Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions. Design a Cool Pack

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1 Design a Cool Pack You are going to be designing and constructing a disposable cool pack. Before you can work on your design for the cool pack, you need to design an experiment to test the chemicals you could possible use. In your lab notebook, you will write a lab report for your experiment that includes the following components: 1. Choose one of the following questions to test: Will the amount of chemicals affect the amount of energy absorbed by the reaction? Which endothermic reaction absorbs the most energy? 2. For your background information, use your notes and the articles from your teacher to write a paragraph that explains what endothermic reactions are and the chemical formulas for the chemical reactions you are using in your experiment. 3. Identify your Independent Variable, Dependent Variable, and Constants. 4. Develop a Hypothesis in if (IV).then (DV).because format. 5. Make a list of Materials needed (be specific, include amounts ) 6. Make a list of procedures needed to test your question. Remember that you will only have one class period to test your hypothesis and collect data. When you have written your procedures, they need to be approved by your teacher before you can begin collecting data. 7. Collect and record your Data in a data table 8. Write an analysis paragraph using your lab report format 9. Write a conclusion paragraph using your lab report format Endothermic and Exothermic Reactions

2 Author: Erin Bjornsson Every chemical reaction that exists is one of two things: endothermic or exothermic. The Greek root therm means temperature or heat, which gives us a clue about all reactions: there is energy exchange! Endo means "within" while exo means "outside," so these types of reactions are opposite. Endothermic reactions are those which absorb heat during the reaction. They take in more energy than they give off, which leaves the surroundings cooler than the starting point. Evaporation of water by sunlight is a great example. The sun and the liquid water combine and the water absorbs energy and eventually becomes as gas. Exothermic reactions are exactly the opposite. While they take some energy to get going, called the activation energy of reaction, these reactions give off heat during the reaction. Good examples of exothermic reactions are explosions like fireworks or combustion in engines. Mixing water with ammonium nitrate Have you ever wondered what would happen if you mix ammonium nitrate and water? The answer may actually surprise you since the answer is commonly observed in households. Ammonium nitrate and water when combined produces an endothermic reaction. When we are speaking about thermodynamics, the term endothermic is a type of reaction wherein the process actually absorbs the energy found in its immediate surroundings but in the form of heat. This is the reason why people associate it with the feeling of coldness since the heat is actually absorbed. If you look at the process closely, there are two main reactions that actually occur. When the polar molecules of the water separate the nitrate ion from the ammonium ion, this produces an endothermic reaction. Heat is being absorbed so the person may feel cold. But when the ions that have been separated are now suspended in the remaining water in the solution, they become hydrated and this process produces an exothermic reaction. An exothermic reaction produces heat since it gives off energy. But in physics, it requires more energy to actually separate the ammonium and nitrate ion than the hydration of the ions, so the only reaction that is physically felt is the endothermic one. Ammonium nitrate and water chemical equation The chemical equation for ammonium nitrate and water combination is NH4NO3? NH4 + NH3. This process is used widely in instant cold pack devices. If you dissect a cold pack open, you will be able to see that there is a separate compartment that holds a bag of water and an inner compartment for ammonium nitrate. The aim of these compartments is to prevent the two from mixing together. Once a cold pack is needed, a person would need to squeeze the pack. Squeezing the pack will make the inner compartment break, making ammonium nitrate and water combine together. When the phenomenon occurs, the process produces an endothermic reaction. Water will break down ammonium and nitrate ions and energy will be absorbed. The cold pack will eventually start to cool and will stay cold for approximately an hour.

3 Energy Changes in Chemical Reactions In this activity, you will explore the energy changes that accompany chemical reactions. To understand the energy implications of chemical reactions, it s important to keep in mind two key ideas: 1. It takes energy to break bonds. 2. Energy is released when bonds are formed. To understand this, consider the chemical reaction between vinegar (also known as acetic acid to chemists) and baking soda (known as sodium bicarbonate). Before the atoms of acetic acid and sodium bicarbonate can be rearranged to form the products, the bonds between the atoms in those molecules must be broken, and because the atoms are attracted to one another, it takes energy to pull them apart. Then, when the products are formed (sodium acetate, water, and carbon dioxide) energy is released because atoms that have an attraction for one another are brought back together. Not every bond between atoms in the reactants is necessarily broken during a chemical reaction, but some bonds are. By comparing the energy used when bonds in the reactants are broken with the energy released when bonds in the products are formed, you can determine whether a chemical reaction releases energy or absorbs energy overall. Chemical reactions that release energy are called exothermic. In exothermic reactions, more energy is released when the bonds are formed in the products than is used to break the bonds in the reactants. Chemical reactions that absorb (or use) energy are called endothermic. In endothermic reactions, more energy is absorbed when the bonds in the reactants are broken than is released when new bonds are formed in the products. If a chemical reaction absorbs as much energy as it releases, it is called isothermic there is no net energy change. But because we can t observe bonds breaking or being formed, how can we distinguish between exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions? Sample Experiment

