General Properties of Gases. Properties of Gases. K is for Kelvin. C is for degrees Celsius. F is for degrees Fahrenheit PROPERTIES OF GASES GAS LAWS


 Daniela Watson
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 PROPERTIES OF GASES or GAS LAWS 1 General Properties of Gases There is a lot of empty space in a gas. Gases can be expanded infinitely. Gases fill containers uniformly and completely. Gases diffuse and mix rapidly. 2 Properties of Gases Gas properties can be modeled using math. The equations we will use relate these quantities: V = volume of the gas T = temperature n = moles of gas P = pressure 3 Temperature how hot or cold something is (a physical property) a measure of the average kinetic energy of a sample of matter. How fast the particles in a substance are moving 4 We will start by reviewing these quantities and the units they are measured in. Temperature measures MOTION Temperature K is for Kelvin o C is for degrees Celsius 5 Temperature is special because 6 We will sometimes use degrees celsius we sometimes will use kelvin. never always ALL temperatures in the entire chapter MUST be in Kelvin!!! No Exceptions! Example K C F Boiling Point of Water O 212 O o F is for degrees Fahrenheit Body Temperature Freezing Point of Water O 0 O 98 O 32 O Absolute Zero o 459 O Page 1
2 Temperature Conversions Fahrenheit to Celsius o C = (5/9) ( o F  32) Kelvin to Celsius: Celsius = K Kelvin Scaleabsolute scale The Kelvin scale is experimentally derived: Place a gas in a cylinder with movable piston. V 8 Celsius to Fahrenheit o F = ((9/5) o C) + 32 Measure volume and temperature. T Kelvin Scaleabsolute scale 9 Kelvin Scaleabsolute scale 10 The best fit line intersects the T axis at o C Using a different gas gives a different line, but the same intercept: 273 o c V T o C = 0 Kelvin represents the temperature at which the gas has no volume and all molecular motion stops. It is purely theoretical and has never been reached. V T Kinetic Molecular Theory 3 Main Ideas: Moving Particle Theory Matter is made of tiny particles called atoms, which combine to form molecules. 12 Page 2
3 2. Atoms and molecules are in constant random motion (they are always moving) Atoms and molecules move faster as temperature rises. 14 Low Temperature (slower) High Temperature (faster) THREE STATES OF MATTER 15 Pressure atm is for atmospheres mm Hg is for millimeters of Mercury kpa is for kilopascal psi is for pounds per square inch torr is for torr 16 Pressure Pressure of air is measured with a BAROMETER Millimeters of Mercury (mm Hg) refers to this device and method of measuring atmospheric pressure. 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr 17 Pressure Hg rises in tube until force of Hg (down) balances the force of atmosphere (pushing up). (Just like a straw in a soft drink) P of Hg pushing down related to Hg density column height 18 Page 3
4 Pressure Conversions 1 standard atmosphere (1 atm) 19 Pressure Conversions A. What is 475 mm Hg expressed in atm? 20 = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 14.7 psi = kpa 475 mm Hg x 1 atm 760 mm Hg = atm B. The pressure of a tire is measured as 29.4 psi. What is this pressure in mm Hg? 760 mm Hg 29.4 psi x = 1.52 x 10 3 mm Hg 14.7 psi Pressure Conversions 21 And now, we pause for this commercial message from STP 22 A. What is 2.0 atm expressed in torr? OK, so it s really not THIS kind of STP STP in chemistry stands for Standard Temperature and Pressure B. The pressure of a tire is measured as 32.0 psi. What is this pressure in kpa? Standard Pressure = 1 atm Standard Temperature = 0 deg C (273 K) Charles Law Jacques Charles ( ). 1823). Isolated boron and studied gases. Balloonist. Think about how thermometers work The hotter it gets, the more space the mercury or alcohol takes up. Gases seem to behave the same way; the hotter they get, the more space they take up. In other words, the temperature and volume of a gas are proportional. 23 Charles s Law If the pressure (P) is kept the same, and the number of moles of gas (n) are kept the same, then V α T (V and T are proportional.) V 1 T 2 = T 1 V 2 24 If the temperature goes up, the volume goes up! Page 4
5 Charles s s original balloon 25 Charles Law 26 T 1 V 2 = T 2 V 1 in other words V 1 / T 1 = V 2 / T 2 Modern longdistance balloon V and T Problem 27 Learning Check GL4 28 A balloon has a volume of 785 ml on a spring day when the temperature is 21 C. In the evening, the temperature of the gas cools to 12 C. What is the new volume of the balloon? A sample of oxygen gas has a volume of 420 ml at a temperature of 18 C. What temperature (in K) is needed to change the volume to 480 ml? 29 Charles Law and Absolute Zero 30 Charles Law and Absolute Zero Page 5
