# GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMME PHYSICAL SCIENCES GRADE 11 SESSION 19 (LEARNER NOTES)

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1 ENERGY CHANGES IN A REACTION EXOTHERMIC, ENDOTHERMIC AND ACTIVATION ENERGY Learner Note: Energy changes can be used to determine whether a reaction is exothermic or endothermic. It can be used to determine the activation energy. These concepts are important for equilibrium in grade 12 SECTION A: TYPICAL EXAM QUESTIONS Question 1: 2 minutes 1.1 Consider the reaction H 2 + I 2 2HI (ΔH <0) (Make sure the different terminology to indicate the heat of the reaction is understood; it is important to be able to identify whether a reaction is exothermic or endothermic.) 1.1 Is this reaction exothermic or endothermic? (1) 1.2 How does the energy of the products compare to that of the reactants? (1) (Make sure you know the difference between the reactants and products especially in a reverse reaction.) (2) Learner Note: Use a variety of methods to show the heat of the reaction i.e. A + B C + Energy; A + B C H - ; A + B C H 0; A + B C H = - 20 kj.mol -1 are all ways to show that the reaction is exothermic. Question 2: 8 minutes (Adapted from MDoE Nov 2009) Learner Note: The contact process is always asked. Make sure it is thoroughly understood. It is examined again in Grade 12. The contact process is used in the industrial preparation of sulphuric acid. The reaction is given below: 2 SO 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 SO 3 (g) H Draw the potential energy versus reaction coordinate graph for the forward reaction. Indicate the following on the graph: Activation energy for the forward reaction Activation energy for the reverse reaction Activation complex Heat of the reaction for the forward reaction Heat of reaction for the reverse reaction (7) Page 1 of 7

3 SECTION B: SOLUTIONS AND HINTS Question 1: 1.1 Exothermic 1.2 E products < E reactants (Make sure you look carefully at the bigger than or smaller than sign, it can easily be confused if you do not concentrate) Activated complex Mark allocation Activation energy reverse reaction Ep Heat of reaction reverse reaction Reaction coordinate Activation energy forward reaction Heat of reaction forward Activation energy for the forward reaction Activation energy for the reverse reaction Activation complex Heat of the reaction for the forward reaction Heat of reaction for the reverse reaction Axes labelled Shape of graph (Learn the labels for the forward and reverse reaction.) 2.2 Exothermic 2.3 Endothermic, energy of the products are greater than the energy of the reactants Learner Note: It is important to be able to draw the energy curves for forward and reverse reactions. Ensure that you are able to answer questions for both reactions if one of the graphs, i.e. forward or reverse is given. Practise this. Remember to label the axes! Question Exothermic, the heat of the reaction is negative, energy is given off 3.2 Enzymes are catalysts - catalysts speed the reaction up and increase the rate of the reaction. 3.3 Glucose is broken up by the body during exercise, it reduces weight gain as it uses energy 3.4 Cellular respiration is the reaction of glucose with oxygen (oxidation of glucose) to produce carbon dioxide, water and energy. It occurs in the presence of a catalyst Page 3 of 7

4 Learner Note: Emphasise the function of a catalyst it reduces the activation energy for the forward and reverse reaction. Question a. Exothermic, heat of the reaction is negative b. Endothermic, heat of the reaction is positive 4.2 The minimum amount of energy needed to start a reaction 4.3 a Has the lowest activation energy therefore it will have a greater reaction rate less energy is needed to start the reaction b Has a lower rate of reaction more energy is required to get the reaction to take place 4.4 H = H products H reatants 4.5 By adding a catalyst the amount of activation energy is reduced SECTION C: ADDITIONAL CONTENT NOTES ENERGY CHANGES DURING CHEMICAL REACTIONS Most reactions do not begin until an amount of energy (activation energy) has been added to the reaction mixture. The activation energy is often called the energy hill which must be overcome by the addition of this amount of energy before a reaction can take place. When activation energy is added to the reactants, a so-called activated complex is formed. Activated complex temporary, unstable, high-energy composition of atoms, which represents a transition state between reactants and the products. When the activated complex is formed during a reaction, this complex can lead either to the formation of new bonds i.e molecules of the products, or to re-formation of the old bonds, thereby returning to being reactants. For the reaction AB + C A + BC The formation of an activated complex as a transitional step can be represented as follows: AB + C [ABC] A + BC The peak of the energy hill indicates the energy of the activated complex. When an activated complex is formed during a reaction, this complex can lead either to the formation of new bonds, i.e. molecules of the products or to the re-formation of the old bonds, thereby returning to being the reactants. This is reversibility for the reaction. Page 4 of 7

5 POTENTIAL ENERGY GAUTENG DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION SENIOR SECONDARY INTERVENTION PROGRAMME HEAT OF REACTION Heat of the reaction ( H) is the difference between the energy of the products and the energy of the reactants. H = E products - E reactants For an endothermic reaction, Eproducts > Ereactants, therefore H is positive. For an exothermic reaction, Eproducts < Ereactants, H is negative. A catalyst mechanism: the function of a catalyst is to provide an alternate route for the reaction to take place. This route has a lower activation energy and the rate of the reaction increases. A catalyst forms part of the activated complex and when this decomposes the catalyst is released, unchanged. The Mechanism of a Catalyst Catalyst reduces the activation energy The function of a catalyst is to provide an alternate route for the reaction to take place. This route has a lower activation energy and the rate of the reaction increases. A catalyst forms part of the activated complex and when this decomposes the catalyst is released, unchanged. Two kinds of catalysis: o Homogenous catalyst is the same phase as the reactants. o Heterogeneous catalyst in different phase as the reactants. Catalysts cannot cause a reaction to occur, they can only affect the rate of the reaction. Page 5 of 7

6 SECTION D: HOMEWORK Learner Note: Use the homework to practise this section. Attempt all questions, remain within the time frame. Question 1: 5 minutes 1. Explain the following terms: 1.1. Heat of reaction (2) 1.2. Endothermic reaction (2) 1.3. Activation energy (2) (6) Question 2: 5 minutes Classify each of the following as either endothermic or exothermic. 2.1 CO + NO 2 CO 2 ΔH = -226 kj/mol 2.2 2HI H 2 + I 2 ΔH = +40 kj/mol 2.3 H 2 + F 2 2HF ΔH= -536 kj/mol Question 3: 5 minutes What provides activation energy for the following chemical changes? (6) 3.1 Paint on a roof fades 3.2 A Bunsen burner is lit 3.3 A bush fire starts (6) Question 4: 5 minutes The graph in the diagram alongside represents the change in energy that occurs during the reaction... N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g) 4.1 Provide labels for the x and the y-axes. (2) 4.2 Compare the energy of the products to that of the reactants. (2) 4.4 What is an activated complex? (2) 4.5 Is ΔH for this reaction positive or negative? (1) 4.6 Is this reaction endothermic or exothermic? (1) (8) Page 6 of 7

7 SECTION E: SOLUTIONS TO SESSION 18 HOMEWORK Question 1: 1.1 V = V = kq r ,12-6 V = V 1.2 Increase by factor of 4 V Q V 1/r Question 2: 2.1 C = V Q 0,2 x = V V = V C = V Q 80 x 10-6 = 6 Q Q = 4,8 x 10-4 C 2.3 R = I V, as the capacitor discharges the potential difference across it reduces, V I therefore the current is reduced 2.4 R = I V, R is inversely proportional to the current in the resistor, the greater the resistance the lower the current and the longer it takes to discharge The SSIP is supported by Page 7 of 7

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