AP Language: Running Notes

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1 AP Language: Running Notes 8/20/09 10:12 AM Language of Composition 1-13 THE RHETORICAL SITUATION Rhetoric: the effective (often persuasive) use of language Aristotle s Rhetorical Triangle The Rhetorical Situation: SOAPS o Speaker, Occasion, Audience, Purpose, Subject o Good material for the introduction of a rhetorical analysis Aristotle s Three Appeals to the Audience o Logos: Logical appeals target the mind of the audience. o Ethos: Ethical appeals frame the speaker as authoritative, credible, and sincerely motivated. o Pathos: Pathetic appeals target the emotions of the audience. Everything s an Argument 32-58: Pathos o Context (The Rhetorical Situation) is important for understanding. o Pathos Argument Techniques: to Build bridges between speaker, audience, and subject Speak directly to the audience Tap into common emotions and values Help audience identify with speaker Be vivid Use Humor Don t overuse pathos o Pathos Argument Strategy: to reinforce a logos appeal Add Pathos to logos Present logos in stark terms o Everything s an Argument 60-76: Ethos

2 o Authority: One must establish oneself as a person with knowledge of or experience with the subject matter. o Credibility: One must appear to be truthful. o Motivation: One must at least admit possible motivations for one s argument. Ideally, one would have no motivation to take advantage of a trusting audience. Everything s an Argument 78-93: Logos o Argument = Statement + Proof, or Claim + Evidence o Hard Evidence Facts Statistics Surveys and Polls Testimonies, Narratives, and Interviews o Reason and Common Sense Deductive and Inductive Reasoning Syllogisms Major Premise Minor Premise Conclusion (Claim) Enthymemes Premises are often assumptions or commonly held values o In logical arguments, beware of SOAPS! o Structures for Logic Degree Analogy Precedent Everything s an Argument : Rhetorical Analysis How to do a rhetorical analysis o Begin with SOAPS o What is/are the claim(s)? o What sort of evidence supports it?

3 o Context: Who benefits from the argument? (Purpose) o Consider the three appeals o Describe organization and style SOAPS o Purpose(s): Identify it/them specifically. o Speaker: more than a name (What is the speaker s role? Where does s/he stand?) o Audience: Again, be specific. ( People everywhere is not insightful and is often wrong.) Pathos o To distract or misinform? o To support a claim authentically? o Just enough or too much? Ethos: Does the speaker o Have experience or expertise? o Qualify claims? (Sound reasonable by avoiding extreme/absolute statements?) o Use a modest tone? Too modest? o Offer credible evidence? o Try too hard? Logos o Identify ALL the claims o Check each for supporting evidence and/or arguments o Are the pieces of evidence and arguments credible? Are the sources reliable? o What s missing? o How does the speaker guide the audience from point to point? Content and Organization of a Rhetorical Analysis o Introduction Hook the reader Put the passage in its rhetorical context (SOAPS) Thesis: These strategies achieve this purpose. o Body Paragraphs Transition/Topic Sentence: The Janus Transition: looks back, then forward

4 Evidence and Examples connected to topic sentence Direct Quotations Paraphrase Closing sentence: connect the paragraph to the thesis o Conclusion: So what? Restate thesis/summarize body paragraph Remind the reader about how/why the strategies are effective Style The Language of Composition Close reading: What are the writer s decisions at the sentence level? At the word level? How do they make larger meanings? How do they fit the speaker s purpose? Style = Tone + Syntax (Sentence structure) + Diction (vocabulary) Diction o Trope: artful diction (Figurative Language) Metaphor Simile Personification Hyperbole o Abstract v. concrete, general v. specific o Levels of diction: formal, informal, colloquial, or slang? Syntax o Scheme: artful syntax Parallelism Juxtaposition Antithesis: x, but y o Periodic sentence (Evidence, claim!) o Cumulative sentence (Claim, evidence) o Word order (typical or inverted?) o Connections and transitions Annotation: DO IT! o Main ideas o Diction and Syntax

5 o Imagery: words that evoke any of the five senses o Details o Questions Style = DIDDLS Diction o Denotation (literal meaning of a word) and connotation (other meanings that the word evokes) o Imagery Details and Descriptions Language (Figurative) Syntax

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