6 31 Charles Law: T and V 32 Charles Law explains the relationship between V and T for a gas when P and n are constant. It can be written as T = kv where k is a constant relating to the slope of the line on this graph ml of a gas is collected at kpa. Find the volume if the pressure goes to 705 mm Hg. Boyle s Law What happens if you increase the pressure of a gas? Well, naturally, since gases are compressible, the volume decreases. My law relates P and V, which are also proportional, as long as T and n are kept constant. 33 Boyle s s Law P α 1/V or PV = k This means P and V are INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL if n and T are constant (do not change). In other words, P goes up as V goes down. 34 Robert Boyle ( ). Son of Earl of Cork, Ireland. P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 Boyle s Law 35 Use this equation to calculate how a volume changes when pressure changes, or how pressure changes when volume changes. A bicycle pump is a good example of Boyle s s law. As the volume of the air trapped in the pump is reduced, its pressure goes up, and air is forced into the tire. Boyle s s Law 36 P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 Page 6
7 Pressure and Volume Experiment Pressure Volume P x V (atm) (L) (atm x L) Boyle's Law P x V = k (constant) when T remains constant 37 Problems A gas is collected at a constant temperature of 29.0 o C with a pressure of 699 mm Hg and volume of 33.0 ml. Find the pressure if the volume goes to 50.0 ml? 38 P1V1= 8.0 atm x 2.0 L = 16 atm L P2V2= 4.0 atm x 4.0 L = 16 atm L P1V1 = P2V2 = k In other words, PV = k k is just the symbol for a constant. Its number value depends on the units you are using for of P and V. One more: 40.0 ml of a gas is collected at kpa. Find the volume if the pressure goes to 705 mm Hg. 39 GayLussac s Law Of course, temperature and pressure of a gas must be related also I think that if temperature increases, pressure hmmm increases. as long as number of moles of gas and temperature stay the same, that is. 40 GayLussac Lussac s Law If n and V are constant, then P α T P and T are directly proportional. P 1 P 2 = T 1 T 2 P/T = k Joseph Louis Gay Lussac ( ) 1850) If one temperature goes up, the pressure goes up! 41 GayLussac s Law P 1 / T 1 = P 2 / T 2 P α T P/T =k in other words T 1 P 2 = T 2 P 1 42 Page 7
8 43 44 Problems: A gas is collected at 40.0 o C and a pressure of 1.19 atm. Find the new pressure if the temperature drops to 22.0 o C. Kelvin!! Another problem: At constant volume, CO 2 is collected at 778 mm Hg with a temperature of 25.0 o C. Find the new temperature in K when the gas is under 97.1 kpa of pressure. Combined Gas Law The principles behind Charles Law, Boyle s Law and GayLussac s Law can be related to each other: 45 Combined Gas Law The good news is that you don t have to remember all three gas laws! Since they are all related to each other, we can combine them into a single equation. 46 P 1 V 1 P 2 V 2 = T 1 T 2 Most Useful Form: P 1 V 1 T 2 = P 2 V 2 T 1 Combined Gas Law 47 Combined Gas Law Problem 48 If you should only need one of the other gas laws, you can cover up the item that is constant and you will get that gas law! P 1 V 1 T 2 = P 2 V 2 T 1 Boyle s Law Charles Law GayLussac s Law A sample of helium gas has a volume of L, a pressure of atm and a temperature of 29 C. What is the new temperature( C) of the gas at a volume of 90.0 ml and a pressure of 3.20 atm? Set up Data Table P 1 = atm V 1 = L T 1 = 302 K P 2 = 3.20 atm V 2 = L T 2 =?? Page 8
9 Learning Check 49 One More Practice Problem 50 A gas has a volume of 675 ml at 35 C and atm pressure. What is the temperature in C when the gas has a volume of L and a pressure of 802 mm Hg? A balloon has a volume of 785 ml on a fall day when the temperature is 21 C. In the winter, the gas cools to 0 C. What is the new volume of the balloon? Collecting a gas over water Gases, since they mix with other gases readily, must be collected in an environment where mixing can not occur. The easiest way to do this is under water because water displaces the air. So when a gas is collected over water, that means the container is filled with water and the gas is bubbled through the water into the container. Thus, the pressure inside the container is from the gas AND the water vapor. This is where Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures becomes useful Dalton s s Law John Dalton Dalton s Law of Partial Pressure: In a mixture of two gases, the total pressure is simply the pressure of each gas in the mixture added together. Why it s useful: Often, we want to know the pressure of just one of those gases; ( partial pressure ) To get this, just subtract the pressure of the other gas from the total pressure: 53 Collection of a gas over water To make the total pressure of the gas mixture in the bottle equal to the atmospheric pressure, we adjust it so the water levels inside and outside the bottle are the same. When this is done, the partial pressure of the gas in the container is given by: 54 P gas = P atm P H2O PB = Ptotal PA Pbar is the barometer reading, and PH20 (the vapor pressure of water) is obtained from a table (p. 795), and depends on the temp. of the water. Page 9
