TCP/IP Protocol Architecture. The Need For Protocol Architecture

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1 TCP/IP Protocol Architecture CSE 3213 Fall The Need For Protocol Architecture 1.) the source must activate communications path or inform network of destination 2.) the source must make sure that t destination is prepared to receive data To transfer data several tasks must be performed: 3.) the file transfer application on source must confirm file management program at destination is prepared to accept and store file 2 4.) a format translation function may need to be performed if the formats on systems are different 1

2 Functions of Protocol Architecture breaks logic into subtask modules which are implemented separately modules are arranged in a vertical stack each layer in the stack performs a subset of functions relies on next lower layer for primitive functions changes in one layer should not require changes in other layers 3 s, Services & Protocols The overall communications process between two or more machines connected across one or more networks is very complex ing partitions related communications functions into groups that are manageable Each layer provides a service to the layer above Each layer operates according to a protocol 4 2

3 Protocols A protocol is a set of rules that governs how two or more communicating entities in a layer are to interact Messages that can be sent and received Actions that are to be taken when a certain event occurs, e.g. sending or receiving messages, expiry of timers The purpose of a protocol is to provide a service to the layer above 5 s A set of related communication functions that can be managed and grouped together Application : communications functions that are used by application programs HTTP, DNS, SMTP ( ) Transport : end-to-end communications between two processes in two machines TCP, User Datagram Protocol (UDP) : node-to-node communications between two machines Internet Protocol (IP) 6 3

4 Why ing? ing simplifies design, implementation, and testing by partitioning overall communications process into parts Protocol in each layer can be designed separately from those in other layers Protocol makes calls for services from layer below ing provides flexibility for modifying and evolving protocols and services without having to change layers below Monolithic non-layered architectures are costly, inflexible, and soon obsolete Let s consider the TCP/IP protocol architecture 7 TCP/IP Protocol Architecture Result of protocol research and development conducted on ARPANET Referred to as TCP/IP protocol suite TCP/IP comprises a large collection of protocols that are Internet t standards 8 4

5 TCP/IP s and Example Protocols also called Data Link 9 Physical Transfers bits across a link Concerned with issues like: characteristics of transmission medium (optical fiber, twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, wireless) nature of the signals (modulation, signal strength, voltage levels, bit times) data rates 10 5

6 Data Link ( Access) Transfers frames across direct connections Groups bits into frames Detection of bit errors; retransmission of frames Activation, maintenance and deactivation of data link connections Medium access control for LANs Flow control 11 Data Link Physical frames bits Data Link Physical Transfers packets across multiple links and/or multiple networks Addressing must scale to large networks Nodes jointly execute routing algorithm to determine paths across the network Forwarding transfers packet across a node Congestion control to deal with traffic surges Connection setup, maintenance, and teardown when connection-based 12 6

7 Transport Transfers data end-to-end from process in a machine to process in another machine Reliable stream transfer or quick-and-simple singleblock transfer Port numbers enable multiplexing Message segmentation and reassembly Connection setup, maintenance, and release Transport Transport 13 Communication Application Contains the logic needed to support various user applications (HTTP, FTP, SSH) A separate module is needed for each type of application. 14 7

8 Internet Protocol Approach IP packets transfer information across Internet Host A IP router router router Host B IP IP layer in each router determines next hop (router) interfaces transfer IP packets across networks Host A Transport Internet Interface 15 Router Internet Interface Net Net 51 Router Router Internet Interface Internet Net Net 54 Net Net 52 Net Net 53 Interface Host B Transport Internet Interface TCP/IP Encapsulation (Packet) (Frame) 16 8

9 TCP/IP Addressing Port (or SAP) numbers of processes at source and destination Each process with a host must have an address that is unique within the host; this allows the hostto-host protocol (e.g., TCP) to deliver data to the proper process. IP addresses of source and destination Each host on a sub-network must have a unique global internet address; this allows the data to be dli delivered dto the proper host. interface card (NIC) addresses defined by the NIC Also called physical addresses or MAC addresses 17 IP Addresses Each host in the Internet is identified by a globally unique IP address The IP address identifies the host s network interface rather than the host itself (usually the host is identified by its physical address within a network). An IP address consists of two parts: network ID and host ID (more on formats of IP addresses later). IP addresses on the Internet are distributed in a hierarchical way. At the top of the hierarchy is ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers). ICANN allocates blocks of IP addresses to regional Internet registries. There are currently three regional Internet registries that cover the Americas, Europe, and Asia. The regional registries then further allocate blocks of IP addresses to local Internet registries within their geographic region. Finally, the local Internet registries assign addresses to end users. Router: a node that is attached to two or more physical networks. Each network interface has its own IP address. 18 9

10 Physical Addresses On a physical network, the attachment of a device to the network is often identified by a physical address. The format of the physical address depends on the particular type of network. Example: Ethernet LANs use 48-bit addresses. Ethernet: protocol for bus LANs, originally designed by Xerox, later developed into IEEE standard. Every machine in a LAN comes with a NIC that is assigned a physical address. 19 Physical Addresses (cont.) LANs (and other networks) assign physical addresses to the physical attachment to the network The network uses its own address to transfer packets or frames to the appropriate destination IP address needs to be resolved to physical address at each IP network interface Example: Ethernet uses 48-bit addresses Each Ethernet network interface card (NIC) has globally unique Medium Access Control (MAC) or physical address First 24 bits identify NIC manufacturer; second 24 bits are serial number 00:90:27:96:68:07 12 hex numbers 20 Intel 10

11 Interface Cards (NICs) NICs are adapters installed in a computer that provide the connection point to a network. Each NIC is designed for a specific type of LAN, such as Ethernet, token ring, FDDI. A NIC provides an attachment point for a specific type of cable, such as coaxial cable, twisted-pair cable, or fiber-optic cable. Every NIC has a globally unique identifying node address (globally unique physical address). Token ring and Ethernet card addresses are hardwired on the card. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) is in charge of assigning addresses to token ring and Ethernet cards. Each manufacturer is given a unique code and a block of addresses. 21 Examples To reinforce understanding of TCP/IP protocol suite operations encapsulation addressing 22 11

12 Reading Chapter 2 (2.1, 2.3, 2.5) Next time: Data Transmission (chapter 3) 23 12

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