REPORT OF THE Consultative Group on the Past

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1 REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past

2 2 REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past

3 REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past 3 Preseted to the Secretary of State for Norther Irelad, i accordace with the Terms of Referece give to the Cosultative Group o the Past o 22 Jue Jauary 2009

4 4 REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past To look backward for a while is to refresh the eye, to restore it, ad to reder it more fit for its prime fuctio of lookig forward. Margaret Fairless Barber (b. 1869, d. 1901)

5 CONTENTS Idex

6 6 CONTENTS REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past CONTENTS List of Abbreviatios 12 Foreword by the Co-Chairs of the Cosultative Group o the Past 14 Summary of Mai Recommedatios 16 Executive Summary 22 SECTION 1 Work of the Group ad a Road Map for the Future CHAPTER 1 The Work of the Group The Cosultative Group o the Past 44 Membership of the Cosultative Group 44 The Group s Egagemet with Society 45 The Ladscape of Iitiatives 47 CHAPTER 2 Developig a Road Map for the Future The Group s Guidig Priciples 49 The Coflict 51 The Past 51 Remembrace for Recociliatio 53 Recociliatio, Truth ad Forgiveess 54 Iformatio ad Truth 56 The Priciple of Justice 57

7 REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past CONTENTS 7 SECTION 2 The Legacy of the Coflict CHAPTER 3 The Coflict ad the Impact o Society Overview 60 The Facts ad Figures 60 Defiig the Impact o Society 62 Uderstadig Perspectives 65 The Ogoig Coflict: 66 Victims Issues Ulsterisatio of the Blame Extet of Collusive Activities Victimisatio of Commuities 71 The Impact o Youg People 72 Sectariaism 75 Socio-ecoomic issues 79 Exiles 80 Coflict-Related Covictios 81 CHAPTER 4 Victims ad Survivors Overview 83 Provisio of Services ad Fudig 85 Uderstadig of ad Resposes to Trauma 87 The Commissio for Victims ad Survivors for Norther Irelad 89 The Issue of Compesatio 90

8 8 CONTENTS REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past SECTION 3 Processes for Dealig with the Past CHAPTER 5 Rememberig Overview 96 Storytellig 97 Day of Reflectio 100 Memorials: Physical Structures ad Livig Memorials 102 Rememberig ad Wider Society 105 CHAPTER 6 Ladscape of Legal Processes Overview of Existig Legal Processes 106 Historical Equiries Team 106 The Office of the Police Ombudsma for Norther Irelad 109 Public Iquiries 111 Iquests 115 The Crimial Cases Review Commissio 117 Covicted Offeders: the Setece Review Commissio 119 O the Rus 120 The Idepedet Commissio for the Locatio of Victims Remais 121

9 REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past CONTENTS 9 SECTION 4 The Way Forward CHAPTER 7 Legal Processes: The Argumets for Chage The Case for Chage 124 The Group s Recommedatios 125 Justice 127 Iformatio Recovery 127 Powers ad Rights 128 Ecouragig Iformatio ad Truth 129 Buildig for the Future 130 Costs 131 The Questio of Amesty 132 A Balaced Approach 133 CHAPTER 8 The Legacy Commissio The Madate of the Commissio 134 Structure of the Commissio 135 Idepedece of the Commissio ad Appoitmet of Commissioers 136 Role of British ad Irish Govermets ad OFMDFM 137 Period of the Madate 137 Dealig with Society Issues 138 Relatioship with Other Bodies 139 The Recociliatio Forum 139 Overview of Role of Chair of Commissio 140 Specific role of Chair of Commissio 141 Tacklig Sectariaism Promotig Recociliatio Admiistratio of Bursary Establishmet of Review ad Ivestigatio Uit 143 Process of Review 144 Order of Cases i the Review ad Ivestigatio Uit 145 Decisios i respect of Reviews, Ivestigatios ad Prosecutios 145 Procedure ad Powers of the Review ad Ivestigatio Uit 146