10 Ideal Gas Law Temp C, F, K Pressure mm Hg, kpa, atm, psi, torr Volume ml, L, cm 3 55 IDEAL GAS LAW P V = n R T Brings together gas properties. Can be derived from experiment and theory. Be sure you understand this equation! 56 Using PV = nrt V = Volume T = Temperature n = number of moles P = Pressure R is a constant, called the Ideal Gas Constant Depending on the units used, R has different values. When atm are used: R = L atm Mol K V = Liters T = Kelvin n = moles P = kpa OR When kpa are used: R = atm 57 L kpa Mol K Using PV = nrt How much N 2 is required to fill a small room with a volume of 960 cubic feet (27,000 L) to 745 mm Hg at 25 o C? Solution 1. Get all data into proper units V = 27,000 L T = 25 o C = 298 K P = 745 mm Hg (1 atm/760 mm Hg) = 0.98 atm And we always know R, L atm / mol K 58 Using PV = nrt How much N 2 is req d to fill a small room with a volume of 960 cubic feet (27,000 L) to P = 745 mm Hg at 25 o C? Solution 2. Now plug in those values and solve for the unknown. PV = nrt RT n = RT (0.98 atm)(2.7 x 10 4 L) ( L atm/k mol)(298 K) n = 1.1 x 10 3 mol (or about 30 kg of gas) 59 Learning Check Dinitrogen monoxide (N 2 O), laughing gas, is used by dentists as an anesthetic. If 2.86 mol of gas occupies a 20.0 L tank at 23 C, what is the pressure (mmhg) in the tank in the dentist office? 60 Page 10
11 Learning Check 61 EXAMPLES 62 A 5.0 L cylinder contains oxygen gas at 20.0 C and 735 mm Hg. How many grams of oxygen are in the cylinder? What is the volume of 1.00 mol of a gas at STP? 22.4 L of ANY gas AT STP = 1 mole GAS DENSITY High density 63 Low density Health Note When a scuba diver is several hundred feet under water, the high pressures cause N 2 from the tank air to dissolve in the blood. If the diver rises too fast, the dissolved N 2 will form bubbles in the blood, a dangerous and painful condition called "the bends". Helium, which is inert, less dense, and does not dissolve in the blood, is mixed with O 2 in scuba tanks used for deep descents. 64 Gases and Stoichiometry 2 H 2 O 2 (l) > > 2 H 2 O (g) + O 2 (g) Decompose 1.1 g of H 2 O 2 in a flask with a volume of 2.50 L. What is the volume of O 2 at STP? Bombardier beetle uses decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to defend itself. 65 EXAMPLES What is the volume of H 2 gas if 15.5 grams is collected at 25.0 o C with a pressure of.898 atm.? 66 Page 11
12 67 68 EXAMPLES PROBLEMS What is the pressure of 3.55 grams of CO 2 that is collected at 24.0 o C with a volume of 552 ml? 25.0 CM 3 OF HYDROGEN IS COLLECTED AT C WITH A PRESSURE OF 1.25 ATM. FIND THE NEW VOLUME IF THE PRESSURE DROPS TO.980 ATM AND THE TEMPERATURE DROPS TO C ANOTHER PROBLEM 78.5 cm 3 OF OXYGEN IS COLLECTED AT 42.0 O C WITH A PRESSURE OF 767mm. FIND THE NEW VOLUME AT STP. Combined: 35.0 cm 3 of N 2 is collected at.982 atm of pressure with a temperature of C. What is the new temperature in 0 C if the volume rises to 45.0 cm 3 and pressure rises to 788 mm? 71 One more combined: 65.5 ml of a gas is collected over water at 18 0 C with a pressure of.99 atm. Find the temperature in 0 C if the volume falls to 55.5 ml and the pressure changes to 77.5 kpa? Page 12
Gas Laws. The kinetic theory of matter states that particles which make up all types of matter are in constant motion.
Name Period Gas Laws Kinetic energy is the energy of motion of molecules. Gas state of matter made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules). Each atom or molecule is very far from other atoms or molecules.
More informationAbbreviations Conversions Standard Conditions Boyle s Law
Gas Law Problems Abbreviations Conversions atm  atmosphere K = C + 273 mmhg  millimeters of mercury 1 cm 3 (cubic centimeter) = 1 ml (milliliter) torr  another name for mmhg 1 dm 3 (cubic decimeter)
More informationThe Gas Laws. Our Atmosphere. Pressure = Units of Pressure. Barometer. Chapter 10
Our Atmosphere The Gas Laws 99% N 2 and O 2 78% N 2 80 70 Nitrogen Chapter 10 21% O 2 1% CO 2 and the Noble Gases 60 50 40 Oxygen 30 20 10 0 Gas Carbon dioxide and Noble Gases Pressure Pressure = Force
More informationKinetic Theory of Gases. 6.1 Properties of Gases 6.2 Gas Pressure. Properties That Describe a Gas. Gas Pressure. Learning Check.
Chapter 6 Gases Kinetic Theory of Gases 6.1 Properties of Gases 6.2 Gas Pressure A gas consists of small particles that move rapidly in straight lines. have essentially no attractive (or repulsive) forces.
More informationHonors Chemistry. Chapter 11: Gas Law Worksheet Answer Key Date / / Period
Honors Chemistry Name Chapter 11: Gas Law Worksheet Answer Key Date / / Period Complete the following calculation by list the given information, rewriting the formula to solve for the unknown, and plugging
More informationThe Gas Laws. The effect of adding gas. 4 things. Pressure and the number of molecules are directly related. Page 1
The Gas Laws Describe HOW gases behave. Can be predicted by the theory. The Kinetic Theory Amount of change can be calculated with mathematical equations. The effect of adding gas. When we blow up a balloon
More informationChapter 5 The Gaseous State
Chapter 5 The Gaseous State I) Pressure Pressure is the force exerted per unit area. A) Devices used to measure pressure 1) barometer used to measure the atmospheric pressure at seal level and 0 o C, P
More informationGas Laws. vacuum. 760 mm. air pressure. mercury
Gas Laws Some chemical reactions take place in the gas phase and others produce products that are gases. We need a way to measure the quantity of compounds in a given volume of gas and relate that to moles.