4 Question: Which chemical reaction absorbs the most thermal energy? Background Information: An endothermic reaction takes in thermal energy from its surroundings, which causes the temperature of the products to decrease. There are many common chemicals that react with water to make an endothermic reaction. Those chemicals are Potassium Chlorate, Ammonium Nitrate, and Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom salts). Sodium Bicarbonate (baking Soda) reacts with vinegar to make an endothermic reaction Experimental Design: Independent Variable: The independent variable is the chemical used. Dependent Variable: The dependent variable is the change in temperature over time. Constants: The amount of time for the reaction, the containers used, the amount of chemicals used, the air temperature, the measurement tools used. Materials 4 Beakers Graduated Cylinder Water White vinegar Baking Soda Epsom Salts Potassium Chloride Ammonium Nitrate Thermometer Procedure 1. Measure 50 ml of water and pour into clean beaker. 2. Insert the thermometer in the liquid and record the initial temperature. 3. Add a teaspoon of the Epsom salt. Record your observations. 4. Wait 10 minutes and record the final temperature of the solution. 5. Calculate the change in temperature of the reaction by subtracting the final value from the initial value. 6. Repeat steps 1 5, using Potassium Chloride and water 7. Repeat steps 1 5, using Ammonium Nitrate and water. 8. Repeat steps 1 5, using Baking Soda and Vinegar Data Table:

5 Chemicals Epsom Salts and Water Initial Final Change (Final - Initial Qualitative Observations Potassium Chloride and Water Ammonium Nitrate and Water Baking Soda and Vinegar Analysis: Write an analysis using the Lab Report Format Conclusion: Write a conclusion paragraph using the Lab Report Format Sample Experiment

6 Question: Will the amount of chemicals affect the amount of energy absorbed? Background Information: An endothermic reaction takes in thermal energy from its surroundings, which causes the temperature of the products to decrease. There are many common chemicals that react with water to make an endothermic reaction. The reaction I will be using is Baking soda and vinegar. Sodium Bicarbonate (baking Soda) reacts with vinegar in an endothermic reaction to produce Sodium Acetate, Water, and Carbon Dioxide gas. Experimental Design: Independent Variable: The independent variable is the amount of chemical used. Dependent Variable: The dependent variable is the change in temperature over time. Constants: The amount of time for the reaction, the containers used, the type of chemicals used, the air temperature, the measurement tools used. Materials 4 Beakers Graduated Cylinder White vinegar Baking Soda Thermometer Procedure 1. Measure 50 ml of vinegar and pour into clean beaker. 2. Insert the thermometer in the liquid and record the initial temperature. 3. Add a teaspoon of the baking soda. Record your observations. 4. Wait 10 minutes and record the final temperature of the solution. 5. Calculate the change in temperature of the reaction by subtracting the final value from the initial value. 6. Repeat steps 1 5, using 25 ml of vinegar and 1 teaspoon of baking soda 7. Repeat steps 1 5, using 25 ml of vinegar and ½ teaspoon of baking soda. 8. Repeat steps 1 5, using 50 ml of vinegar and ½ teaspoon of baking soda. Data Table:

7 Amount of Chemicals 50 ml vinegar + 1 teaspoon Baking Soda 25 ml vinegar +1 teaspoon baking soda 25 ml vinegar + ½ teaspoon baking soda 50 ml vinegar and ½ teaspoon baking soda Initial Final Change (Final - Initial Qualitative Observations Analysis: Write an analysis using the Lab Report Format Conclusion: Write a conclusion paragraph using the Lab Report Format Cool Pack Design

8 Draw a well-labeled diagram of your cool pack design. Write a paragraph that explains your design, the materials used, and why you chose to use the materials. Be sure to support your choices with evidence and data from your lab!

9 Construct your cool pack. Did you have to change anything from your original design idea? What did you change and why? Test your cool pack by activating it and recording the temperature of your ice pack every minute for 10 minutes. Make a graph of your temperature data. Before Activating After 1 minute After 2 minutes After 3 minutes After 4 minutes After 5 minutes After 6 minutes After 7 minutes After 8 minutes After 9 minutes After 10 minutes Write a paragraph to evaluate your design. What worked about your design? What didn t work? What would you like to change about your design?

10 After testing your initial design and comparing your with other students in the class, develop a new design for your cool pack. Draw a well-labeled diagram of your design: Write a paragraph that explains your design, the materials used, and why you chose to use the materials. Be sure to support your choices with evidence and data.

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