10 10 CONTENTS REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past Basic Purpose of Iformatio Recovery 146 The Thematic Examiatio Uit 147 Procedure ad Powers of the Iformatio Recovery ad Thematic Examiatio Uits icludig Protected Statemets 147 Relatioship betwee Processes of Ivestigatio ad Iformatio Recovery 149 Iformatio Recovery: a Volutary or Automatic Process 149 Protectio of Life ad Disclosure of Iformatio 151 Coclusios of the Commissio through Iformatio Recovery ad Thematic Examiatio 152 Reports o Historical Cases 152 Mediatio, Advice ad Support for Families 153 Documets 153 Public Iquiries 154 The Omagh Families 155 Coroers Service 156 Crimial Case Reviews 156 O the Rus 157 Cooperatio with the Irish Govermet 157 CHAPTER 9 Coclusios ad the Way Ahead 159 Appedices APPENDIX 1 Pe Pictures of the Co-Chairs, the Group Members, 162 ad the Iteratioal Advisers APPENDIX 2 Orgaisatios ad Idividuals who met with ad/ 165 or made a submissio to the Group APPENDIX 3 Bibliography of Research Material of the Group 168 APPENDIX 4 High Profile Ivestigatios ito Alleged Collusio 177 APPENDIX 5 Keyote address delivered by the Co-Chairs of the 180 Cosultative Group o the Past, Lord Robi Eames ad Deis Bradley, o 29 May 2008 i the Titaic Quarter, Belfast

11 LIST of Abbreviatios

12 12 LIST of Abbreviatios REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past LIST of Abbreviatios CAIN Coflict Archive o the Iteret CCRC Crimial Cases Review Commissio CRC Commuity Relatios Coucil CVSNI Commissio for Victims ad Survivors for Norther Irelad DPPNI - Director of Public Prosecutios for Norther Irelad ECHR Europea Covetio o Huma Rights ECtHR Europea Court of Huma Rights HET Historical Equiries Team HTR Healig Through Rememberig ICLVR Idepedet Commissio for the Locatio of Victims Remais INLA Irish Natioalist Liberatio Army NIO - Norther Irelad Office OFMDFM Office of the First Miister ad deputy First Miister PDMU - Persoal Developmet ad Mutual Uderstadig PPSNI - Public Prosecutio Service for Norther Irelad PSNI Police Service of Norther Irelad PTSD Post Traumatic Stress Disorder R IRISH (HS) Royal Irish (Home Service) RUC Royal Ulster Costabulary SEUPB Special Europea Uio Programmes Body TAP Trauma Advisory Pael UDR Ulster Defece Regimet IRA Irish Republica Army MEP Member of the Europea Parliamet MLA Member of the Legislative Assembly MOD Miistry of Defece MP Member of Parliamet NIAC Norther Irelad Affairs Committee

13 REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past 13 FOREWORD by the Co-Chairs of the Cosultative Group o the Past

14 14 FOREWORD REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past FOREWORD by the Co-Chairs of the Cosultative Group o the Past The Cosultative Group o the Past was established to fid a way forward out of the shadows of the past. The goal was to eable our society to do this together ad this was to be achieved through the widest possible cosultatio. This egagemet had to be volutary which led to fears that oly a few would actually egage with us. However, the Group was overwhelmed with the level of egagemet from across our society. The respose uderlied the immese amout of work that had already bee doe to create a society truly at peace with its past. However, it also highlighted the depth of hurt ad suspicio that still exists i every part of our society. Norther Irelad has made tremedous progress out of the dark days of the violece towards peace ad stable Govermet. But it became clear to us that fidig a better way of dealig with the past would help cemet that progress. To take ow the fial steps out of coflict will be difficult for may. However, the divisios that led to the coflict i the first place are all too preset ad oly by hoestly addressig the past ca we truly deal with it ad the leave it i the past. This report has bee guided ad shaped by those who gave up their time ad shared their ideas o what would work best i our society. This report belogs to those people ad to the wider society they represet. Oe of the key cotributios this Group has bee able to make was to brig together the work ad visios already developed by may orgaisatios ad idividuals. I the moths ahead there will be much debate ad discussio o the recommedatios the Group has put forward. Debate ad discussio are healthy for ay society emergig from years of violece ad coflict. The Group has edeavored to remai true to what has bee said durig the cosultatio. It will ow be up to the Govermets ad the Executive to work with all of society to make the recommedatios ad visio of this report a reality. Robi Eames Deis Bradley