More informationLecture Notes: Gas Laws and Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT).
CHEM110 Week 9 Notes (Gas Laws) Page 1 of 7 Lecture Notes: Gas Laws and Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT). Gases Are mostly empty space Occupy containers uniformly and completely Expand infinitely Diffuse
More informationCHEMISTRY GAS LAW S WORKSHEET
Boyle s Law Charles Law GuyLassac's Law Combined Gas Law For a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure PV = k The volume of a fixed mass of gas is
More informationChemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten. Chapter 10 Gases
Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 10 Gases A Gas Has neither a definite volume nor shape. Uniformly fills any container.
More informationCHAPTER 12. Gases and the KineticMolecular Theory
CHAPTER 12 Gases and the KineticMolecular Theory 1 Gases vs. Liquids & Solids Gases Weak interactions between molecules Molecules move rapidly Fast diffusion rates Low densities Easy to compress Liquids
More informationAP Chemistry ( MCSEMENICK2015 ) My Courses Course Settings Chemistry: The Central Science, 12e Brown/LeMay/Bursten/Murphy/Woodward
Signed in as Daniel Semenick, Instructor Help Sign Out AP Chemistry ( MCSEMENICK2015 ) My Courses Course Settings Chemistry: The Central Science, 12e Brown/LeMay/Bursten/Murphy/Woodward Instructor Resources
More informationUnit 2 Energy & States of Matter Part 1  Objectives
Unit 2 Energy & States of Matter Part 1  Objectives 1. Relate observations of diffusion to particle motion and collision in the gas and liquid phases. 2. Relate observations regarding the addition of
More informationFigure 10.3 A mercury manometer. This device is sometimes employed in the laboratory to measure gas pressures near atmospheric pressure.
Characteristics of Gases Practice Problems A. Section 10.2 Pressure Pressure Conversions: 1 ATM = 101.3 kpa = 760 mm Hg (torr) SAMPLE EXERCISE 10.1 Converting Units of Pressure (a) Convert 0.357 atm to
More informationGases. Gas: fluid, occupies all available volume Liquid: fluid, fixed volume Solid: fixed volume, fixed shape Others?
CHAPTER 5: Gases Chemistry of Gases Pressure and Boyle s Law Temperature and Charles Law The Ideal Gas Law Chemical Calculations of Gases Mixtures of Gases Kinetic Theory of Gases Real Gases Gases The
More informationTemperature. Number of moles. Constant Terms. Pressure. Answers Additional Questions 12.1
Answers Additional Questions 12.1 1. A gas collected over water has a total pressure equal to the pressure of the dry gas plus the pressure of the water vapor. If the partial pressure of water at 25.0
More informationGas  a substance that is characterized by widely separated molecules in rapid motion.
Chapter 10  Gases Gas  a substance that is characterized by widely separated molecules in rapid motion. Mixtures of gases are uniform. Gases will expand to fill containers (compare with solids and liquids
More information1.4.61.4.8 Gas Laws. Heat and Temperature
1.4.61.4.8 Gas Laws Heat and Temperature Often the concepts of heat and temperature are thought to be the same, but they are not. Perhaps the reason the two are incorrectly thought to be the same is because
More information= 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm
Chapter 13 Gases 1. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. Gases have volumes that depend on their conditions, and can be compressed or expanded by
More informationCHEMISTRY. Matter and Change. Section 13.1 Section 13.2 Section 13.3. The Gas Laws The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry
CHEMISTRY Matter and Change 13 Table Of Contents Chapter 13: Gases Section 13.1 Section 13.2 Section 13.3 The Gas Laws The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry State the relationships among pressure, temperature,
More informationGas particles move in straight line paths. As they collide, they create a force, pressure.
