# vertex, 369 disjoint pairwise, 395 disjoint sets, 236 disjunction, 33, 36 distributive laws

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1 Index absolute value, additive identity, 254 additive inverse, 254 aleph, 466 algebra of sets, 245, 278 antisymmetric relation, 387 arcsine function, 349 arithmetic sequence, 208 arrow diagram, 290 associative laws for real numbers, 254 for sets, 246, 278 average of a finite set of numbers, 300 axiom, 85 basis step, 173, 191, 194 biconditional statement, 39, 103 forms of, 39 proof of, 107 bijection, 312 Binet s formula, 208 birthday function, 283, 284, 319 Cantor s diagonal argument, 482 Cantor s Theorem, 483 Cantor, Georg, 483 Cantor-Schröder-Bernstein Theorem, 484 cardinal number, 455 cardinality, 223, 452, 455, 466, 0, 466 c, finite set, 223, 455 natural numbers, 466 Cartesian plane, 258 Cartesian product, 256, 362 cases, proof using, 132, 160 Caucy sequence, 78 chain rule, 327 choose an element method, 279 choose-an-element method, , 238 circular relation, 386 closed interval, 228 closed ray, 228 closed under addition, 10, 62 closed under multiplication, 10, 63 closed under subtraction, 10, 63 closure properties, codomain, 281, 285 Cohen, Paul, 486 common divisor, 414 commutative laws for real numbers, 254 for sets, 246, 278 commutative operation, 77 complement of a set, 216 complex numbers, 224 composite function, 325 composite number, 78, 189, 426 composition of functions, 325 inner function, 325 outer function, 325 compound interest, 211 compound statement, 33

2 Index 567 conditional, 33 conditional statement, 5 10, 36 conclusion, 5, 37 contrapositive of, 44 converse of, 44 forms of, 36 hypothesis, 5, 37 logical equivalencies, 45 negation, 46 truth table, 6 congruence, 92 94, , 380 Division Algorithm, 150 reflexive property, 98, 149, 167 symmetric property, 98, 149, 167 transitive property, 98, 149, 167 congruence class, 392 congruent modulo n, 92 conjecture, 3, 86 conjunction, 33, 36 connective, 33 consecutive integers, 137 constant, 54 construction method, 88 constructive proof, , 160 continuous, 77 continuum, 482 Continuum Hypothesis, 485 contradiction, 40, 116, 159 contrapositive, 44, 104, 158 converse, 44 coordinates, 256 corollary, 86 countable set, 466 countably infinite set, 466 countably infinite sets subsets of, union of, 471 counterexample, 3, 66, 69, De Moivre s Theorem, 199 de Moivre, Abraham, 199 De Morgan s Laws for indexed family of sets, 271 for sets, 248, 278 for statements, 45 decimal expression for a real number, 480 normalized form, 480 decomposing functions, 327 definition, 15, 86 by recursion, 200 denumerable set, 466 dependent variable, 285 derivative, 295 determinant, 305, 323 diagonal, 295 difference of two sets, 216 digraph, 369 Diophantine equation, 441 linear in one variable, 441 linear in two variables, Diophantus of Alexandria, 441 direct proof, 16, 24 26, 104, 158 directed edge, 369 directed graph, 369 directed edge, 369 vertex, 369 disjoint pairwise, 395 disjoint sets, 236 disjunction, 33, 36 distributive laws for indexed family of sets, 271 for real numbers, 254 for sets, 246, 278 for statements, 48, 49 divides, 82, 367 divisibility test, 407 for 11, 410 for 3, 409

3 568 Index for 4, 410 for 5, 409 for 9, 407 Division Algorithm, congruence, 150 using cases, divisor, 82 properties, 167 Dodge Ball, 476, 482 domain of a function, 281, 285 of a relation, 364 domino theory, 189 element-chasing proof, 238 empty set, 60 properties, 246, 278 equal functions, 298 equal sets, 55 equality relation, 381 equation numbers, 89 equivalence class, 391 properties of, 392 equivalence relation, 378 equivalent sets, 452, 455 Euclid s Elements, 431 Euclid s Lemma, 431 Euclidean Algorithm, 419 even integer, 15, 82 properties, 31, 166 exclusive or, 34 existence theorem, 110, 111, 160 existential quantifier, 63 Extended Principle of Mathematical Induction, 190, 213 factor, 82 factorial, 188, 201 family of sets, 264 indexed, 268 intersection, 265 union, 265 Fermat s Last Theorem, 164 Fermat, Pierre, 164 Fibonacci numbers, 202 Fibonacci Quarterly, 204 finite set, 455, 462 properties of, function, 281, 284 as set of ordered pairs, 336 bijective, 312 codomain, 281, 285 composite, 325 composition, 325 domain, 281, 285 equality, 298 injective, 310 inverse of, 338, 373 invertible, 341 of two variables, 302 one-to-one, 310 onto, 311 piecewise defined, 322 projection, 304 range, 287 real, 288, 292 surjective, 311 Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, 432 of Calculus, 306 future value, 212 Gödel, Kurt, 486 geometric sequence, 206 geometric series, 206 Goldbach s Conjecture, 163, 435 greatest common divisor, 414 half-open interval, 228 Hemachandra, Acharya, 203