15 REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past 15 SUMMARY of Mai Recommedatios

16 16 SUMMARY of Mai Recommedatios REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past SUMMARY of Mai Recommedatios The Legacy of the Past ad Recociliatio A idepedet Legacy Commissio should be established to deal with the legacy of the past by combiig processes of recociliatio, justice ad iformatio recovery. It would have the overarchig objective of promotig peace ad stability i Norther Irelad. A Recociliatio Forum should be established through which the Legacy Commissio ad the Commissio for Victims ad Survivors for Norther Irelad (CVSNI) would liaise to tackle certai society issues relatig to the coflict. The Legacy Commissio should be give a bursary of 100m to tackle these society issues. Victims ad Survivors The sufferig of families from Norther Irelad ad Great Britai should be recogised. The earest relative of someoe who died as a result of the coflict i ad about Norther Irelad, from Jauary 1966, should receive a oe-off ex-gratia recogitio paymet of 12,000. The CVSNI should take accout of, ad address i their work programme, the preset ad future eeds ad cocers of victims ad survivors, devotig attetio to provisio of services, fudig, healthcare eeds ad compesatio. The Recociliatio Forum would also have a madate to promote the improvemet of services for healthcare issues attributable to the coflict, such as trauma, suicide ad addictio.

17 REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past SUMMARY of Mai Recommedatios 17 The Legacy Commissio The Chair of the Legacy Commissio should be a Iteratioal Commissioer, who would also have specific resposibility withi the Commissio for addressig society issues through the Recociliatio Forum, tacklig sectariaism, promotig recociliatio ad admiisterig the bursary. There would be two other Commissioers. The madate of the Legacy Commissio would cosist of four strads of work: - helpig society towards a shared ad recociled future, through a process of egagemet with commuity issues arisig from the coflict; - reviewig ad ivestigatig historical cases; - coductig a process of iformatio recovery; - examiig liked or thematic cases emergig from the coflict. The Legacy Commissio s madate would be for a fixed period of five years. The Office of the First Miister ad deputy First Miister (OFMDFM) should joi the British ad Irish Govermets i implemetig this iitiative. Society Issues Society issues arisig from the coflict which should be tackled iclude: addressig sectariaism; promotig rememberig activities; workig with youg people; providig improved services for healthcare eeds; esurig a eve spread of ecoomic beefits; ad helpig those exiled from Norther Irelad durig the coflict to retur. The Recociliatio Forum should help to address these issues by aalysig activity udertake; cosiderig the eed for further activity; givig advice to Govermet ad others; advisig o strategies ad o the developmet ad delivery of services; ad decidig o priority areas of activity. The Legacy Commissio should act as a champio for these society issues. The Legacy Commissio should take the lead i esurig that sectariaism cotiues to be addressed, icludig through settig the directio for the debate ad by highlightig the cotributio that all sectors of society ca make.

