaped. The O-H bonds are covalent. Water is a polar molecule. Hydration

More information

= 11.0 g (assuming 100 washers is exact).

= 11.0 g (assuming 100 washers is exact). CHAPTER 8 1. 100 washers 0.110 g 1 washer 100. g 1 washer 0.110 g = 11.0 g (assuming 100 washers is exact). = 909 washers 2. The empirical formula is CFH from the structure given. The empirical formula

More information

In the box below, draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for the compound formed from magnesium and oxygen. [Include any charges or partial charges.

In the box below, draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for the compound formed from magnesium and oxygen. [Include any charges or partial charges. Name: 1) Which molecule is nonpolar and has a symmetrical shape? A) NH3 B) H2O C) HCl D) CH4 7222-1 - Page 1 2) When ammonium chloride crystals are dissolved in water, the temperature of the water decreases.

More information

CHEM 110: CHAPTER 3: STOICHIOMETRY: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS

CHEM 110: CHAPTER 3: STOICHIOMETRY: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS 1 CHEM 110: CHAPTER 3: STOICHIOMETRY: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS The Chemical Equation A chemical equation concisely shows the initial (reactants) and final (products) results of

More information

Unit 9 Stoichiometry Notes (The Mole Continues)

Unit 9 Stoichiometry Notes (The Mole Continues) Unit 9 Stoichiometry Notes (The Mole Continues) is a big word for a process that chemist s use to calculate amounts in reactions. It makes use of the coefficient ratio set up by balanced reaction equations

More information

EXPERIMENT 8: Activity Series (Single Displacement Reactions)

EXPERIMENT 8: Activity Series (Single Displacement Reactions) EPERIMENT 8: Activity Series (Single Displacement Reactions) PURPOSE a) Reactions of metals with acids and salt solutions b) Determine the activity of metals c) Write a balanced molecular equation, complete

More information

Periodic Table, Valency and Formula

Periodic Table, Valency and Formula Periodic Table, Valency and Formula Origins of the Periodic Table Mendelѐѐv in 1869 proposed that a relationship existed between the chemical properties of elements and their atomic masses. He noticed

More information

Elements, Compounds, subscript, superscript, coefficient Periodic Table o Periods, groups, etc. o Metals o Non-metals o Metalloids

Elements, Compounds, subscript, superscript, coefficient Periodic Table o Periods, groups, etc. o Metals o Non-metals o Metalloids Chemistry Elements, Compounds, subscript, superscript, coefficient Periodic Table o Periods, groups, etc. o Metals o Non-metals o Metalloids The patterns are related to the chemical properties of the element.

More information

APPENDIX B: EXERCISES

APPENDIX B: EXERCISES BUILDING CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SESSIONS APPENDIX B: EXERCISES Molecular mass, the mole, and mass percent Relative atomic and molecular mass Relative atomic mass (A r ) is a constant that expresses the ratio

More information

The 5 Types of Chemical Reactions (Chapter 11) By C B 6 th period

The 5 Types of Chemical Reactions (Chapter 11) By C B 6 th period The 5 Types of Chemical Reactions (Chapter 11) By C B 6 th period 1) Combination Reactions Is also referred to as a synthesis reaction It is a chemical change in which two or more substances react to form

More information

EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield

EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield INTRODUCTION Stoichiometry calculations are about calculating the amounts of substances that react and form in a chemical reaction. The word stoichiometry

More information

1332 CHAPTER 18 Sample Questions

1332 CHAPTER 18 Sample Questions 1332 CHAPTER 18 Sample Questions Couple E 0 Couple E 0 Br 2 (l) + 2e 2Br (aq) +1.06 V AuCl 4 + 3e Au + 4Cl +1.00 V Ag + + e Ag +0.80 V Hg 2+ 2 + 2e 2 Hg +0.79 V Fe 3+ (aq) + e Fe 2+ (aq) +0.77 V Cu 2+

More information

IB Chemistry 1 Mole. One atom of C-12 has a mass of 12 amu. One mole of C-12 has a mass of 12 g. Grams we can use more easily.

