BONES & MUSCLES FOR LIFE. Bone & Muscle Review Level: Advanced

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1 Level: Advanced Objective: Students will identify bones, muscles, and corresponding joints of the body and describe how bones and muscles work together to create movement and promote the ability to have a physically active lifestyle. Equipment: Bones & Muscles of the Body Information Review Sheets Bones & Muscles for Life Review Sheet (Diagrams) Bone & Muscle Review Explanation: The bones and joints of the skeletal system and the more than 600 skeletal muscles of the muscular system function together as the musculoskeletal system to produce movements such as sitting up straight, walking, running, jumping and throwing. For any movement to occur, skeletal muscles, which are attached to a different bone at each end by tendons, must contract or shorten. As the muscle contracts, it pulls on a bone resulting in the bending of a joint, or where two or more bones meet. Reversing the direction in which a joint bends is a result of contracting or shortening an opposite group of muscles. For example, bending or flexing the elbow, is caused by contracting the biceps, which are the muscles located on the front of the upper arm. Conversely, straightening or extending the elbow is a result of contracting the opposite muscles or triceps, located on the back of the upper arm. Because movement is basic to life, building and maintaining the musculoskeletal system provides long -term health benefits, enhance performance and improve appearance. Directions: 1. Distribute Bones & Muscles of the Body Information Review Sheets to the students. 2. Distribute Bones & Muscles for Life Review Sheet (diagrams). 3. Explain to students that they will review the major bones and muscles of the body by identifying them on the diagram while using the Bones and Muscles of the Body Information Sheet. 4. Explain that this is to be done as a homework assignment. 5. Debrief activity when students bring back assignment using the Reflective Questions. Reflective Questions: 1. What bones make up the elbow joint? 2. If a person wants to bend or flex the elbow, what major muscle is responsible? Explain why you believe this to be true. 3. In your own words, describe how the muscles and bones work together to create movement. 4. How does the ability to create movement relate to a physically active lifestyle? 3.21

2 Bones & Muscles of the Body Information Review Sheet The following are basic bones and muscles of the musculoskeletal system, along with a description of where they are located, what they do and how to strengthen them: Bones Carpals Location: Wrist Function: Provides structure for the wrist Strengthening Exercises: Push-ups, cartwheels and squat thrusts Clavicle (Collar Bone) Location: Across the top and front of the chest Function: Provides structure for shoulders and upper body Cranium (Skull) Location: Head Function: Protects the brain Femur Location: Upper leg bone Function: Gives the leg support. Longest, heaviest bone in the body Fibula Location: Smallest bone in the lower leg Function: Gives support to lower leg Humerus Location: Upper bone in the arm Function: Provides structure for upper arm Strengthening Exercises: Push-ups, cartwheels and squat thrusts Patella (Kneecap) Location: Between the upper land lower leg bones Function: Covers knee joint 3.22 Pelvis Location: The hipbones Function: Provides support for the legs Strengthening Exercises: Walking, running, jumping Radius Location: Bone between the elbow and wrist, located on the thumb side Function: Provides structure for lower arm Strengthening Exercises: Push-ups, cartwheels and squat thrusts Ribs Location: Chest Function: Protect the internal organs, supports the chest (continued)

3 Bones & Muscles of the Body Information Review Sheet - continued Scapula (Shoulder Blade) Location: Upper part of the back Function: Provides structure for shoulders and upper body Sternum Location: Center of the chest Function: Protects the heart and other internal organs, supports the chest Tarsals Location: Ankle Function: Provide structure for the ankle Tibia Location: Biggest bone in the lower leg Function: Gives support to lower leg Ulna Location: Bone between the elbow and wrist, located on the pinky side Function: Allows movement through the wrist and elbow Strengthening Exercises: Push-ups, cartwheels and squat thrusts Vertebrae (Backbone) Location: Center of the back Function: Protects spinal cord and supports upper body Muscles Abdominals Location: Cover the stomach Function: Bend forward at the waist Strengthening Exercises: Crunch, curl-ups Biceps Location: Front, top half of the arm Function: Bend the elbow Strengthening Exercises: Bicep curls, chin-ups Deltoids Location: Shoulder Function: Moves upper arm Strengthening Exercises: Shoulder press, lateral raise Gastrocnemius Location: Back of lower leg Function: Jump, climb stairs or walk up hills Strengthening Exercises: Calf raise (continued) 3.23

4 Bones & Muscles of the Body Information Review Sheet - continued Gluteals Location: Buttocks Function: Jump, climb stairs or walk up hills Strengthening Exercises: Squat, lunge Hamstrings Location: Back of the upper leg Function: Bend the knee Strengthening Exercises: Squat, lunge Latissimus dorsi Location: On the back by the armpit Function: Allows a person to pull Strengthening Exercised: Seated row Pectorals Location: Chest Function: Help a person to push Strengthening Exercises: Push-ups, chest press Quadriceps Location: Front part of upper leg Function: Straighten the knee Strengthening Exercises: Squat, lunge Trapezius Location: Upper and mid back Function: Pulls arms in and raises the shoulders Strengthening Exercises: Shoulder shrug, seated row Triceps Location: Back of the upper arm Function: Straighten the elbow Strengthening Exercises: Push-ups, tricep extensions 3.24

5 Name 3.25

6 Name 3.26

7 Carpals Tarsals 3.27

8 3.28

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