18 18 SUMMARY of Mai Recommedatios REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past The Legacy Commissio should egage specifically with the Christia Churches i Norther Irelad to ecourage them to review ad rethik their cotributio to a o-sectaria future i the light of their past, particularly i the area of educatio. The guidace produced by the Quigley-Hamilto workig group, to elimiate discrimiatio agaist those with coflict-related covictios, should be icorporated ito statute ad made applicable to the provisio of goods, facilities ad services as well as recruitmet. Processes of Justice ad Iformatio Recovery A ew idepedet Uit dealig with historical cases would be created withi the Legacy Commissio, which would cotiue to review ad ivestigate historical cases, backed by police powers. This would costitute the secod strad of the Commissio s work. The ew Review ad Ivestigatio Uit would take over the work of the Historical Equiries Team ad the Police Ombudsma s Uit dealig with the historical cases. The eed for these would fall away whe the ew Uit is established. The ew Uit would build o the work they have doe to date. The process of recoverig iformatio of importace to relatives (iformatio recovery) would be separated from the ivestigatio procedure ad be subject to a distict process withi the Legacy Commissio uder a separate Commissioer. This would costitute the third strad of the Commissio s work. I the fourth strad of its work, the Legacy Commissio would examie themes arisig from the coflict which remai of public cocer, such as specific areas of paramilitary activity, or alleged collusio. This thematic examiatio would take place without public hearigs. This would facilitate more ope ad frak disclosure ad avoid the costat publicity of preset iquiry proceedigs. There would be o ew public iquiries. The questio whether to proceed with the promised Fiucae Iquiry is a matter for the British Govermet but the issues raised by this case could be dealt with by the Legacy Commissio.

19 REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past SUMMARY of Mai Recommedatios 19 The outstadig Iquests would remai with the Coroers Service. Crimial case reviews would cotiue to be pursued through the Crimial Cases Review Commissio. The Group is ot proposig a amesty but recommeds that the Legacy Commissio itself make recommedatios o how a lie might be draw at the ed of its five-year madate so that Norther Irelad might best move to a shared future. Rememberig The Legacy Commissio should, through the Recociliatio Forum, support CVSNI i facilitatig ad ecouragig the tellig of stories, icludig by youg people, about the impact of the coflict o idividuals ad commuities; ad the stories of itra-commual differece. CVSNI should also be supported i developig the existig ways i which the coflict ad its impact are remembered. This should iclude the developmet of educatioal projects; providig support ad guidace for those facilitatig rememberig projects i lie with certai criteria; ad promotig the value of rememberig across society as a meas of achievig recociliatio. Future Storytellig iitiatives should be developed takig accout of certai criteria. Full support should be give by govermet, the private ad volutary sector, icludig the churches, to the cotiuatio of the aual Day of Reflectio, iitiated by Healig Through Rememberig, o 21st Jue each year. Cosideratio should be give to reamig the evet a Day of Reflectio ad Recociliatio. Each year, o or aroud the Day of Reflectio ad Recociliatio, the First Miister ad deputy First Miister should together make a keyote address to the Norther Irelad Assembly ad ivited guests, reflectig o the past i a positive way ad cofirmig their commitmet to lead Norther Irelad society towards a shared ad recociled future.

20 20 SUMMARY of Mai Recommedatios REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past The Recociliatio Forum should take the lead i implemetig a iitiative, at the ed of the five year madate of the Legacy Commissio, whereby Norther Irelad, with the support of the two Govermets ad the Norther Irelad Assembly, should coduct a ceremoy rememberig the past ad all those who suffered durig the coflict. The Group therefore recommeds that the Commissio should, at the ed of its work, challege the people of Norther Irelad, icludig political parties ad whatever remat or maifestatio of paramilitary groups remai, to sig a declaratio to the effect that they will ever agai kill or ijure others o political grouds. A shared memorial to remember the coflict i ad about Norther Irelad should be kept uder cosideratio by the Recociliatio Forum ad criteria should be observed, i workig towards a shared memorial coducive to recociliatio. The Legacy Commissio should, at the ed of its five year life spa, make recommedatios to Govermet i this regard.