IB Chemistry 1 Mole. One atom of C-12 has a mass of 12 amu. One mole of C-12 has a mass of 12 g. Grams we can use more easily. The Mole Atomic mass units and atoms are not convenient units to work with. The concept of the mole was invented. This was the number of atoms of carbon-12 that were needed to make 12 g of carbon. 1 mole

More information

Test Review # 9. Chemistry R: Form TR9.13A

Test Review # 9. Chemistry R: Form TR9.13A Chemistry R: Form TR9.13A TEST 9 REVIEW Name Date Period Test Review # 9 Collision theory. In order for a reaction to occur, particles of the reactant must collide. Not all collisions cause reactions.

More information

Name: Teacher: Pd. Date:

Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: STAAR Tutorial : Energy and Matter: Elements, Compounds, and Chemical Equations: 6.5C Differentiate between elements and compounds on the most basic level. 8.5F Recognize whether

More information

Periodic Table Questions

Periodic Table Questions Periodic Table Questions 1. The elements characterized as nonmetals are located in the periodic table at the (1) far left; (2) bottom; (3) center; (4) top right. 2. An element that is a liquid at STP is

More information

CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY

CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY CHAPTER 4: MATTER & ENERGY Problems: 1,3,5,7,13,17,19,21,23,25,27,29,31,33,37,41,43,45,47,49,51,53,55,57,59,63,65,67,69,77,79,81,83 4.1 Physical States of Matter Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies

More information

Properties. Chapter 13: Chemical Reactions. Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes. Chemical Reactions. Chemical Reaction Rearrangement of Atoms

Properties. Chapter 13: Chemical Reactions. Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes. Chemical Reactions. Chemical Reaction Rearrangement of Atoms Properties Chapter 13 Chapter 13: Chemical Reactions Chemical Homework: All questions Reactions the Multiple- Choice and the odd-numbered questions on Exercises sections at the end of the chapter. Properties

More information

Reactions in Aqueous Solution

Reactions in Aqueous Solution CHAPTER 7 1. Water is the most universal of all liquids. Water has a relatively large heat capacity and a relatively large liquid range, which means it can absorb the heat liberated by many reactions while

More information

Types of Reactions. CHM 130LL: Chemical Reactions. Introduction. General Information

Types of Reactions. CHM 130LL: Chemical Reactions. Introduction. General Information Introduction CHM 130LL: Chemical Reactions We often study chemistry to understand how and why chemicals (reactants) can be transformed into different chemicals (products) via a chemical reaction: Reactants

More information

Chapter 5 - Molecules and Compounds

Chapter 5 - Molecules and Compounds Chapter 5 - Molecules and Compounds How do we represent molecules? In pictures In formula In name Ionic compounds Molecular compounds On the course website, you will find a list of ions that I would like

More information

Chemical Formulas, Equations, and Reactions Test Pre-AP Write all answers on your answer document.

Chemical Formulas, Equations, and Reactions Test Pre-AP Write all answers on your answer document. Name: Period: Chemical Formulas, Equations, and Reactions Test Pre-AP Write all answers on your answer document. 1. Which of the following is a NOT a physical property of hydrogen? A. It is gas C. It is

More information

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Intermediate Level

Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Intermediate Level Balancing Chemical Equations Worksheet Intermediate Level Neutralization Reactions Salts are produced by the action of acids. Salts are written metal first, then non-metal. Eg. NaCl not ClNa Acid + Base

More information

Calculations and Chemical Equations. Example: Hydrogen atomic weight = 1.008 amu Carbon atomic weight = 12.001 amu

Calculations and Chemical Equations. Example: Hydrogen atomic weight = 1.008 amu Carbon atomic weight = 12.001 amu Calculations and Chemical Equations Atomic mass: Mass of an atom of an element, expressed in atomic mass units Atomic mass unit (amu): 1.661 x 10-24 g Atomic weight: Average mass of all isotopes of a given

More information

4. Using the data from Handout 5, what is the standard enthalpy of formation of BaO (s)? What does this mean?

4. Using the data from Handout 5, what is the standard enthalpy of formation of BaO (s)? What does this mean? HOMEWORK 3A 1. In each of the following pairs, tell which has the higher entropy. (a) One mole of liquid water or one mole of water vapor (b) One mole of dry ice or one mole of carbon dioxide at 1 atm

More information

Department of Chemical Engineering Review Sheet Chemical Reactions Prepared by Dr. Timothy D. Placek from various sources

Department of Chemical Engineering Review Sheet Chemical Reactions Prepared by Dr. Timothy D. Placek from various sources Department of Chemical Engineering Review Sheet Chemical Reactions Prepared by Dr. Timothy D. Placek from various sources Introduction This document is intended to help you review the basics of writing

