Internet Exchange Points Workshop

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1 Sofía Silva Berenguer lacnic.net Internet Exchange Points Workshop

2 AGENDA How the Internet Works Intro to BGP IPv4 Exhaustion and IPv6 Deployment Internet Exchange Points How to request Internet Resources Advanced topics Route Hijacking Leaks Attacks against the path Well known incidents Securing the Routing System

3 HOW THE INTERNET WORKS

4 Interconnection of Networks

5 Internet Routing ASN 6057 announces /16 ASN 8158 receives /16 Atributos: The prefix /16 is propagated with BGP to the Internet /16 AS_PATH ASN1 ASN3 ASN6057

6 Transit Transit and Peering Traffic and prefixes originating from one AS are carried across an intermediate AS to reach their destination AS Usually for a fee Peering Private interconnect between two ASNs Usually for no fee

7 Transit and Peering ASN ASN Transit ASN Peering ASN 65537

8 Peering in an Internet Exchange Point (IXP) Internet Exchange Point Common interconnect location where several ASNs exchange routing information and traffic ASN ASN ASN ASN 65539

9 IP address, where they come from? Standards Central Registry Distribution Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) distribute IPv4, IPv6 and Autonomous System Numbers Distribution * * Sometimes the distribution is done through National Internet Registries (NIRs) Allocations and Assignments End user

10 Regional Internet Registries

11 INTRO TO BGP

12 Border Gateway Protocol A Routing Protocol used to exchange routing information between different networks Exterior gateway protocol Described in RFC4271 RFC4276 gives an implementation report on BGP RFC4277 describes operational experiences using BGP Works on TCP port 179

13 More about BGP Learns multiple paths via internal and external BGP speakers Initial exchange of entire table Incremental Updates Picks THE bestpath and installs it in the IP forwarding table Policies applied by influencing the bestpath selection Keepalive messages exchanged Many options for policy enforcement Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR) Widely used for Internet backbone

14 Neighbors BGP speakers Internal (ibgp) if they are in the same ASN External (ebgp) if they are in different ASN ibgp ebgp ASN ASN 65536

15 Where to use BGP: Stub Network ASN 65536, Transit Provider Only one exit for customer Not really need to add BGP ASN 65538, Customer

16 Multihomed Network Transit Providers ASN ASN ASN ASN Peering in IXP Different situations possible Multiple links to same ISP Secondary for only backup Load share between primary and secondary Selectively use different ISPs Peering at IXP

17 INTERNET EXCHANGE POINTS

18 Why peer? Consider a region with one ISP It provides internet connectivity to it s customers It has one or two international connections Internet grows, another ISP sets up in competition They provide internet connectivity to their customers They have one or two international connections How does traffic from customer of one ISP get to customer of the other ISP? Via the international connections

19 Why peer? (Cont.) Internet ASN ASN 65538

20 Why peer? (Cont.) Yes, international connections If satellite, RTT is around 550ms per hop So local traffic takes over 1s round trip International bandwidth Is much more expensive than domestic bandwidth Becomes congested with local traffic Wastes money, harms performance

21 Solution: Why peer? (Cont.) Two competing ISPs peer with each other Result: Both save money Local traffic stays local Better network performance More international bandwidth for international traffic

22 Why peer? (Cont.) Internet ASN ASN 65538

23 Why peer? (Cont.) A third ISP enters the equation Becomes a significant player in the region Local and international traffic goes over their international connections They agree to peer with the two other ISPs To save money To keep local traffic local To improve network performance

24 Why peer? (Cont.) Peering means that the three ISPs have to buy circuits between each other Works for three ISPs, but adding a fourth or a fifth means this does not scale Solution: Internet Exchange Point

25 Why peer? Non-financial Motivations Low latency Control over routing Redundancy Aggregation benefits w/peering and Transit at IXP ISP relationships be one of the cool kids Marketing benefits Network reliability

26 Internet Exchange Point Every participant has to buy just one whole circuit From their premises to the IXP Rather than N-1 half circuits to connect to the N-1 other ISPs 5 ISPs have to buy 4 half circuits = 2 whole circuits -> already twice the cost of the IXP connection

27 Layer 2 fabric N^N BGP relations Simple Topology

28 IXP Design Each ISP participating in the IXP brings a router to the IXP location Router needs: One Ethernet port to connect to IXP switch One WAN port to connect to the WAN media leading back to the ISP backbone To be able to run BGP

29 IXP Design (Cont.) IXP switch located in one equipment rack dedicated to IXP Also includes other IXP operational equipment (Management network, TLD DNS, Routing Registry, Looking Glass, etc.) Optional: Second switch for redundancy Routers from participant ISPs located in neighbouring/adjacent rack(s) Copper (UTP) connections made for 10Mbps, 100Mbps or 1Gbps connections Fibre used for 10Gbs and higher speeds

30 Peering at an IXP Each participant need to run BGP They need their own AS number Public ASN, NOT private ASN Each participant configures external BGP with the other participants in the IXP Peering with all participants Or Peering with a subset of participants

31 IXP - Routing ISP border routers at the IXP generally should NOT be configured with a default route or carry the full Internet routing table Carrying default or full table means that this router and the ISP network is open to abuse by non-peering IXP members ISP border routers at the IXP should not be configured to carry the IXP LAN network within the IGP or ibgp Set BGP next-hop to local router (Cisco IOS nexthop-self)