21 REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past 21 EXECUTIVE Summary

22 22 EXECUTIVE Summary REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past EXECUTIVE Summary BACKGROUND O 22 Jue 2007 Peter Hai, the the Secretary of State for Norther Irelad, aouced the formatio of a idepedet Cosultative Group. The Group was asked to: cosult across the commuity o how Norther Irelad society ca best approach the legacy of the evets of the past 40 years; make recommedatios, as appropriate, o ay steps that might be take to support Norther Irelad society i buildig a shared future that is ot overshadowed by the evets of the past; preset a report, which will be published, settig out coclusios to the Secretary of State for Norther Irelad, by summer The Right Revered Lord Eames OM, former Archbishop of Armagh, ad Mr Deis Bradley, the first Vice-Chairma of the Policig Board, co-chaired the Cosultative Group o the Past. The followig were members of the Group: Mr Jarlath Burs, Rev. Dr. Lesley Carroll, Professor James Mackey, Mr Willie Joh McBride MBE, Ms Elaie Moore, ad Cao David Porter. Mr Martti Ahtisaari, former Presidet of Filad, recet Noble Peace Prize wier ad fouder of the Crisis Maagemet Iitiative, ad Mr Bria Curri, former chair of the South Africa Priso Audit Committee ad fouder of the Natioal Directorate of Lawyers for Huma Rights, acted as iteratioal advisers to the Group. Mr Jeremy Hill acted as the Group s Legal Adviser. Because of the breadth of the madate ad the extet of the cosultatio, the Group was ot able to report util Jauary 2009.

23 REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past EXECUTIVE Summary 23 THE CONSULTATION The Group coducted a extesive cosultatio exercise. 290 writte submissios ad 2086 stadardised letters were received, as well as may letters providig geeral commetary ad offerig support. The Group met privately with 141 idividuals or groups, may of which were represetig hudreds more. It coducted meetigs across Irelad, orth ad south, ad i Great Britai. Over 500 people atteded public meetigs i Belfast, Omagh, Armagh, Ballymea, Bagor, Eiskille ad Derry/Lododerry. It was clear that much excellet work had already bee doe i the field of dealig with the past. The Group took accout of this ad the extesive research already available. It also drew o the experieces of other post-coflict coutries. Overview of the Cosultatio The mai themes which emerged from the cosultatio were the desire for recociliatio, truth ad justice. All were agreed o oe thig: that such a coflict should ever happe agai. A way should be foud to deal fairly with the outstadig legacy of the past without it domiatig the future. There were already impressive iitiatives dealig with the eeds of victims ad other aspects of the legacy. But more could be doe. A umber of priciples emerged from the cosultatio: priciples agaist which the Group s recommedatios ad the way forward should be measured. Oe key priciple stood out. The past should be dealt with i a maer which eables society to become more defied by its desire for true ad lastig recociliatio rather tha by divisio ad mistrust, seekig to promote a shared ad recociled future for all.

24 24 EXECUTIVE Summary REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past From this, other workig priciples flowed: Dealig with the past is a process ad ot a evet Sesitivity towards victims ad survivors is essetial Recommedatios should be huma rights compliat Relatioships matter ad are the foudatio for recociliatio Cosesual agreemet is the ideal. Oe of the Group s mai challeges has bee cosultig a society which, despite the sigificat achievemets made towards peace ad stable govermet, remais divided alog age old lies deeply rooted i the past. REMEMBRANCE OF THE PAST FOR RECONCILIATION The cosultatio also uderlied the complexities aroud the timeframe of the past, disagreemets about how the past ca be dealt with ad ideed how it should be described. Some believe we caot chage our uderstadig of the past. Some believe the past should be laid out for all to see ad that truth should be sought ad told. Others say that the past should be forgotte i the iterests of the future. Divided commuities carry differet experieces ad uderstadigs of the past i their mids ad ideed it is this that divides them. Their accouts of the past differ deeply. They are used as a marker to determie ad make positive, but more frequetly egative, moral judgemets o each other ad so cotiuig the legacy of suspicio, mistrust ad hatred. These differet moral assessmets are see most clearly i each side s ofte stridet retellig of their ow story. If these coflictig moral assessmets of the past are to chage, the all sides eed to be ecouraged ad facilitated to liste ad hear each other s stories. This listeig must the lead to hoest assessmet of what the other is sayig ad to recogitio of truth withi their story. I such a process it might be possible to costruct a remembrace of our past which is more humae, comprehesive ad rouded.