#28 notes Unit 4: Gases Ch. Gases I. Pressure and Manometers Gas particles move in straight line paths. As they collide, they create a force, pressure. Pressure = Force / Area Standard Atmospheric Pressure
More informationGas Density. Lift GOODYEAR. Goodyear blimp filled with He gas BADYEAR. Weight. Badyear blimp filled with Cl 2 gas
Gas Density Lift GOODYEAR Goodyear blimp filled with He gas BADYEAR Weight Badyear blimp filled with Cl 2 gas At STP( 1.00 atm, 273 K) 1.00 mole gas = 22.4 L Gas density: d = mass/volume = molar mass/molar
More informationChapter 5. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Class: Date: Chapter 5 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the pressure of the sample of gas trapped in the opentube mercury manometer
More informationEXPERIMENT 15: Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor
EXPERIMENT 15: Ideal Gas Law: Molecular Weight of a Vapor Purpose: In this experiment you will use the ideal gas law to calculate the molecular weight of a volatile liquid compound by measuring the mass,
More informationCHAPTER 25 IDEAL GAS LAWS
EXERCISE 139, Page 303 CHAPTER 5 IDEAL GAS LAWS 1. The pressure of a mass of gas is increased from 150 kpa to 750 kpa at constant temperature. Determine the final volume of the gas, if its initial volume
More information1. Which graph shows the pressuretemperature relationship expected for an ideal gas? 1) 3)
1. Which graph shows the pressuretemperature relationship expected for an ideal gas? 2. Under which conditions does a real gas behave most like an ideal gas? 1) at low temperatures and high pressures
More informationChapter 4 The Properties of Gases
Chapter 4 The Properties of Gases Significant Figure Convention At least one extra significant figure is displayed in all intermediate calculations. The final answer is expressed with the correct number
More informationAssignment 6 Solutions. Chapter 6, #6.4, 6.12, 6.32, 6.36, 6.43, 6.60, 6.70, 6.80, 6.88, 6.90, 6.100, 6.104,
Assignment 6 Solutions Chapter 6, #6.4, 6.12, 6.32, 6.36, 6.43, 6.60, 6.70, 6.80, 6.88, 6.90, 6.100, 6.104, 6.108. 6.4. Collect and Organize When the temperature of the balloon Figure P6.3 increases, does
More informationChapter 13 Gases. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop
Chapter 13 Gases An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter Map Gas Gas Model Gases are composed of tiny, widelyspaced particles. For a typical gas, the average distance between particles is
More informationGases. Macroscopic Properties. Petrucci, Harwood and Herring: Chapter 6
Gases Petrucci, Harwood and Herring: Chapter 6 CHEM 1000A 3.0 Gases 1 We will be looking at Macroscopic and Microscopic properties: Macroscopic Properties of bulk gases Observable Pressure, volume, mass,
More informationChapter 17 Temperature, Thermal Expansion, and the Ideal Gas Law. Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 17 Temperature, Thermal Expansion, and the Ideal Gas Law Units of Chapter 17 Atomic Theory of Matter Temperature and Thermometers Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Thermal
More informationUse each of the terms below to complete the passage. Each term may be used more than once.
Gases Section 13.1 The Gas Laws In your textbook, read about the basic concepts of the three gas laws. Use each of the terms below to complete the passage. Each term may be used more than once. pressure
More informationGases. States of Matter. Molecular Arrangement Solid Small Small Ordered Liquid Unity Unity Local Order Gas High Large Chaotic (random)
Gases States of Matter States of Matter Kinetic E (motion) Potential E(interaction) Distance Between (size) Molecular Arrangement Solid Small Small Ordered Liquid Unity Unity Local Order Gas High Large
More informationChemistry 13: States of Matter
Chemistry 13: States of Matter Name: Period: Date: Chemistry Content Standard: Gases and Their Properties The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and molecules and explains the properties
More information2. If pressure is constant, the relationship between temperature and volume is a. direct b. Inverse
Name Unit 11 Review: Gas Laws and Intermolecular Forces Date Block 1. If temperature is constant, the relationship between pressure and volume is a. direct b. inverse 2. If pressure is constant, the relationship
More informationChapter 8: Gases and Gas Laws.
133 Chapter 8: Gases and Gas Laws. The first substances to be produced and studied in high purity were gases. Gases are more difficult to handle and manipulate than solids and liquids, since any minor
More informationPlease Return! Gas Laws: LAB Directions
Gas Laws: LAB Directions Please Return! Background Applications of the gas laws are important in physiology, meteorology, scuba diving, tire manufacturing, even hotair ballooning. Robert Boyle built a
More informationOverview of Physical Properties of Gases. Gas Pressure
Overview of Physical Properties of Gases! volume changes with pressure! volume changes with temperature! completely miscible! low density gases: < 2 g/l liquids and solids: 1000 g/l Gas Pressure force
More informationGases and Pressure SECTION 1. Main Ideas
SECTION 1 Gases and Pressure Key Terms pressure millimeters of mercury partial pressure newton atmosphere of pressure Dalton s law of partial pressures barometer pascal In the chapter States of Matter,
More informationAn increase in temperature causes an increase in pressure due to more collisions.
SESSION 7: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Key Concepts In this session we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: Kinetic molecular theory Pressure, volume and temperature relationships Properties
More informationTutorial 6 GASES. PRESSURE: atmospheres or mm Hg; 1 atm = 760 mm Hg. STP: Standard Temperature and Pressure: 273 K and 1 atm (or 760 mm Hg)
T41 Tutorial 6 GASES Before working with gases some definitions are needed: PRESSURE: atmospheres or mm Hg; 1 atm = 760 mm Hg TEMPERATURE: Kelvin, K, which is o C + 273 STP: Standard Temperature and Pressure:
More information7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790.
CHATER 3. The atmosphere is a homogeneous mixture (a solution) of gases.. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. have volumes that depend on their conditions,
More informationPhysics Courseware Physics I Ideal Gases
Physics Courseware Physics I Ideal Gases Problem 1. How much mass of helium is contained in a 0.0 L cylinder at a pressure of.0 atm and a temperature of.0 C? [The atomic mass of helium is 4 amu] PV (
More informationTemperature Measure of KE At the same temperature, heavier molecules have less speed Absolute Zero 273 o C 0 K
Temperature Measure of KE At the same temperature, heavier molecules have less speed Absolute Zero 273 o C 0 K Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases 1. Large number of atoms/molecules in random motion 2.
More informationChemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten. Chapter 10 Gases.
Chemistry, The Central Science, 10th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 10 The things we will cover in this chapter: How differ from solids and liquids Pressure,
More informationKinetic Theory. Bellringer. Kinetic Theory, continued. Visual Concept: Kinetic Molecular Theory. States of Matter, continued.
Bellringer You are already familiar with the most common states of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. For example you can see solid ice and liquid water. You cannot see water vapor, but you can feel it in
More informationSample Exercise 10.1 Converting Pressure Units
Sample Exercise 10.1 Converting Pressure Units (a) Convert 0.357 atm to torr. (b) Convert 6.6 10 2 torr to atmospheres. (c) Convert 147.2 kpa to torr. Solution Analyze In each case we are given the pressure
More informationChapter 5 Practise Test
Chapter 5 Practise Test 1. An open end mercury manometer was constructed from a U shaped tube. In a particular measurement, the level in the end connected to the gas manifold, on which the experiment was
More informationTHE BEHAVIOR OF GASES
12 THE BEHAVIOR OF GASES Conceptual Curriculum Concrete concepts More abstract concepts or math/problemsolving Standard Curriculum Core content Extension topics Honors Curriculum Core honors content Options
More informationUsing the Ideal Gas Law
Lab 9 Using the Ideal Gas Law Using the Ideal Gas Law Learning Objectives Determine the relationship between pressure and temperature Understand how to use Charles s Law Understand how to use the Ideal
More informationGases and KineticMolecular Theory: Chapter 12. Chapter Outline. Chapter Outline
Gases and KineticMolecular heory: Chapter Chapter Outline Comparison of Solids, Liquids, and Gases Composition of the Atmosphere and Some Common Properties of Gases Pressure Boyle s Law: he VolumePressure
More informationHW#13a Note: numbers used in solution steps are different from your WebAssign values. Page 1 of 8
Note: numbers used in solution steps are different from your WebAssign values. Page 1 of 8 Note: numbers used in solution steps are different from your WebAssign values. 1. Walker3 17.P.003. [565748] Show
More information17.3 Buoyancy of Fluids
Have you ever noticed how easy it is to do a pushup to lift yourself up and out of a swimming pool? It s much easier than doing pushups on land. That s because the water is exerting an upward force on
More informationSubstances that are liquids or solids under ordinary conditions may also exist as gases. These are often referred to as vapors. Properties of Gases
Common Student Misconceptions Students need to be told to always use Kelvin temperatures in gas problems. Students should always use units (and unit factor analysis) in gaslaw problems to keep track of
More informationA. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) = the idea that particles of matter are always in motion and that this motion has consequences.
I. MOLECULES IN MOTION: A. Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) = the idea that particles of matter are always in motion and that this motion has consequences. 1) theory developed in the late 19 th century to
More informationThe Gas, Liquid, and Solid Phase
The Gas, Liquid, and Solid Phase When are interparticle forces important? Ron Robertson Kinetic Theory A. Principles Matter is composed of particles in constant, random, motion Particles collide elastically
More informationTemperature, Expansion, Ideal Gas Law
Temperature, Expansion, Ideal Gas Law Physics 1425 Lecture 30 Michael Fowler, UVa Everything s Made of Atoms This idea was only fully accepted about 100 years ago in part because of Einstein s analysis
More informationCHAPTER 11. Gases. The density of a gas decreases as the temperature of the gas increases. HotAir Balloons
CHAPTER 11 Gases The density of a gas decreases as the temperature of the gas increases. HotAir Balloons Gases and Pressure SECTION 1 OBJECTIVES I n the chapter States of Matter, you read about the kineticmolecular
More information6 Evaluation of the Gas Law Constant
6 Evaluation of the Gas Law Constant Name: Date: Section: Objectives Measure the value of the gas constant R Use Dalton s Law to calculate the partial pressure of hydrogen in a closed container Learn to
More informationCHEM 1411 Chapter 12 Homework Answers
1 CHEM 1411 Chapter 12 Homework Answers 1. A gas sample contained in a cylinder equipped with a moveable piston occupied 300. ml at a pressure of 2.00 atm. What would be the final pressure if the volume
More informationBloom s Taxonomy. Study Habits and Study Resources: Pause. Expectations: Develop a working knowledge of the topics.
Dr. C. Weldon Mathews Chem 1 Office: 004 Evans Lab Telephone: 91574 email: mathews.6@osu.edu web: www.chemistry.ohiostate.edu/~mathews/ Office hours: TR 1:30  :00 pm TR 4:005:00 pm or by appointment
More informationChapter 13 Gases. Review Skills
Chapter 13 Gases t s Monday morning, and Lilia is walking out of the chemistry building, thinking about the introductory lecture on gases that her instructor just presented. Dr. Scanlon challenged the
More informationCHE141 Chapter 10. Chapter 10 Gases
Chapter 0 Gases. A sample of gas (4.g) initially at 4.00 atm was compressed from 8.00 L to.00 L at constant temperature. After the compression, the gas pressure was atm. (a). 4.00 (b)..00 (c)..00 (d).
