Bulgaria HELPING BULGARIAN FOREST TACKLE CLIMATE CHANGE

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1 Executive Agency on Forests Bulgaria HELPING BULGARIAN FOREST TACKLE CLIMATE CHANGE Scientific seminar on Knowledge based Management of Mediterranean Forests under climate-driven Risks: the ways ahead, 15 April 2010, Antalya, Turkey

2 Map of Bulgaria

3 COMMON INFORMATION FOR THE BULGARIAN FORESTS TOTAL FOREST AREA 4,1 mill. hа FOREST COVER 33.4 % BROAD-LEAVED FORESTS 70 % CONIFEROUS FORESTS 30 % ANNUAL INCREMENT 14.5 mill. m3 AVERAGE ANNUAL INCREMENT PER HA м3 GROWING STOCK 590 mill. m3

4 Distribution of the Bulgarian Forest Fund reff. the ownership

5 Distribution of main forest types in Bulgaria 5% 29% Coniferous 29% Broad-leaved high stem For reconstruction Coppice for transformation 14% 23% Low stem

6 Distribution of the Bulgarian Forest Fund reff. the forest functions 16% forest designated for wood production recreation and protective forests 27% 57% protected forests

7 Dynamics of forest area Forested area x 1000 ha

8 Distribution of main tree species 22% 23% Oaks Beech 4% Scotch pine Turkey oak 9% 17% Austrian pine 9% 16% Norway spruce others

9 The management of the state forests and the control over all the forests and forested lands, irrespective of ownership, is responsibility of the Executive Forestry Agency at the Ministry of Agriculture and Foods; It is responsible for the financing, management and control over the following activities: - regeneration of forests, afforestation, anti-erosion activities, thinnings; - protection of biodiversity; - protection of forests from pests and diseases; - sylvicultural activities; - utilization of timber and non-timber forest resources; - hunting and game protection; - extension services and others.

10 Organization of the Executive Forestry Agency MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND FOODS EXECUTIVE FORESTRY AGENCY Regional Forestry Directorates (16) Specialized Territorial Units State Hunting Enterprises (37) Seed Control Stations (2) State Forestry Enterprises (141) Forest Protection Stations (3) Experimental Stations (2) Nature Parks Directorates (11) Poplar Station Gora Forestry Magazine

11 Forest Policy National lstrategy t for Sustainable Development of fthe Forest tsector in Bulgaria, ; Strategic Plan for the Development of the Forest Sector

12 Climate change Legal framework in BG Forestry Act; National Strategy for Sustainable Development of the Forest Sector in Bulgaria, ; Strategic Plan for the Development of the Forest Sector ; Environment Protection ti Act; Water Act; Act for Protection of Soil from Polution; Biodiversity Protection Act; Country Study to Address Climate Changes ( ) The First National Communication on Climate Change to the UNFCCC (1996) The Second National Communication on Climate Change to the UNFCCC (1998) The Third National Communication on Climate Change to the UNFCCC (2002) The Fourth National Communication on Climate Change to the UNFCCC (2006) The First National Climate Change Action Plan ( ); The Second National Climate Change Action Plan ( );

13 Climatic scenarios for Bulgaria The results obtained from three GCMs models - CCC, GISS and GFDL for CO2 concentration doubling show that the average annual air temperature in Bulgaria is expected to rise with C for the next century; increased risk and vulnerability to soil droughts are expected; less precipitation amount during the months from April to September is expected; The expected changes are from cool temperate moist forest to warm temperate dry forest for North Bulgaria, and for South Bulgaria the warm temperate dry forest will remain typical

14 Average temperature

15 Possible changes in average monthly temperature during the next 60 years a) ΔT ( o C) Month

16 Possible changes in average monthly precipitation during the next 60 years b) 10 0 ) ΔP (% Month

17 Climatic scenarios for air temperature for 2020, 2050 and

18 Climatic scenarios for air temperature for 2020, 2050 and

19 Threat to existing species The big variety of habitats and biogeographic conditions has lead to a diversity of the flora and fauna in the country, ranking Bulgaria amongst the first in Europe; Having higher plants on its territory, Bulgaria ranks 5th on number of species; Bulgaria has 741 medical plants; Tree species diversity reduction is foreseen in the lowlands (up to 800 m a.s.l.)