25 REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past EXECUTIVE Summary 25 RECONCILIATION, TRUTH AND FORGIVENESS As a cosequece of a more rouded uderstadig of the past, a better future is possible. Much of our remembrace of the past teaches us what to do or ot to do for the best possible future. This is idetified as a, if ot the, essetial elemet of the Group s visio for the future. The fruitful begiig of sustaiable recociliatio ad a truly shared future cetres upo a geuie ad geeral ackowledgmet of the moral digity of our commo humaity. This recociliatio requires for its itegrity ad success two other elemets, amely, a willigess for mutual forgiveess ad a willigess to address the truth of the matters to which the mutual forgiveess is to apply. It is ot possible to complete a act of forgiveess uless a wrog is ackowledged. I the case of the divided commuities of Norther Irelad, this meas that both sides must somehow be eabled to reach agreemet that there was wrogdoig o both sides. This is ot a matter of balacig amouts of wrogdoig but of ackowledgig that wrog was doe o both sides. Oly the is mutual forgiveess possible. Truth is crucial to the prospect of recociliatio. Geuie coversatios, to establish, ad as far as possible agree, what that truth is, should take place betwee those ivolved i the coflict, while recogisig that complete truth is uattaiable. Coversatios betwee the divided commuities must be about the coflictig moral judgemets ad ot just the facts as put forward by oe or both sides of the coflict.

26 26 EXECUTIVE Summary REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past IMPACT OF THE CONFLICT The Ogoig Coflict Throughout the cosultatio a umber of areas of cotetio arose repeatedly how victims are defied ad, i particular, the use of defiitios which produce a hierarchy of victims that is broadly structured alog sectaria lies. Cotiuig this already highly politicised debate is both fruitless ad self defeatig ad the Group has, for the purposes of its work, accepted the defiitio as set out i the Victims ad Survivors (Norther Irelad) Order Other issues arose reflectig a belief that there is a rewritig of history, a Ulsterisatio of the blame, ad disagreemets about the true ature ad extet of collusive activity. The blame game has a damagig effect o orgaisatios ad o society i geeral. It udermies efforts to build recociliatio. The Legacy Commissio, proposed by the Group ad detailed later, should be used as a vehicle for examiatio of the themes ad issues arisig from the coflict. Victimisatio of Commuities The Group was told how large sectios of our society were subjected to may types of victimisatio throughout the coflict. Particular areas bore the brut of the violece durig the last 40 years. Workig class ad border areas, i particular, experieced victimisatio, ragig from ecoomic ad social deprivatio to the oppressive presece of military ad paramilitary forces. The facilitatio of storytellig is a key strad of activity for the Commissio for Victims ad Survivors for Norther Irelad (CVSNI). The Group recommeds that, as well as idividual stories, the CVSNI should facilitate ad ecourage the tellig of stories about the impact of the coflict o commuities ad of itra-commual differece.

27 REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past EXECUTIVE Summary 27 Impact o Youg People Oe of the issues that most exercised people was the impact the coflict had, ad has, o youg people. May attributed the high suicide rates ow see i Norther Irelad, as well as the high rates of depedecy o alcohol or drugs, or both, to the legacy of the coflict. May wat to esure that future geeratios will ot repeat the mistakes ad horrors of the past. They believe i the importace of educatio i buildig a better uderstadig of the ature ad causes of the coflict. They are cocered that resources are ot beig made available to support the ext geeratio to cope with the legacy of the coflict. Youg people are a importat ifluece o the older geeratio. They may be the best equipped people to challege sectaria orms ad assist society towards a shared ad recociled future. Positive early itervetios are eeded to better equip youg people for the future. The Group recommeds that the Legacy Commissio, workig with CVSNI through the Recociliatio Forum (both of which are detailed later), should esure that youg people are ecouraged to participate i storytellig iitiatives ad that educatio programmes are developed which iform youg people, i a balaced way, about the ature ad impact of the coflict. Sectariaism Our recet coflict was i itself the legacy of a log past of violece ad divisio arisig from political, religious, atioal ad cultural differeces ad territorial dispute. Past geeratios failed to effectively address the prologed atagoism that ifected every istitutio ad sector i our society. This i tur esured yet aother geeratio suffered from ad added to the pai ad hurt of the past. A large umber of those cosulted aspired to a ew Norther Irelad where toleratio, respect for cultural ad religious diversity, equality ad justice are the foudatios of our relatioships. They wat a secure, safe, stable ad shared Norther Irelad where politically motivated violece or its threat is removed. This does ot mea obliteratig all sigs of differece ad diversity but rather it meas developig a respectful relatioship with those who are differet from us.

