Transactional Strategies Instruction. Dr. Martin Gleeson Mary Immaculate College

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1 Transactional Strategies Instruction Dr. Martin Gleeson Mary Immaculate College

2 Comprehension Comprehension is the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language. RAND Reading Study Group(2002:11)

3 Comprehension One of the key themes emerging from the research is that comprehension occurs in the transaction between text and reader There are several variables associated with this process. These include:

4 Variables in Process of Comprehension Word identification skills Fluency development Vocabulary knowledge Oral language ability

5 Variables Rich exposure to narrative / expository text Effective comprehension strategies Preparation of teachers to teach comprehension MOTIVATION

6 Effective Comprehension Instruction Build disciplinary and world knowledge Provide exposure to a volume and range of texts Provide motivating texts and contexts for reading Teach strategies for comprehending

7 Effective Comprehension Instruction Teach text structures appropriate use of graphic organisers Engage Students in Discussion Build Vocabulary and Language Knowledge Integrate reading and writing

8 Effective Comprehension Instruction Observe and assess Differentiate instruction Prepare children for the information age by enabling them to navigate a range of digital text Determine credibility of sources

9 Effective Comprehension Instruction Synthesise across texts Analyse the arguments being made Multi-modal response SEARCH WWWDOT

10 S.E.A.R.C.H. Set a purpose for searching Employ effective strategies Analyse Search Engine Results Read critically and synthesise information Cite your sources How successful was your search

11 WWWDOT Framework Who wrote this and what credentials do they have? Why was it written? When was it written? Does it help meet my needs? Organisation of the site? To list for the future.

12 What are Strategies? Reading strategies are the reader s deliberate goaldirected attempts to control and modify their efforts to decode text, understand words and construct knowledge Afflerbach, Pearson and Paris (2009:69)

13 Strategy Instruction A robust body of research (National Reading Panel, 2000; Duke and Pearson, 2002; Block and Duffy, 2008; Raphael et. al., 2009) demonstrates that: explicitly teaching children strategies for understanding what they read improves their comprehension of a range of text genres

14 Effective Text Comprehension Instruction Text comprehension across the curriculum can be improved by instruction that helps readers use comprehension strategies Comprehension strategies are conscious plans sets of steps that good readers use to make sense of text Comprehension strategy instruction helps students to become purposeful, active readers who are in control of their own reading comprehension Dr. Martin Gleeson Mary Immaculate College

15 Prediction Synthesis Visualisation Determining Importance Key Comprehension Strategies Making Connections Clarifying Questioning Inferring

16 Key Comprehension Strategies Prediction set up expectations regarding a text by looking at titles, text features, sections, pictures and captions. Continuously updating predictions in the light of new information / events Visualisation generating mental images of the text as one reads. This may be accomplished by focusing on the senses to create a unique mind picture of the text

17 Key Comprehension Strategies Making Connections this entails activating one s prior knowledge and evoking a personal connection with the text. Connections may be: Text-to-Self Text-to-Text Text-to-World

18 Key Comprehension Strategies Questioning is a strategy that enables children to interrogate and probe a range of text genres as they endeavor to construct meaning Inferring is the ability to recognize the author s meaning when it has not been explicitly stated. It is the ability to apply the evidence in the story to deduce the author s intention

19 Key Comprehension Strategies Clarifying is being aware of areas of miscomprehension ideas in need of clarification Clarifying also refers to difficulties in relation to: Word identification Vocabulary

20 Key Comprehension Strategies Determining Importance is the process of selecting the essential information necessary from a text to satisfy one s reading intention Synthesis is the ability to integrate new information from text with one s prior knowledge (schema) to reach a conclusion regarding fiction / non-fiction texts

21 Comprehension Process Motions Comprehension Process Motions are hand placements and movements that portray the physical and visual representations of abstract, unseen comprehension processes such as, prediction, making connections, visualization, questioning etc. For e.g. when Making Connections children make the following hand movement:

22 Comprehension Process Motions CPM s increase the effectiveness of comprehension strategy instruction by providing kinaesthetic movements as a second learning input system

23 Anchor Charts Anchor charts are constructed collaboratively by teachers and children using clear explicit language and act as an aide memoire for each individual strategy The following slides provide examples of such charts regarding the processes of: Prediction Making Connections Visualization Questioning

24 I can make predictions before and during reading. I think about the information I know from the cover and the story. I think about what will happen next. It doesn t have to be right!!