20 New chances In the lowlands is expected tree species diversity reduction. In spite of that, the biodiversity could be greater compared with the biodiversity in the mountain regions. It could be considered that if proper selection is made, optimal bioproduction could be released under changed climate conditions. In mountains increased tree biodiversity could be expected. It could be realized by means of the natural shifting of tree vegetation ti from lower to higher h sites in the mountains. This process would be combined with biomass production increase. Both in lowlands and mountains increased biomass productivity would be accompanied by increased CO 2 absorption.

21 Bulgarian forests provide about 80 % of the water flow in the country or nearly 3,6 billion m3 of clear drinkable water; Significant importance for the water management has the afforestation of the catchment areas of the dam lakes in Bulgaria. Thus the life of these hydro installations increases several times Water cycle management

22 Climatic scenarios reveal that an increased risk and vulnerability to soil droughts are expected; The temperature rise will increase the water deficit in soils with low precipitation rates that are prone to droughts; The most serious impacts will be observed for soils with light mechanical content and bad water characteristics About 30 % of the soils in Bulgaria are prone to wind erosion Impact on soil protection

23 Erosion Control before now

24 Erosion Control

25 Erosion Control During the 104 years period of organized erosion control were build: Barrages and thresholds m3; Small stone thresholds m3; Wattles m2; Bank low wattles m; New afforestation of 2,3 mln. ha, one third from which was with priority it erosion control function. Afforestation of approximately ha forest shelterbelts with total lenght over km for combating with erosion.

26 Biodiversity Aiming the protection of this rich diversity, on the territory of the country are established: 3 National Parks, 11 Nature Parks, 55 Strict Reserves, 35 Supported Reserves and hundreds of natural landmarks and smallscale protected places

27 Expected optimum tree species composition for a changed climate in 50 years? Expected costs for a change in planted species Expected costs for a change in planted species - average afforestation costs 550 per dka;

28 Rules to be followed for the next 10 years planning (1) - Forest Act; - Regulation for Implementation of the Forest Act; - Regulation 5 for the production and trade with forest reproductive materials; -Regulation 6 for the management planning in the forest and lands from the Forest Fund; R l ti 29 f th t d d f d ti f - Regulation 29 for the terms and order for production of samplings for afforestation from the state owned forest nurseries;

29 Rules to be followed for the next 10 years planning (2) - Regulation 30 for the terms and order for conduction of fire prevention activities in the Forest Fund and protection of the forests from fires; - Regulation 33 for the types of fellings and the methods for their conduction; - Regulation 56 for the protection of the forests from pests, diseases and other damages; - NATURA 2000 regimes;

30 Rules to be followed for the next 10 years planning (3) - National Forest Policy and Strategy Strategic Plan for the Development of the Forest Sector ; - National Annual Program of the State Forestry Agency priorities and targets in the forest policy; - FSC certification, as independent method for monitoring and control in the Forest Fund; - Recommendation from project with World Bank and European Bank for Reconstruction and Development;

31 Forest regeneration principles - Natural regeneration is priority; - Reconstruction of coppice forests into high stem ones is major principle; - Introduction of sylviculture system for biological automation; - Program of measures for the adaptation of the forest in the Republic of Bulgaria towards the climate changes is planned as a result from the project FUTURE FOREST/ INTERREG IVC/EC

32 Harvesting methods - Rich variety; - Natural regeneration prevail; - Limited harvesting with heavy machinery due to the relief and forest road network; - Over 75 % of the close transport (extraction to temporary storage) is with animal power, which preserves the soil, the natural regeneration, etc; - Approximately 50 % of the annual increment is harvested constant increase of carbon storage;

33 Risk management and policy - Risk management; - Policy UNFCCC, Kyoto, ETS, other EU and national legislation in the field of forests and forestry; - General undervaluation of the role of the forests for the mitigation of the climate changes impact

34 Prevention of risks Regarding the parameters of the fire risk Bulgaria is situated in the Medditeranean region of high level of fire danger rating During the last 7 years more than ha of forests were affected from fires;

35 - Protection from forest fires; Necessary forest protection - Protection from pests and diseases; - Wind and snow damage protection; - Protection of the biodiversity; - Protective functions water, air, carbon, etc.; - Recreation; - others

36 Thank you for your attention!!

37 Executive Forestry Agency International projects and programs Department 55, Hristo Botev blvd. Sofia, Bulgaria

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