Unit 8 Lesson 6 The Spread of Islam

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1 Unit 8 Lesson 6 The Spread of Islam

2 Generalization: Contact, conflict and conquest often result in cultural diffusion Big Idea Muslim armies conquered many lands into which Islam slowly spread and trade also helped its spread. Muslim scholars and artists made important contributions to science, art and literature.

3 analyzing what role did armies play in spreading Islam? As Muslim armies conquered new lands, Islam slowly spread into the conquered regions - draw conclusions how did having a common language help scholars in the Islamic world? It allowed scholars separated by great distances to have a shred method of communication - evaluating what do you think was the most important advance that Muslim scholars made in math or science? Why?

4 The Next Leaders - Abu Bakr became the leader after Muhammad s death - takes the title caliph (successor) - early caliphs usually not also the religious leader - Building an empire - united Arabia under his control - expansion continued after Bakr s death in rules for conquered - designed to make them convert to Islam - only Jews and Christians could keep their own religion (Children of the Book) - less rights than Muslims - second-class citizens - pay special tax - forbidden from converting anyone

5 Each caliph thought he had a special relationship to Muhammad and that they were the only ones - this led to conflict - especially between Arab and non-arab Muslims

6 Umayyad Dynasty - moved the capital to Damascus - continued expansion - lands in Central Asia - northern India - trade in the eastern Mediterranean - parts of North Africa Berbers - resisted at first then converted - helped Arab army invade Spain and attacked France - called Moors - ruled Spain for next 700 years

7 - analyze why do you think the Umayyad caliphs moved the capital from Median to Damascus?

8 The Abbasids - the next Islamic dynasty - descendants of Abbas, an uncle of Muhammad - ruled the eastern part of the Muslim world - center of culture, science and economic development - in time the rulers became too fond of luxury - order broke down when they raised taxes to pay for their lifestyle - opposition spread

9 The Spread of Islam - mostly through conquest - but also through trade - into India, Africa, Southeast Asia, Malaysia and Indonesia - some peoples adopted some Arabic culture - language - introduced new products into the Muslim world - many areas became wealthy from this trade - summarize what did Arab Muslims gain through trade? New products, crops, and technologies; wealth main idea how did trade affect the spread of Islam? As Arab merchants traveled they shared their Muslim faith with the people they met - recall what feature of Arabia gave Muslim merchants easy access to many parts of the world? Location at the crossroads between Asia, Africa, and Europe

10 -By mid 600s united Arabia, took Syria, Israel, and Egypt then North Africa - late 600s conquered the Persian Empire, Iraq, Iran parts of Afghanistan and India - invaded Europe in 711 took Spain stopped at the Battle of Tours in 732 by Charles Martel They remained in Spain until 1492

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17 In the West the emirs of Cordova governed Spain after descendants of an Umayyad prince who escaped death - independent of the caliphs of Baghdad

18 North Africa broke away from the Abbasids in the 10 th century - founded the Fatimid dynasty capital Cairo in Egypt - descended from Muhammad s daughter Fatima

19 Three Empires Umayyad, Abbasid and Fatimid - all shared Islamic religion, the Arabic language and highly advanced culture

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21 Cultural Achievements - Astronomy improved the astrolabe, used to improve navigation - Geography explorer Ibn Battutah - traveled to Africa, India, China and Spain - made more reliable maps and developed better ways of calculating distance - Math combined Indian number system with Greek math and science - Europeans took their system and called them Arabic numerals - Medicine combined their own ideas with Greek and Indian knowledge - first pharmacy school - treatment for smallpox - medical encyclopedia written by Avicenna - Philosophy studied ancient Greek philosophy - Sufism focused on spiritual issues - having a personal relationship with God - explain how did Muslim scholars help preserve learning from the ancient world? The translated works from the ancient world into Arabic so they could study them and share their knowledge

22 Literature and the Arts - Best known literature in the West Thousand and One Nights Architecture - built mosques to honor God - minaret narrow tower used to call Muslims to prayer - style complicated domes, arches, colored bricks and tiles - cannot represent humans or animals in art - used complex patterns instead - calligraphy form of decorative writing - describe what function do minarets serve in mosques? Provide a place from which calls to prayer were made - explain how did Muslim artist create art without showing humans or animals? Used patterns; turned calligraphy into an art form

23 - make generalization what are some characteristic features of mosques? Huge halls for prayer, large domes, minarets

24 1. Muslim scholars in Baghdad and Cordoba translated ancient writings into what language? a. French b. Arabic c. German d. Spanish 2. In the 1320s, the explorer who traveled to Africa, India, China and Spain was a. Shah Jahan b. Muhammad c. Abu Bakr d. Ibn Battutah 3. Muslims made their greatest advances in what subject? a. Languages b. Medicine c. Astronomy d. Geography 4. A doctor in Baghdad discovered how to treat what disease? a. Smallpox b. Mumps c. Measles d. Rubella 5. A form of decorative writing is called a. Decorative b. Minaret c. Calligraphy d. Sufism

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