More informationCHEM 1411, chapter 5 exercises
CHEM 1411, chapter 5 exercises 1. A gasfilled balloon with a volume of 12.5 L at 0.90 atm and 21 C is allowed to rise to the stratosphere where the temperature is 5 C and the pressure is 1.0 millibar.
More informationGas Laws. E k = ½ (mass)(speed) 2. v101613_10am
Gas Laws v101613_10am Objective: In this lab you will become familiar with the Ideal Gas Law and Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures. You will be able to use the information collected along with stoichiometry
More informationAS1 MOLES. oxygen molecules have the formula O 2 the relative mass will be 2 x 16 = 32 so the molar mass will be 32g mol 1
Moles 1 MOLES The mole the standard unit of amount of a substance the number of particles in a mole is known as Avogadro s constant (L) Avogadro s constant has a value of 6.023 x 10 23 mol 1. Example
More information10. Gases. P= g h Pressure. Pressure is defined as the force across a unit area. Force N
0. Gases 0. ressure ressure is defined as the force across a unit area. Force N ascal, a Area m In chemistry, the SI unit for pressure, the ascal (a), is typically too small to be of practical use. Typically
More informationBoyles Law. At constant temperature the volume occupied by a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure on the gas 1 P = P
Boyles Law At constant temperature the volume occupied by a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure on the gas 1 or k 1 Boyles Law Example ressure olume Initial 2.00 atm 100 cm 3
More informationBoyle s law PV = K. (at a constant temperature) Definition of terms used. Units. Explanation. Clinical application/worked example
Boyle s law PV = K Or Vµ 1 P (at a constant temperature) Definition of terms used P = pressure V = volume K = constant Units None. Explanation Boyle s law (Robert Boyle, 1662) describes one of the characteristics
More informationMolar Mass of Butane
Suggested reading: Chang 10 th edition text pages 175201 Cautions Butane is toxic and flammable. No OPEN Flames should be used in this experiment. Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to determine
More informationMolar Mass of Butane
Cautions Butane is toxic and flammable. No OPEN Flames should be used in this experiment. Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to determine the molar mass of butane using Dalton s Law of Partial Pressures
More informationNAME: DATE: PHYSICS. Useful Data: Molar gas constant R = J mol 1 K HL Ideal Gas Law Questions
NAME: DATE: PHYSICS Useful Data: Molar gas constant R = 8.314 J mol 1 K 1 10.1 HL Ideal Gas Law Questions Avogadro s constant = 6.02 x 10 23 mol 1 Density of water = 1000.0 kg m 3 g = 9.81 N/kg 1)
More informationGas Thermometer and Absolute Zero
Chapter 1 Gas Thermometer and Absolute Zero Name: Lab Partner: Section: 1.1 Purpose Construct a temperature scale and determine absolute zero temperature (the temperature at which molecular motion ceases).
More informationIdeal Gas Law Introduction Lesson Plan Keith Newman Chemistry 511 Final Project 2006/2007
Ideal Gas Law Introduction Lesson Plan Keith Newman Chemistry 511 Final Project 2006/2007 Objectives: Students will be able to solve ideal gas law problems using algebraic ratios. Students will be able
More informationHow many moles are in a breath of air whose volume is 2.32L at body temperature (37 C) and a pressure of 745 torr?
Lecture 9 State of gas described by (n,p,v,t) n # moles P pressure V volume T (absolute) temperature (K) Sample Problem A balloon filled with helium has a volume of 1.60 L at 1.00 atm and 25oC. What will
More informationF321 MOLES. Example If 1 atom has a mass of 1.241 x 1023 g 1 mole of atoms will have a mass of 1.241 x 1023 g x 6.02 x 10 23 = 7.
Moles 1 MOLES The mole the standard unit of amount of a substance (mol) the number of particles in a mole is known as Avogadro s constant (N A ) Avogadro s constant has a value of 6.02 x 10 23 mol 1.
More information5. Which temperature is equal to +20 K? 1) 253ºC 2) 293ºC 3) 253 C 4) 293 C
1. The average kinetic energy of water molecules increases when 1) H 2 O(s) changes to H 2 O( ) at 0ºC 3) H 2 O( ) at 10ºC changes to H 2 O( ) at 20ºC 2) H 2 O( ) changes to H 2 O(s) at 0ºC 4) H 2 O( )
More informationForce. Pressure = ; Area. Force = Mass times Acceleration;
Force Pressure = ; Area Force = Mass times Acceleration; If mass = kg, and acceleration = m/s 2, Force = kg.m/s 2 = Newton (N) If Area = m 2, Pressure = (kg.m/s 2 )/m 2 = N/m 2 = Pascal; (1 Pa = 1 N/m
More informationExam 4 Practice Problems false false
Exam 4 Practice Problems 1 1. Which of the following statements is false? a. Condensed states have much higher densities than gases. b. Molecules are very far apart in gases and closer together in liquids
More informationGuide to Chapter 9. Gases Answers in green and red.
Guide to Chapter 9. Gases Answers in green and red. We will spend three lecture days on this chapter. Day 1. Pressure, barometers, STP, manometers, Charles Law, Boyles Law, Aogadro's Law, Combined Gas
More informationWebAssign Problem 1: When the temperature of a coin is raised by 75 C, the coin s. , find the coefficient of linear expansion.
