Bill Lambert Stantec Consulting, Principal, Manager, Transportation Solutions Team Vancouver, British Columbia

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1 How BRT to LRT Conversions Are Addressed in the Transit Corridor Planning Process Bill Lambert Stantec Consulting, Principal, Manager, Transportation Solutions Team Vancouver, British Columbia

2 Presentation Overview Merits of LRT versus BRT Barriers for Planning and Designing - BRT to LRT Conversion Experience and Lessons Learned with Plans and Implementation in BRT to LRT Conversion City of Calgary Alternative Analysis Work - SE SETWAY Corridor Conclusions

3 Relative Merits of LRT versus BRT Higher ridership LRT capacity - up to 30% or more Rail attracts greater ridership especially among captive riders More appeal to developers for transit-oriented development Greater flexibility for energy sources Lower operating cost per passenger-mile if capacity used Greater reliability CALGARY LRT BRISBANE BRT

4 Relative Merits of BRT versus LRT Lower capital costs: stations, signalization, maintenance facility, no tracks and crossovers, power system and overhead catenary etc. More flexibility in routing and can avoid transfers Can use steeper grades Can more easily add to incrementally Lower cost for structures Metro Vancouver ALRT York Region BRT

5 Barriers in Planning and Designing For BRT to LRT Conversion Higher initial capital costs in constructing BRT with LRT conversion: Right-of-way, drainage costs, structures, station capacity, utility relocation, electrical ducts, at-grade intersections, location for rail maintenance facility Want to avoid transit customer disruption in BRT service while conversion is underway Uncertainty whether there will ever be enough ridership growth to warrant higher capacity mode Structure of federal funding programs Investment losses in some BRT infrastructure want to obtain as much use and value as possible from BRT investment which has economic lives ranging between 30 and 50 years.

6 Convertibility Scan of Jurisdictions Jurisdiction With Busway Status of SETWAY Methodology Conversion Los Angeles County Considered Operates like LRT Approach to Convertibility Brisbane (Australia) Considered Accommodates spatial needs of LRT; pre-built troughs for rail installation in 1 st leg; rejected for future legs Curitiba (Brazil) Planned Accommodates most needs of future LRT York Region Planned Accommodates most needs of future LRT Ottawa Planned Accommodates many needs of LRT Winnipeg Considered Accommodates spatial needs of LRT Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) Considered Accommodates spatial needs of LRT The Seattle (Washington) Constructed Attempted to accommodate spatial needs of LRT, but busway surface had to be lowered; pre-installed tracks, but these had to be replaced Vancouver Miami-Dade County (Florida) Planned for Small Portion Rejected Generated ridership for LRT; busway completely removed Busway will be transitioned to Busway+HOT lanes

7 Metro Vancouver Conversion Experience - Developed and operated in #98 BRT service between suburban City of Richmond and downtown City of Vancouver- 16 km in length - Implementing BRT purchased right-of-way for dedicated 2.5 km busway and 5 stations- cost of $24 million and could use for ALRT later - Built corridor ridership from 20,000 to 35,000 daily passengers and followed TransLink s practice to use BRT to build ridership/market for future rapid transit service

8 Conversion Experience -With 2010 Winter Olympic Games and public and private P3 sector funding were able to convert to SkyTrain ALRT and use part of BRT corridor in Richmond in Rerouted BRT service for 3-4 years due to mostly cut and cover construction for SkyTrain with some disruption to BRT customers-travel time and reliability and lost ridership -Gave up capital investments made on Richmond BRT busway-more than made up with SkyTrain

9 Conversion Experience City of Ottawa Proposing P3 project-12.5 kilometres of new electrified LRT, between Tunney's Pasture and Blair Stations, primarily on the existing BRT Transitway corridor Thirteen LRT stations with four underground stations serving downtown and the University of Ottawa Station in a 3.2-kilometre long tunnel. East and west of the downtown tunnel the existing Transitway will be converted from BRT to LRT technology- approximately 9kms of the alignment, outside of the tunnel portion of the corridor May operate partially in Transitway or outside during LRT construction on widened and parallel 417 highway(advanced work) and other corridors Had always planned BRT for LRT conversion when build in 1970 and 1980 s - accommodate turns, geometrics, clearances weight and grades, structures, did not know ultimate LRT technology

10 Conversion Experience Will try to use BRT station facilities where possible and make modifications May have some availability of land in Transitway corridor to build new LRT facilities while still operating BRT service-proponents of P3 bids are exploring Will decommission some BRT facilities/infrastructure and use land for bus exchanges and TOD development areas When LRT is built in Transitway bus routes will be truncated into Transitway and produce initial surplus of 150 buses Extra transfer time will be compensated by time savings-15 minutes and improved reliability in downtown tunnel Will increase peak hour/ peak direction ridership from 10,000 to 14,000