More information

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions

Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions Experiment 8 - Double Displacement Reactions A double displacement reaction involves two ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. In a double displacement reaction, it appears as though the ions are

More information

Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles

Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles TEKS REVIEW 8B Calculating Atoms, Ions, or Molecules Using Moles TEKS 8B READINESS Use the mole concept to calculate the number of atoms, ions, or molecules in a sample TEKS_TXT of material. Vocabulary

More information

Molar Mass Worksheet Answer Key

Molar Mass Worksheet Answer Key Molar Mass Worksheet Answer Key Calculate the molar masses of the following chemicals: 1) Cl 2 71 g/mol 2) KOH 56.1 g/mol 3) BeCl 2 80 g/mol 4) FeCl 3 162.3 g/mol 5) BF 3 67.8 g/mol 6) CCl 2 F 2 121 g/mol

More information

Monatomic Ions. A. Monatomic Ions In order to determine the charge of monatomic ions, you can use the periodic table as a guide:

Monatomic Ions. A. Monatomic Ions In order to determine the charge of monatomic ions, you can use the periodic table as a guide: Monatomic Ions Ions are atoms that have either lost or gained electrons. While atoms are neutral, ions are charged particles. A loss of electrons results in a positive ion or cation (pronounced cat-eye-on

More information

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise

Solution. Practice Exercise. Concept Exercise Example Exercise 8.1 Evidence for a Reaction Which of the following is experimental evidence for a chemical reaction? (a) Pouring vinegar on baking soda gives foamy bubbles. (b) Mixing two solutions produces

More information

Chemistry and the Periodic Table. Level A Investigations. Level B Investigations

Chemistry and the Periodic Table. Level A Investigations. Level B Investigations Chemistry and the Periodic Table Level A Investigations A-1 The Periodic Table What is the periodic table? In this Investigation, students will define atom, element, molecule, and compound; build a periodic

More information

GCSE Chemistry. Making Salts Instructions and answers for teachers

GCSE Chemistry. Making Salts Instructions and answers for teachers GCSE Chemistry Making Salts Instructions and answers for teachers The Activity: Learning Outcomes: To be able to recall the names and chemical formulae for commonly used acids To understand how salts can

More information

Balancing Chemical Equations

Balancing Chemical Equations Why? Balancing Chemical Equations Atoms are neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction, they are just rearranged. In other words, in a chemical reaction, what goes into the reaction must come

More information

3. Which of the following describes a conjugate acid-base pair for the following equilibrium? CN - (aq) + CH 3 NH 3 + (aq) H 2 CO 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l)

3. Which of the following describes a conjugate acid-base pair for the following equilibrium? CN - (aq) + CH 3 NH 3 + (aq) H 2 CO 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) Acids, Bases & Redox 1 Practice Problems for Assignment 8 1. A substance which produces OH ions in solution is a definition for which of the following? (a) an Arrhenius acid (b) an Arrhenius base (c) a

More information

Chemical Proportions in Compounds

Chemical Proportions in Compounds Chapter 6 Chemical Proportions in Compounds Solutions for Practice Problems Student Textbook page 201 1. Problem A sample of a compound is analyzed and found to contain 0.90 g of calcium and 1.60 g of

More information

Diagnostic/Introductory Activity. Word Search

Diagnostic/Introductory Activity. Word Search Diagnostic/Introductory Activity Find any 10 of the first 20 elements. Word Search Q H Z S B N Q J B C N P K M A A M M O O A O E C H E H H U A T L R U X D R E V L G O N I D I O U E I Y I Z N O O S M L

More information

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following correctly represents 360 g of water? (i) 2 moles of H 2 0 (ii) 20 moles of water (iii) 6.022 10 23 molecules of water (iv)

More information

Formulae, Equations & Formula Mass

Formulae, Equations & Formula Mass St Peter the Apostle High School Chemistry Department Formulae, Equations & Formula Mass N4 & N5 Homework Questions Answer questions as directed by your teacher. National 4 level questions are first followed

More information

MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS

MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS 35 MOLES ND MOLE CLCULTIONS INTRODUCTION The purpose of this section is to present some methods for calculating both how much of each reactant is used in a chemical reaction, and how much of each product

More information