Week 10 homework IMPORTANT NOTE ABOUT WEBASSIGN: In the WebAssign versions of these problems, various details have been changed, so that the answers will come out differently. The method to find the solution
More informationExam 3 Chemistry 65 Summer Score:
Name: Exam 3 Chemistry 65 Summer 2015 Score: Instructions: Clearly circle the one best answer 1. The main interactions between molecules of iodine I2 are examples of A) ionic bonds. B) covalent bonds.
More informationKINETIC THEORY OF GASES. Boyle s Law: At constant temperature volume of given mass of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure.
KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Boyle s Law: At constant temperature volume of given mass of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure. Charle s Law: At constant pressure volume of a given mass of gas is directly
More informationThis is Gases, chapter 6 from the book Beginning Chemistry (index.html) (v. 1.0).
This is Gases, chapter 6 from the book Beginning Chemistry (index.html) (v. 1.0). This book is licensed under a Creative Commons byncsa 3.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/byncsa/ 3.0/) license.
More informationReview  After School Matter Name: Review  After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008
Name: Review  After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008 1. Figure 1 The graph represents the relationship between temperature and time as heat was added uniformly to a substance starting at a solid
More informationTHE BIG IDEA: KINETIC THEORY. 1. Use the kineticmolecular theory to account for the physical properties of states of matter. (13.
HONORS CHEMISTRY  CHAPTER 13 STATES OF MATTER OBJECTIVES AND NOTES  V15 NAME: DATE: PAGE: THE BIG IDEA: KINETIC THEORY Essential Questions 1. What factors determine the physical state of a substance?
More information1 of 6 12/3/2009 4:47 PM
1 of 6 12/3/2009 4:47 PM Chapter 16 Homework Due: 9:00am on Tuesday December 1 2009 Note: To understand how points are awarded read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View]
More informationKinetic Molecular Theory
Kinetic Molecular Theory Particle volume  The volume of an individual gas particle is small compaired to that of its container. Therefore, gas particles are considered to have mass, but no volume. There
More informationCHEMISTRY 101 Hour Exam I. Adams/Le Section
CHEMISTRY 101 Hour Exam I September 25, 2006 Adams/Le Name KEY Signature Section Iron rusts from disuse; stagnant water loses its purity and in cold weather becomes frozen; even so does inaction sap the
More informationChemistry 110 Lecture Unit 5 Chapter 11GASES
Chemistry 110 Lecture Unit 5 Chapter 11GASES I. PROPERITIES OF GASES A. Gases have an indefinite shape. B. Gases have a low density C. Gases are very compressible D. Gases exert pressure equally in all
More informationWelcome to the World of Chemistry
Welcome to the World of Chemistry The Language of Chemistry CHEMICAL ELEMENTS  pure substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary means to other substances. Aluminum Bromine Sodium The Language of
More informationMULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
Chapter 10 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A gas at a pressure of 10.0 Pa exerts a force of N on an area of 5.5 m2. A) 1.8 B) 0.55
More informationWe all live at the bottom of a sea of gases called the
6 Gases LOOKING AHEAD 6.1 Properties of Gases 6.2 Gas Pressure 6.3 Pressure and Volume (Boyle s Law) 6.4 Temperature and Volume (Charles Law) 6.5 Temperature and Pressure (Gay Lussac s Law) We all live
More informationESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
Test 1 General Chemistry CH116 Summer, 2012 University of Massachusetts, Boston Name ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 1) Sodium hydride reacts with excess
More informationCHAPTER 12 GASES AND THEIR BEHAVIOR
Chapter 12 Gases and Their Behavior Page 1 CHAPTER 12 GASES AND THEIR BEHAVIOR 121. Which of the following represents the largest gas pressure? (a) 1.0 atm (b) 1.0 mm Hg (c) 1.0 Pa (d) 1.0 KPa 122. Nitrogen
More informationCampbell Chemistry Chapter 13 (&12): Gas Laws Unit Packet
Campbell Chemistry Chapter 13 (&12): Gas Laws Unit Packet Name: Date In Class Homework 1/5 Tue 1/6 Wed 1/7 Thur 1/8 Fri 1/11 Mon. LSM Welcome (back), Semester Plan, Gas Law Activities Computers: set up
More informationThe Decomposition of Potassium Chlorate
The Decomposition of Potassium Chlorate Small quantities of molecular oxygen (O 2 ) can be obtained from the thermal decomposition of certain oxides, peroxides, and salts of oxoacids. Some examples of
More informationCHM1045 Practice Test 3 v.1  Answers Name Fall 2013 & 2011 (Ch. 5, 6, 7, & part 11) Revised April 10, 2014
CHM1045 Practice Test 3 v.1  Answers Name Fall 013 & 011 (Ch. 5, 6, 7, & part 11) Revised April 10, 014 Given: Speed of light in a vacuum = 3.00 x 10 8 m/s Planck s constant = 6.66 x 10 34 J s E (.18x10
More informationMULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
General Chemistry PHS 1015 Practice Exam 4 Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Which of the following statements about pressure
More information