28 28 EXECUTIVE Summary REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past Give the strog Christia traditio i Norther Irelad, the Christia Churches have a particular resposibility to take a lead role withi commuities i addressig the destructive presece of ogoig sectariaism. The Group recommeds that the Legacy Commissio, detailed later, should take the lead i esurig that sectariaism cotiues to be addressed, highlightig the cotributio that all sectors of society, particularly the Christia Churches i Norther Irelad, ca make. Socio-Ecoomic Impact The Group heard stories of busiesses lost through bomb explosios; of people beig put out of busiess; of people gettig busiess from oly oe side of the commuity, or oly beig able to access services i oe side of the commuity; of high security costs; of extortio; of harassmet, bullyig ad ufairess i the workplace; of the brai drai from Norther Irelad; ad how the violece kept out ivestors ad tourists. I more recet times, there has bee a recogisable sea-chage i our fortues, although the preset recessio will slow this progress. May poited to the recet ivestmet coferece as evidece that local politicias have our ecoomic well beig at the forefrot of their mids. But those we egaged with also oted that the ecoomic well-beig felt by some is ot beig felt by all ad it eeds to; it eeds to touch the parts of Norther Irelad that felt the damage of the past most. The Group recommeds that the Legacy Commissio, workig with CVSNI, through the Recociliatio Forum, acts as a determied champio to esure attetio is kept focused o the most deprived areas of Norther Irelad to esure that the ecoomic beefits experieced across post-coflict Norther Irelad are equally experieced i deprived areas. Exiles Although exact figures are hard to establish, it is estimated that aroud 4,600 people were exiled from Norther Irelad over the period 1980 to Most have ot retured to Norther Irelad, largely because of fear of reprisal. May others, who have put dow roots elsewhere, have o desire to retur.

29 REPORT OF THE Cosultative Group o the Past EXECUTIVE Summary 29 A repatriatio programme eeds to be developed for those who wish to retur to Norther Irelad. The Commissio for Victims ad Survivors for Norther Irelad (CVSNI) have idetified a eed to reach out to victims ad survivors of the coflict, icludig those exiled from Norther Irelad. The Group recommeds that the Legacy Commissio, workig through the Recociliatio Forum, should support their edeavours i this regard. Coflict-Related Covictios I the course of the cosultatio a umber of people drew attetio to the difficulties experieced by those with coflict-related covictios. I particular, ex-prisoer groups oted that applyig for jobs, or obtaiig a mortgage, ad eve lesser forms of credit, are problematic where the applicat has a crimial record relatig to the coflict. The Group recommeds that the guidace produced by the Quigley-Hamilto workig group, to elimiate discrimiatio agaist those with coflict-related covictios, be icorporated ito statute ad made applicable to the provisio of goods, facilities ad services as well as recruitmet. Victims ad Survivors With over 3,500 people havig lost their lives ad may thousads ijured both physically ad psychologically, victims ad survivors are the most visible legacy of the coflict i Norther Irelad. The lives of those lost caot be restored. For those who survived, ad for those who are left oly with the memory of loved oes lost, o process or policy ca ever take away their pai. The digity ad courage of may victims ad survivors is a testimoy to their stregth ad a ivitatio to all i society to do everythig i our power to stop our differeces ad prejudices spirallig dowwards ito the kid of violece that we have kow i the past. It is i all our hads to make sure we, as a society, do ot create a ew geeratio of victims.

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