32 IP Address Space Some IXPs use private addresses for the IXP LAN Public address space means the IXP network can be leaked to the Internet, which could be undesirable Filtering RFC1918 address space by ISPs is Best Practice; this avoids leakage Some IXPs use public addresses for the IXP LAN Address space is available from LACNIC IXP terms of participation usually forbid carrying the IXP LAN addressing in the ISP backbone

33 Hardware The IXP Core is an Ethernet Switch (Mandatory) Therefore invest in the best and most expandable equipment that its financial circumstances allow Having 2 switches is good for redundancy if the funds can allow Route Server (Optional) Provides ease of configuration for new members Direct peering between the IXP members can be implemented in the absence of the Route Server

34 Hardware (Cont.) Other optional equipment Web Server (website, monitoring, etc.) Mail Server ( , mailing list, etc.) Transit Router (to provide Internet access to the IXP website, and staff Internet access) Route Collector (Looking glass which assists IXP members with troubleshooting. It can also be used to collect routes for statistics measurements)

35 Hardware - Suggestions Try not to mix port speeds If 10Mbps and 100Mbps connections available, terminate on different switches Insist that IXP participants bring their own router Moves buffering problem off the IXP Ensures integrity of the IXP Security is responsibility of the ISP, not the IXP

36 Location The location of the IXP is very important. The IXP location should be neutral and low cost. In considering the IXP location the following factors should be considered: Space Environment Control Security Power Access to terrestrial Infrastructure Cabling Support

37 Recommendations and Best Practices Only announce your aggregates and your customer aggregates at IXPs Only accept the aggregates which your peer is entitled to originate Never carry a default route on an IXP (or private) peering router Failing to do so leads to route-hijacks and leaks

38 General Info about IXPs... Source:https://prefix.pch.net/applications/ixpdir/summary/...

39 General Info about IXPs... Source: https://prefix.pch.net/applications/ixpdir/?show_active_only=0&sort=traffic&order=desc

40 General Info about IXPs Source: https://prefix.pch.net/applications/ixpdir/summary/ipv6/

41 HOW TO REQUEST INTERNET RESOURCES

42 Go to https://solicitudes.lacnic.net/ Or fill out a form and send it in the body of a message to You can find templates at: Once the online request or the form has been processed by the system, the requestor will receive a confirmation with a ticket number. After that the hostmasters will analyze the request. If the request is approved, it may be necessary to pay a fee and to sign the Registration Service Agreement.

43 Who can request resources? The person allowed to request resources for an organization is the Administrative POC. To request resources through the new Requests System you will have to log in using the Administrative POC handle.

44 Requesting an ASN In order to qualify for an ASN allocation the organization should have: A unique routing policy, meaning a policy that differs from that applied by the upstream provider. Or, a network with more than one independent connection to the Internet. (Multi-homed site) From January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010 Lacnic assigned ASN of 16 and 32bits upon request. However, since January 1, 2011 Lacnic stopped making distinctions between the assignment of 16- and 32-bit Autonomous Systems Numbers (ASNs) and will only assign ASNs from a general 32-bit pool. This change will be introduced to comply with the Global Policy "Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) Policy for Allocation of ASN Blocks to Regional Internet Registries" adopted in September 2010.

45 Micro-assignments to Critical Infrastructure Micro-assignment -> prefixes between /24 and /20. For projects and network infrastructure that are key or critical for the region, such as IXPs (Internet Exchange Points), NAPs (Network Access Points), RIRs, cctlds, among others. IXPs or NAPs must meet the following requirements: Duly document the following aspects: Prove by means of their bylaws their IXP or NAP capacity. The organization shall have at least three members and an open policy for the association of new members. Submit a diagram of the organization's network structure. Document the numbering plan to be implemented. Provide a utilization plan for the following three and six months. If the applicant does not already have an IPv6 block assigned by LACNIC, simultaneously request an IPv6 block in accordance with the corresponding applicable policy. The rest of the applications shall be studied based on the analysis of the documentation justifying the critical and/or key aspects of the project. Organizations receiving micro-assignments shall not sub-assign these IPv4 addresses.

46 Requesting an IPv4 block for ISPs To qualify for the allocation of a /22 block the org must: Prove usage or immediate necessity of a /24 Submit a detailed one-year usage plan for a /23 Agree to renumber from previously allocated space and return those IP addresses to their ISPs within 12 months If the applicant does not already have an IPv6 block assigned by LACNIC, simultaneously request an IPv6 block in accordance with the corresponding applicable policy. For a larger block additional requirements apply

47 Requesting an IPv6 block for ISPs To qualify for an initial allocation of a /32 block the organization should: Be a LIR (Local Internet Registry), which means being an organization that assigns address spaces for its network services customers Not be an end site (end user) Document a detailed plan for the services and IPv6 connectivity to be offered to other organizations (clients) Announce the allocated block in the Internet inter-domain routing system, with the minimum possible level of disaggregation to the one that is publishing the IP blocks, within a period no longer than 12 months. Offer IPv6 services to clients physically located within the region covered by LACNIC within a period not longer than 24 months

48 More info Policy Manual Registration Services

49 Questions? Comments?

50 CASA DE INTERNET DE LATINOAMÉRICA Y EL CARIBE twitter.com/lacnic facebook.com/ LACNIC youtube.com/user/lacnicstaff gplusme.at/lacnic

51 Sofía Silva Berenguer lacnic.net Thank you!

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