11 Conversion Experience York Region Located north of City of Toronto, has successful VIVA BRT system operating in dedicated curb bus lanes with TSP Have planned to covert 50% of BRT network to median Rapidways on major arterial roads Median stations at intersections with active TSP-VIVA BRT, emergency vehicles and some regional GO transit bus services will use these transitways Are designing and built rapidways with LRT in mind and supported extras costs for future conversion: signalization ducts for electrical movement of utilities larger and stronger structures greater right of way, even to the extent of buying more land or moving historical buildings design and length of station and size of canopy vertical and horizontal clearances drainage lower grades for LRT

12 Conversion Experience VIVA Rapidway Map Rapidway with transit priority measures to enable speedy and reliable service Warden Station- York Region's first rapid transit station opened March, City of Markham on Enterprise Boulevard and Warden Avenue

13 Conversion Experience City of Winnipeg Initial Segment Building BRT route network for following reasons: Flexible and eliminate transfers. Affordable to build costing significantly less than LRT. Much easier to stage and match funding. Can be built and immediately put into service. Provides flexibility to transition to higher capacity systems if demand increases significantly Significant investment in BRT has generated TOD development

14 Winnipeg BRT Network Plan Conversion Experience

15 Convertibility: Lessons Learned Need to carefully plan the logistics and details of conversion Conversion works best when BRT can operate in same or parallel corridor while LRT is being constructed to minimize customer disruption Need to plan initial busway for LRT track geometrics, grades, loads, drainage, electrical ducts etc., to avoid extensive conversion disruption and extra costs Difficult to avoid all disruption and costs to operate transitional bus service while LRT is under construction

16 City of Calgary SETWAY Corridor

17 Background - Calgary SE SETWAY Corridor The SE transit corridor is 26 km plus long part of northern half owned by CP/CNR and southern half is city owned and dedicated Downtown Calgary through older industrial areas & new suburban, relatively low density areas to proposed new community Seton Light BRT bus service-#302, now services two thirds of the length of the corridor with a 3500 daily ridership Travel times are between minutes and service can be unreliable due to congestion and limited transit priority measures Forecast growth in transit trips from South Section of corridor to/from Downtown (24-hr forecasts) 2019: 21, : 35,000 (+67%) Long Range: 93,000 (+343%)

18 Background on Calgary SE SETWAY Corridor Corridor has great prospects for significant population & employment growth and TOD development opportunities in southern half Few existing other time-competitive transit service options for potential customers in SE corridor e.g. have to travel westward to Calgary s South LRT line City does not have enough funding to complete LRT service option for whole corridor - $2.0 billion plus Northern portion in downtown area may require expensive tunneling to penetrate downtown area and connect to potential North-Central LRT line across Bow River

19 SETWAY Corridor Evaluation Process Service Alternatives Lifecycle Analysis and Comprehensive Evaluation Examined long list of technological options and settled on four for future analysis over three time periods: BRT-in street, BRT-busway, LRT, ARRT (automatic rail rapid transit) for 3 time periods-2019, 2029 and 2039 Conducted lifecycle cost analysis and evaluation based on other factors of nine combination of service strategies comparing alternative staging options Ranged from $3.5 B to $3.8 B for LRT options, and $4.2 B to $5.2 B for ARRT options-lifecycle analysis

20 Analysis of Calgary SE SETWAY Corridor

21 HIGH LEVEL RECOMMENDATIONS Long-term population and employment forecasts and ridership estimates indicate a need for the SE Transitway to have rail rapid transit using a dedicated alignment. In the short term, a dedicated alignment for transit is both warranted and necessary to attract ridership through improved travel time and reliability. Initial transit investment in the SE corridor should start with purchasing ROW in the northern section of the corridor with the intent of having a dedicated ROW as far south as resources permit.

22 HIGH LEVEL RECOMMENDATIONS Service travel time and reliability should be improved first in the northern section of the corridor with a dedicated busway. While a full or partial busway alternative could serve the short term (2019) needs, ultimately, a rail transit alternative will be required by Future work should concentrate on developing a staging plan for the corridor for the busway and LRT alternatives.

23 Phasing Plan Developed Stage 1- Northern Busway with in street feeder BRT

24 Stage 2 - Replace Northern Busway with LRT

25 Stage 3 - Construct Southern LRT for Full LRT line

26 Operating Principles for Transition Periods Minimize time and extent of passenger disruption Design busway running ways, stations, and structures to accommodate future LRT and conversion Design roadway crossings to accommodate future LRT needs Transition should occur to serve passenger demand, maximize development of TOD at stations and be coordinated with other transportation investments Develop a TDM and monitoring program during transition

27 Conclusions for Other BRT to LRT Conversions Local circumstances will dictate whether conversion should be considered future likely ridership demand financing available length of time until conversion available corridor size Should try to minimize the time period and the extent of disruption to transit service for existing customers Maximize the use of BRT investments in stations and other infrastructure utilized in the conversion to LRT. The main reason driving the investment required to convert from BRT to LRT should be the extra passenger carrying capacity

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