4 Index 569 idempotent laws for sets, 246, 278 identity function, 298, 319, 331, 345 identity relation, 381 image of a set, 351 of a union, 355, 361 of an element, 285 of an intersection, 355, 361 implication, 33 inclusive or, 34 increasing, strictly, 76 independent variable, 285 indexed family of sets, 268 De Morgan s Laws, 271 distributive laws, 271 intersection, 269 union, 269 indexing set, 268 inductive assumption, 174 inductive hypothesis, 174 inductive set, 171 inductive step, 173, 191, 194 infinite set, 455, 462 initial condition, 200 injection, 310 inner function, 325 integers, 10, 54, 224 consecutive, 137 system, 415 integers modulo n, 402 addition, 404 multiplication, 404 Intermediate Value Theorem, 111 intersection of a family of sets, 265 of an indexed family of sets, 269 of two sets, 216 interval, 228 Cartesian product, 259 closed, 228 half-open, 228 open, 228 inverse image of a set, 351 inverse of a function, 338, 373 inverse of a relation, 373 inverse sine function, 349 invertible function, 341 irrational numbers, 10, 113, 122, 224 know-show table, backward question, 19 forward question, 19 know-show-table, 86 Kuratowski, Kazimierz, 263 Law of Trichotomy, 228 least upper bound, 79 lemma, 86 Leonardo of Pisa, 203 linear combination, 423 linear congruence, 447 linear Diophantine equations, logical operator, 33 logically equivalent, 43 Lucas numbers, 210 magic square, 129 mapping, 284 mathematical induction basis step, 173, 191, 194 Extended Principle, 190, 193, 213, 214 inductive step, 173, 191, 194 Principle, 173, 213 matrix, 305 determinant, 305 transpose, 305 modular arithmetic, 404 modus ponens, 42 multiple, 82 multiplicative identity, 254

5 570 Index multiplicative inverse, 254 natural numbers, 10, 54, 223 necessary condition, 37 negation, 33, 36 of a conditional statement, 46, 69 of a quantified statement, neighborhood, 78 normalized form of a decimal expression, 480 number of divisors function, 292, 293, 319 octagon, 295 odd integer, 15 properties, 31, 166 one-to-one correspondence, 452 one-to-one function, 310 only if, 37 onto function, 311 open interval, 228 open ray, 228 open sentence, 56 ordered pair, 256, 263 ordered triple, 263 ordinary annuity, 212 outer function, 325 pairwise disjoint, 272, 395 partition, 395 pentagon, 295 perfect square, 70, 439 piecewise defined function, 322 Pigeonhole Principle, 459, 461 polygon, 294 diagonal, 295 regular, 295 power set, 222, 230, 478 cardinality, 230 predicate, 56 preimage of a set, 351 of a union, 356, 361 of an element, 285 of an intersection, 356, 361 prime factorization, 427 prime number, 78, 189, 426 prime numbers distribution of, 434 twin, 435 Principle of Mathematical Induction, 173, 213 projection function, 304, 320 proof, 22, 85 biconditional statement, 107 by contradiction, , 159 constructive, 110, 160 contrapositive, 104, 158 direct, 16, 24 26, 104, 158 element-chasing, 238 non-constructive, 111, 161 using cases, 132, 160 proper subset, 218 proposition, 1 propositional function, 56 Pythagorean Theorem, 26 Pythagorean triple, 29, 102, 128, 162, 164 quadratic equation, 29, 98 quadratic formula, 29 quadrilateral, 295 quantifier, 63, 70 existential, 63 universal, 63 quotient, 144 range, 287 of a relation, 364 rational numbers, 10, 54, 113, 122 ray

6 Index 571 closed, 228 open, 228 real function, 288, 292 real number system, 10 real numbers, 54, 224 recurrence relation, 200 recursive definition, 200 reflexive, 375, 377 regular polygon, 295 relation, 364 antisymmetric, 387 circular, 386 divides, 367 domain, 364 equality, 381 equivalence, 378 identity, 381 inverse of, 373 range, 364 reflexive on, 375, 377 symmetric, 375, 377 transitive, 375, 377 relative complement, 216 relatively prime integers, 428 remainder, 144 ring, 77 roster method, 53 Second Principle of Mathematical Induction, 193, 214 sequence, 200, 301 arithmetic, 208 geometric, 206 set complement, 216 difference, 216 equality, 55 intersection, 216 power, 222 proving equality, 235 relative complement, 216 roster method, 53 union, 216 set builder notation, 58 set equality, 55 set of divisors function, 293 solution set, 58, 363 statement, 1, 3 biconditional, 103 compound, 33 conditional, 5 10 subset, 55 proper, 218 sufficient condition, 37 sum of divisors function, 284, 319 surjection, 311 syllogism, 42 symmetric, 375, 377 tautology, 40, 116 theorem, 86 transitive, 375, 377 transpose, 305, 323 triangle, 295 Triangle Inequality, 137 truth set, 58, 254, 363 truth table, 6 Twin Prime Conjecture, 435 twin primes, 163, 435 uncountable set, 466 undefined term, 85 union of a family of sets, 265 of an indexed family of sets, 269 of two sets, 216 unique factorization, 433 universal quantifier, 63 universal set, 54 properties, 246, 278

7 572 Index upper bound, 79 variable, 54 dependent, 285 independent, 285 Venn diagram, 217 vertex, 369 Wallis cosine formulas, 183 Wallis sine formulas, 183 Well Ordering Principle, 423 Wiles, Andrew, 283 writing guidelines, 22 24, 73, 89, 94 95, 105, 108, 119, 176, zero divisor, 77

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