25 We can make connections at any time. You think about something that happened in the story that reminds you of something else in: othe Story oyour Own Life othe World It makes the story come to life and you can imagine it better.

26 We use our cinemas to help us picture the story inside our heads. We are like the directors of a movie. The words (text) are like the script. Everybody will have a slightly different cinema

27 We can ask I wonder questions anytime! They help us to think more about what we read. Sometimes we can find answers to our questions. Sometimes the author leaves us wondering!!

28 Teaching Strategies Research shows that explicit teaching techniques are particularly effective for comprehension strategy instruction The teacher defines, explains and models the strategy What the strategy is How to use it When to implement it Dr. Martin Gleeson Mary Immaculate College

29 Gradual Release of Responsibility

30 Strategy Instruction Long term goal is that children will be able to adapt the strategies to suit their own needs Scaffolding through Collaborative Groups Emphasis on personal interpretation of text rather than answering questions correctly Dr. Martin Gleeson Mary Immaculate College

31 Junior Infants Senior Infants Rang 1 Rang 2 Prediction Making Connections Visualising Prediction Making Connections Questioning Visualising Prediction Making Connections Questioning Visualising Declunking Clarifying Prediction Making Connections Questioning Visualising Declunking Clarifying

32 Rang 3 Rang 4 Rang 5 Rang 6 Prediction Making Connections Questioning Visualising Declunking Clarifying Determining Importance Prediction Making Connections Questioning Visualising Declunking Clarifying Determining Importance Inference Prediction Making Connections Questioning Visualising Declunking Clarifying Determining Importance Inference Synthesis Prediction Making Connections Questioning Visualising Declunking Clarifying Determining Importance Inference Synthesis

33 Transactional Strategies Instruction Independent self-regulated strategic readers Active and purposeful Personal interpretations Collaborative groups

34 Introducing TSI Explain why we are doing this sharing the learning intention Review the success we have achieved in working together collaboratively Be clear and explicit about the role and responsibilities of each group member.

35 Preparation before starting TSI Ability to understand, use & discuss strategies Ability to work in a supportive & co-operative group Successful TSI sessions

36 Collaborative Groups Peer led collaborative groups Mixed ability Supportive environment opportunity for all children to participate Deeper interpretation of text

37 Successful T.S.I. s Ability to understand, use and discuss strategies Ability to work in a supportive and co-operative group Reading abilities, gender, personalities, motivation

38 Successful T.S.I. s Body language / tone of voice Express opinions in a positive constructive manner Never say That s wrong / silly / stupid Compromise

39 Successful T.S.I. s Turn taking / eye contact Maintaining only one conversation in the group Staying on task Compromise

40 Role Expectations Leader Prediction Expert Questioning Expert Declunking Expert Clarifying Expert

41

42 Inclusive Children with learning difficulties can assume a full and valued role May be a very rewarding experience as they realise that decoding is only one element of reading and that when it comes to making predictions, connections, visualising etc., their opinions are as valued as the more able readers

43 Cue Card Cue Card to support group leader in facilitating the discussion (see Bart Simpson logo) Prediction expert commenting positively and inviting other predictions Declunker word identification / vocabulary (Wow!!! Cards)

44 Cue Card

45 Resources

46 Teacher Involvement Initial fortnight of implementation most involvement Support of LST, RTT Spend one entire session with each group modelling & scaffolding Release responsibility Supporting role

47 Teacher s Role Model each role initially Gradually withdraw responsibility Monitor all groups facilitating where necessary

48 Assessment For Learning

49 TSI Checklist Collaborative work Predictions Connections Word identification Questioning Visualisation Clarification Inferring Responding to each other Most interesting aspect Focus for next TSI session

50 Text Selection High quality children s literature Range of expository text genres Range of text across the curriculum

51 Conclusion TSI is a highly effective approach to support active, self-regulating strategic readers who are able to work collaboratively to generate personal interpretation of text Involves extensive modelling and scaffolding Involvement of all pupils

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