Unit 1 Lesson 2 The Skeletal and Muscular Systems Essential Question: How do your skeletal and muscular systems work?

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1 Essential Question: How do your skeletal and muscular systems work? Key Terms p15 Quiz Friday Skeletal system Ligament Muscular system Tendon Joint (Don t forget L1: Homeostasis) Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

2 What are the main functions of the skeletal system? Function of the skeletal System Support Protection Storage Blood Cell Production Movement

3 What are the parts of the skeletal system? Bones Ligaments Cartilage Parts of the skeletal system Axial Appendicular

4 What are bones made of? Minerals Connective Tissue Marrow Types of Bone Compact Spongy How do Bones Grow?

5 P16-17 What s Inside? What are the main functions of the skeletal system? A skeleton is a system of bones which are alive. The skeletal system is the organ system that supports and protects the body and allows it to move. The skeletal system stores minerals and produces red blood cells. Bones, like the ribcage and skull, provide protection for organs like the heart and brain. Bones provide support for your body and make it possible to stand and sit. Bones provide a place for muscles to attach. The muscles pull on bone and cause movement.

6 P16-17 What are the main functions of the skeletal system? Marrow is a soft tissue at the center of bones. Red marrow makes red and white blood cells. The hard outer layer of bone, called compact bone, stores minerals such as calcium.

7 No Bones About It! What are the parts of the skeletal system? The skeletal system is divided into two parts. The skull, vertebrae, and ribs make up the axial skeleton, which supports and protects the internal organs. The appendicular skeleton includes the arms, legs, shoulders, and pelvis. P18

8 P18 What are the parts of the skeletal system? Bones are alive. They have a blood supply and nerves. A ligament is the tough, flexible strand of connective tissue that holds bones together. Cartilage is a strong, flexible, and smooth connective tissue found at the end of bones that allows them to move smoothly.

9 What are bones made of? Compact bone is dense and hard, with no visible open spaces. Spongy bone provides most of the strength and support for the bone. It has many open spaces. Bones also contain marrow, the soft tissue in the center of bones. Calcium, the most plentiful mineral in bones, is deposited by bone cells called osteoblasts. P18

10 P18 What are bones made of? Connective tissue is made mostly of a protein called collagen, which allows bones to be a bit flexible. Red marrow, at the center of flat bones, makes red and white blood cells. Yellow marrow, at the center of long bones, stores fat. v

11 What are the main functions of the skeletal system? Function of the skeletal System Support Protection Storage Blood Cell Production Movement Allow to Stand upright Protect major organs Compact bone Red Marrow flat bone Place for muscles to attach Allow to move Ribs protect heart Stores minerals like calcium red and white blood cells Muscles pull on bone to move

12 What are the parts of the skeletal system? Bones Ligaments Cartilage Parts of the skeletal system Axial Appendicular Alive Blood supply & nerves Baby 300 Adult Bones fuse as we age Supports body weight Protects organs Skull Vertebrae Ribs Allows for movement Arms Legs Shoulders pelvis Tough, flexible Connective tissue Strong Flexible smooth Connective tissue Holds bones together Found at the ends of bones Prevent too much movement Allows smooth movement

13 What are bones made of? Minerals Connective Tissue Marrow Types of Bone Compact Spongy calcium osteoblasts Makes bone strong and hard Dense Rigid, hard Contain blood capillaries Many open spaces Strength and support collagen Red Marrow platelets, Blood cell production Allows for flexibility Red Marrow center of flat bones Yellow Marrow center of long bones stores fat

14 #9 Spongy Bone Strength and Support P19 Compact Bone Makes bones rigid Cartilage Allows bone to move smoothly past one another Ligament Hold bones together Allow movement

15 P19 How do bones grow? Babies have cartilage that is later replaced by bone. Growth plates are locations where long bones lengthen. Osteocytes are bone cells that move into cartilage and harden it into bone.

16 Bone Connections How are bones connected? A joint is the place where two or more bones connect. Fixed joints are found in the skull and allow no movement between bones. Immovable joints Movable joints allow movement of the bones. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

17 How are bones connected? Ball and socket joints allow one of the bones to rotate in a large circle. (hips & shoulders) Gliding joints allow flexibility in the wrist and ankles. Hinge joints allow bones to move back and forth. (knee and elbow)

18 How are bones connected? Movable and Immovable Joints Joint Kind of Motion Where it is found Hinge Ball and Socket Pivot Gliding Fixed Back and Forth 360 degrees Circle Rotate one bone over another Many directions Not Movable Knee & Elbow Shoulder & Hip Top of neck Arm (Radius and Ulna) Wrist & Ankle Vertebrae Skull

19 Functions of the Muscular System Allow the body to move and be flexible Pump blood through your body Enable you to breathe Hold you upright Allow you to move by contracting and relaxing

20 Two Types of Muscles 1) Voluntary 2) Involuntary Three Types of Muscle Tissue 1) Smooth Muscle Inside internal organs & blood vessels Involuntary Types of Muscles 2) Cardiac Muscle Found only in the heart Contain many mitochondria Involuntary Striated 3) Skeletal Muscle Striated Attached to skeleton by tendons Voluntary

21 What are the three types of muscles? Most skeletal muscles work in pairs around a joint. The flexor bends the joint. The extensor straightens the joint. As one muscle contracts, the other muscle relaxes.

22 A closer look at muscles Analyze the results: 13) The flexor and extensor muscles work together to provide movement. One contracts while the other relaxes to allow for movement. Throughout the body, pairs of muscles work this way to provide movement. 14) Tendons attach the muscles to bones so that when the muscle moves, the bones move. Ligaments holds two bones together to form a joint where the bone can move. 15) The human muscles of the arm are similar to the chicken muscles in that they work in pairs to provide movement. 16) The muscular system would not be able to function if there was not a tissue that would attach the muscles to the bones of the skeletal system to allow for movement. 17) If organs do not function properly then the organ system does not function properly. If organs of the muscular system do not function properly then movement for the organism would be affected. The organism may not be able to move at all or parts of the body may not be able to move correctly, if at all.

23 What are some injuries and disorders of the skeletal system? Fractures are bones that are broken. Sprains are injuries to a ligament caused by stretching a joint too far.

24 What are some injuries and disorders of the skeletal system? Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bone to become thin and weak. Arthritis is a disease that causes joints to stiffen, swell, and become painful. Sometimes the joint becomes misshapened.

25 Injuries and disorders of the Muscular System Common Muscular System Injuries: Muscle Strain and Tears Muscle is overstretched or torn. Causes muscles tissue to swell and is painful Caused when muscles have not been stretched properly or are overworked. Muscular Dystrophy hereditary disease that causes skeletal muscles to become weaker over time. Affects how muscle proteins form Poor balance and difficulty walking Tendinitis Tendons become inflamed or torn with overuse

26 What are some benefits of exercise? Increases endurance allow muscles to contract for a longer time without getting tired. Increase strength building skeletal muscle and increasing muscle power. Increase flexibility can help prevent ligament, tendon, and muscle injuries. Helps keep your heart, blood vessels, lungs, and bones healthy. Reduces stress, helps you sleep well, and makes you feel good (endorphins) People should get 30 to 60 minutes of exercise a day

27 Anaerobic Muscles cells contract without using oxygen Resistance training: Involve bursts of intense effort Lifting weights Pushups Pull-ups Aerobic Muscles cells use oxygen when contracting Endurance Exercises: Involves extended periods of movement Walking Jogging Bicycling Skating Swimming Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

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